Lieu-dit is a French toponymic term for a small geographical area bearing a traditional name. The name refers to some characteristic of the place, its former use, a past event, etc. A lieu-dit may be uninhabited, which distinguishes it from an hameau, inhabited. In Burgundy, the term climat is used interchangeably with lieu-dit. English speakers seem to have discovered the concept through oenology and have considered it as a wine term which in its typical usage translates as "vineyard name" or "named vineyard". A lieu-dit is the smallest piece of land which has a traditional vineyard name assigned to it. In most cases, this means. In some cases, lieux-dits appear on wine labels, in addition to the AOC name; this is most seen for Alsace wine and Burgundy wine. It may not always be easy for consumers to tell if a name on a wine label is a lieu-dit or a cuvée name created by the producer; the only case of mandatory mention of a lieu-dit is in Alsace, for Alsace Grand Cru AOC. The Grand Cru designation may only be used.
Lieux-dits may be indicated on regular Alsace AOC wines, but is not mandatory. In Burgundy, the term climat is used interchangeably with lieu-dit; the use of the lieu-dit varies with the level of classification of the wine. Although the Grand Cru burgundies are considered to be classified on the vineyard level and defined as separate AOCs, some Burgundy Grand Crus are in fact divided into several lieux-dits. An example is Corton, where it is common to see lieux-dits such as Les Bressandes, Le Clos de Roi and Les Renardes indicated. For village level burgundies, the lieu-dit may only be indicated in smaller print than the village name to avoid confusion with Premier Cru burgundies, where the village and vineyard name are indicated in the same size print. In Rhône, lieux-dits are most seen for some of the top wines of the region. Two examples are the lieu-dit La La Chatillonne within Côte-Rôtie. Not all sites have been registered as lieux-dits. For example La Mouline and Les Jumelles are les marques of individual producers.
In the United States, the labeling of vineyard designated wines follows the similar practice of highlighting the particular vineyard that the grapes are sourced from
The Lenape called the Leni Lenape, Lenni Lenape and Delaware people, are an indigenous people of the Northeastern Woodlands, who live in Canada and the United States. Their historical territory included present-day New Jersey and eastern Pennsylvania along the Delaware River watershed, New York City, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Today, Lenape people belong to the Delaware Delaware Tribe of Indians in Oklahoma; the Lenape have a matrilineal clan system and were matrilocal. During the decades of the 18th century, most Lenape were pushed out of their homeland by expanding European colonies, their dire situation was exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. The divisions and troubles of the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them farther west. In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape now reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin and Ontario.
The name Lenni Lenape Leni Lenape and Lenni Lenapi, comes from their autonym, which may mean "genuine, real, original," and Lenape, meaning "Indian" or "man". Alternately, lënu may be translated as "man."The Lenape, when first encountered by Europeans, were a loose association of related peoples who spoke similar languages and shared familial bonds in an area known as Lenapehoking, the Lenape traditional territory, which spanned what is now eastern Pennsylvania, New Jersey, southern New York, eastern Delaware. The tribe's common name Delaware is not of Native American origin. English colonists named the Delaware River for the first governor of the Province of Virginia, Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, whose title was derived from French; the English began to call the Lenape the Delaware Indians because of where they lived. Swedes settled in the area, early Swedish sources listed the Lenape as the Renappi. Traditional Lenape lands, the Lenapehoking, was a large territory that encompassed the Delaware Valley of eastern Pennsylvania and New Jersey from the north bank Lehigh River along the west bank Delaware south into Delaware and the Delaware Bay.
Their lands extended west from western Long Island and New York Bay, across the Lower Hudson Valley in New York into the lower Catskills and a sliver of the upper edge of the North Branch Susquehanna River. On the west side, the Lenape lived in numerous small towns along the rivers and streams that fed the waterways, shared the hunting territory of the Schuylkill River watershed with the rival Iroquoian Susquehannock; the Unami and Munsee languages belong to the Eastern Algonquian language group. Although the Unami and Munsee speakers people are related, they consider themselves as distinct, as they used different words and lived on opposite sides of the Kitatinny Mountains of modern New Jersey. Today, only elders speak the language although some young Lenape youth and adults learn the ancient language; the German and English-speaking Moravian missionary John Heckewelder wrote: "The Monsey tong is quite different though came out of one parent language."William Penn, who first met the Lenape in 1682, stated that the Unami used the following words: "mother" was anna, "brother" was isseemus, "friend" was netap.
Penn instructed his fellow Englishmen: "If one asks them for anything they have not, they will answer, mattá ne hattá, which to translate is,'not I have,' instead of'I have not.'"According to the Moravian missionary David Zeisberger, the Unami word for "food" is May-hoe-me-chink. The Unami word for "hill" is Ah-choo. Sometimes the languages shared words, such as "corn,", Xash-queem, or "wolf,", too-may. In contemporary Unami orthography, "food" is michëwakàn, "hill" is ahchu, "corn" is xàskwim, "wolf" is tëme. At the time of first European contact, a Lenape person would have identified with his or her immediate family and clan, and/or village unit. Next with more distant neighbors who spoke the same dialect. Among many Algonquian peoples along the East Coast, the Lenape were considered the "grandfathers" from whom other Algonquian-speaking peoples originated. Lenape has three phratries, each of which had twelve clans; these are: Wolf, Took-seat Turtle, Poke-koo-un'go Turkey, Pul-la'-ook Lenape kinship system has matrilineal clans, that is, children belong to their mother's clan, from which they gain social status and identity.
The mother's eldest brother was more significant as a mentor to the male children than was their father, of another clan. Hereditary leadership passed through the maternal line, women elders could remove leaders of whom they disapproved. Agricultural land was managed by women and allotted according to the subsistence needs of their extended families. Families were matrilocal. By 1682, when William Penn arrived to his America
A gore, refers to a triangular piece of land. Etymologically it is derived from gār. Gores on highways are categorized as two types: the physical gore; the physical gore is the unpaved area created between the highway mainline and a ramp that merges into or diverges from the mainline. The theoretical gore is the marked area of pavement resulting from the convergence or divergence of the edge lines of the mainline and ramp. Theoretical gores are marked with transverse lines or chevrons at both entrance and exit ramps; these help drivers entering the highway to estimate how much time they have to match the speed of through traffic, warn drivers improperly exiting the highway right down the middle of a gore that they are about to run out of road. Gores at exit ramps feature impact attenuators when there is something solid at the other end of the gore. Intersection Media related to Gore at Wikimedia Commons
The Jamestown settlement in the Colony of Virginia was the first permanent English settlement in the Americas. It was located on the east bank of the James River about 2.5 mi southwest of the center of modern Williamsburg. It was established by the Virginia Company of London as "James Fort" on May 4, 1607 O. S.. It followed several failed attempts, including the Lost Colony of Roanoke, established in 1585 on Roanoke Island. Jamestown served as the capital of the colony of Virginia for 83 years, from 1616 until 1699; the settlement was located within the country of Tsenacommacah, which belonged to the Powhatan Confederacy, in that of the Paspahegh tribe. The natives welcomed and provided crucial provisions and support for the colonists, who were not agriculturally inclined. Relations soured early on, leading to the total annihilation of the Paspahegh in warfare within three years. Mortality was high at Jamestown itself due to disease and starvation, with over 80 percent of the colonists perishing in 1609–10 in what became known as the "Starving Time".
The Virginia Company brought eight Polish and German colonists in 1608 in the Second Supply, some of whom built a small glass factory—although the Germans and a few others soon defected to the Powhatans with weapons and supplies from the settlement. The Second Supply brought the first two European women to the settlement. In 1619, the first documented Africans came to Jamestown—about 50 men and children aboard a Portuguese slave ship, captured in the West Indies and brought to the Jamestown region, they most worked in the tobacco fields as indentured servants. The modern conception of slavery in the United States was formalized in 1640 and was entrenched in Virginia by 1660; the London Company's second settlement in Bermuda claims to be the site of the oldest town in the English New World, as St. George's, Bermuda was established in 1612 as New London, whereas James Fort in Virginia was not converted into James Towne until 1619, further did not survive to the present day. In 1676, Jamestown was deliberately burned during Bacon's Rebellion, though it was rebuilt.
In 1699, the capital was relocated from Jamestown to what is today Williamsburg, after which Jamestown ceased to exist as a settlement, existing today only as an archaeological site. Today, Jamestown is one of three locations composing the Historic Triangle of Colonial Virginia, along with Williamsburg and Yorktown, with two primary heritage sites. Historic Jamestowne is the archaeological site on Jamestown Island and is a cooperative effort by Jamestown National Historic Site and Preservation Virginia. Jamestown Settlement, a living history interpretive site, is operated by the Jamestown Yorktown Foundation, a state agency of the Commonwealth of Virginia. Spain and France moved to establish a presence in the New World, while other European countries moved more slowly; the English did not attempt to found colonies until many decades after the explorations of John Cabot, early efforts were failures—most notably the Roanoke Colony which vanished about 1590. Late in 1606, English colonizers set sail with a charter from the London Company to establish a colony in the New World.
The fleet consisted of the ships Susan Constant and Godspeed, all under the leadership of Captain Christopher Newport. They made a long voyage of four months, including a stop in the Canary Islands and subsequently Puerto Rico, departed for the American mainland on April 10, 1607; the expedition made landfall on April 1607 at a place which they named Cape Henry. Under orders to select a more secure location, they set about exploring what is now Hampton Roads and an outlet to the Chesapeake Bay which they named the James River in honor of King James I of England. Captain Edward Maria Wingfield was elected president of the governing council on April 25, 1607. On May 14, he selected a piece of land on a large peninsula some 40 miles inland from the Atlantic Ocean as a prime location for a fortified settlement; the river channel was a defensible strategic point due to a curve in the river, it was close to the land, making it navigable and offering enough land for piers or wharves to be built in the future.
The most favorable fact about the location was that it was uninhabited because the leaders of the nearby indigenous nations considered the site too poor and remote for agriculture. The island was swampy and isolated, it offered limited space, was plagued by mosquitoes, afforded only brackish tidal river water unsuitable for drinking; the Jamestown settlers arrived in Virginia during a severe drought, according to a research study conducted by the Jamestown Archaeological Assessment team in the 1990s. The JAA analyzed information from a study conducted in 1985 by David Stahle and others, who obtained borings of 800 year-old baldcypress trees along the Nottoway and Blackwater rivers; the lifespan of these trees is up to 1,000 years and their rings offer a good indication of an area's annual amount of rainfall. The borings revealed that the worst drought in 700 years occurred between 1606 and 1612; this severe drought affected the Jamestown colonists and Powhatan tribe's ability to produce food and obtain a safe supply of water.
The settlers arrived too late in the year to get crops planted. Many in the group were either gentlemen unused to work or their manservants, both unaccustomed to the hard labor demanded by the harsh task of carving out a viable colony. One of these was Robert Hunt, a former vicar of Reculver, England who
Thomas West, 9th Baron De La Warr
Thomas West, 9th Baron De La Warr and 6th Baron West, KG was the eldest son of Thomas West, 8th Baron De La Warr, by his second wife, Elizabeth Mortimer, daughter of Sir Hugh Mortimer of Martley and Kyre Wyard, Worcestershire, by Eleanor Cornwall, daughter of Sir Edmund Cornwall. West married, before 24 August 1494, Elizabeth Bonville, daughter and co-heiress of John Bonville, esquire, of Shute, Devon, by Katherine Wingfield, daughter of Sir Robert Wingfield, but had no issue by her, he succeeded to his titles at the age of 50. He was made Knight of the Garter in 1549 after having fought in France. West died 25 September 1554 at his home at Offington and was buried 10 October at Broadwater; the diarist Henry Machyn recorded his funeral, describing him as'the best house-keeper in Sussex'. At his death the baronies of West and De La Warr both'fell into abeyance, according to modern doctrine', between the two daughters and co-heirs of his half-brother, Sir Owen West, eldest son of his father's third marriage to Eleanor Copley.
Sir Owen West married Mary Guildford, daughter of George Guildford, second son of Sir Richard Guildford, by whom he had two daughters: Mary West, who married firstly Sir Adrian Poynings, secondly, as his second wife, Sir Richard Rogers. According to Cokayne: A new barony of de la Warr was subsequently conferred on the heir male, William West, 1st Baron De La Warr, whose son Thomas was allowed the precedence of the ancient Barony of la Warre. West's heir male, William West, 1st Baron De La Warr, was the elder son of Sir George West, second son of West's father's third marriage to Eleanor Copley. According to Riordan: placed a private bill before parliament to disinherit his nephew William West, first Baron De La Warr; the latter was the son of the ninth baron's half-brother Sir George West of Warbleton and his wife, daughter of Sir Robert Morton of Lechlade, Gloucestershire. His uncle was childless, had at some time adopted William as his heir. However, West tried to gain the de la Warr estate early by poisoning his uncle.
The attempt was unsuccessful and he was in the Tower by October 1548. He was disinherited by an act of parliament in 1550, although he had been reinstated as heir by the time of his uncle's death. Despite the fact that he had been reinstated as heir by his uncle, when the latter died in 1554 William West was unable to inherit the barony of de la Warr as a result of the Act of Parliament of 1550 which had deprived him of all honours. Two years he was involved in the Dudley conspiracy, on 30 June 1556 was arraigned at the Guildhall on charges of treason, to which he responded as'William, Lord de la Warr', forcing the heralds to prove during the trial that he was not entitled to the barony and therefore not entitled to a trial by his peers in the House of Lords, he was convicted of treason. However the death sentence was not carried out, in 1557 he was pardoned by Queen Mary, he fought at the siege of St. Quentin in that year, in 1563, early in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, was restored in blood.
On 5 February 1570 he was knighted, on the same day created Baron De La Warr, regarded as a new creation of the title. Cokayne, George Edward; the Complete Peerage, edited by Vicary Gibbs. IV. London: St. Catherine Press. Pp. 155–9. Retrieved 14 September 2013. Cokayne, George Edward; the Complete Peerage, edited by Geoffrey H. White. XII, Part II. London: St. Catherine Press. Pp. 517–22. Richardson, Douglas. Everingham, Kimball G. ed. Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families. II. Salt Lake City. Pp. 4–5. ISBN 1449966381. Retrieved 10 September 2013. Richardson, Douglas. Everingham, Kimball G. ed. Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families. IV. Salt Lake City. Pp. 320–22. ISBN 1460992709. Riordan, Michael. "West, eighth Baron West and ninth Baron de la Warr". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/29099
William Cornwallis Cornwallis-West VD JP, was a British politician. He was born William Cornwallis West, his father was Frederick Richard West, son of the Hon. Frederick West, younger son of John West, 2nd Earl De La Warr, his mother was Theresa, daughter of John Whitby and Mary Anne Theresa Symonds, heiress to the fortune of Admiral William Cornwallis. He was called to the Bar, Lincoln's Inn, in 1862. Cornwallis-West was High Sheriff of Denbighshire in 1872, Lord-Lieutenant of Denbighshire from 1872 to 1917, a Justice of the Peace for Hampshire and Denbighshire and an Honorary Colonel in the 4th Battalion of the Royal Welch Fusiliers. In 1885 he was returned to Parliament for Denbighshire West, a seat he held until 1892. In 1895 he assumed by deed poll the surname of Cornwallis-West, he lived at Ruthin Castle, at Newlands Manor, Hampshire. Cornwallis-West married Mary, daughter of Reverend Frederick Fitzpatrick, in 1872. Born in 1856, "Patsy" was 17 years old, she was known as leading socialite.
One of their daughters was Princess of Pless. Cornwallis-West's son, was the second husband of Lady Randolph Churchill, mother of Winston Churchill. Cornwallis-West died in July 1917, aged 82, his widow died in July 1920, shortly after returning from Monaco, in Arnewood House, a family property a few miles North of Newlands. Earl De La Warr Leigh Rayment's Historical List of Darryl. "FAQ". The Peerage. Mary Cornwallis-West at the National Portrait Gallery Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by William Cornwallis-West Article on Mrs Cornwallis-West
Thomas la Warr, 5th Baron De La Warr
Thomas la Warr, 5th Baron De La Warr was an English nobleman, the second son of Roger la Warr, 3rd Baron De La Warr and Elizabeth de Welle, daughter of Adam, 3rd Baron Welles. Intended for the church, in 1363, De La Warr received a dispensation, permitting him to be ordained at the age of twenty, was made a canon of Lincoln, he received his first parish on 13 October 1372. He was responsible for building St. Luke's church in Brislington, he enlarged Manchester Cathedral into a collegiate church in 1421. There is a statue of him on the exterior of the Manchester town hall, he inherited the title and lands when his brother John died, 27 July 1398. He died, was buried, at his parish of Swineshead, Lincolnshire. Fleming, Peter. "Warr, de la, family". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/65107