Glamorgan, or sometimes Glamorganshire, is one of the thirteen historic counties of Wales and a former administrative county of Wales. It was an early medieval petty kingdom of varying boundaries known as Glywysing until taken over by the Normans as a lordship. Glamorgan is latterly represented by the three preserved counties of Mid Glamorgan, South Glamorgan and West Glamorgan; the name survives in that of Vale of Glamorgan, a county borough. Although a rural and pastoral area of little value, the area that became known as Glamorgan was a conflict point between the Norman lords and the Welsh princes, with the area being defined by a large concentration of castles. After falling under English rule in the 16th century, Glamorgan became a more stable county, exploited its natural resources to become an important part of the Industrial Revolution. Glamorgan was the most populous and industrialised county in Wales, was once called the "crucible of the Industrial Revolution," as it contained the world centres of three metallurgical industries and its rich resources of coal.
The county of Glamorgan comprises several distinct regions: the industrial valleys, the agricultural Vale of Glamorgan, the scenic Gower Peninsula. The county is bounded to the north by Brecknockshire, east by Monmouthshire, south by the Bristol Channel, west by Carmarthenshire and Carmarthen Bay, its total area is 2,100 km2, the total population of the three preserved counties of Glamorgan in 1991 was 1,288,309. Glamorgan contains two cities, the county town and from 1955 the capital city of Wales, Swansea; the highest point in the county is Craig y Llyn, situated near the village of Rhigos in the Cynon Valley. Glamorgan's terrain has been inhabited by humankind for over 200,000 years. Climate fluctuation caused the formation and reformation of glaciers which, in turn, caused sea levels to rise and fall. At various times life has flourished, at others the area is to have been uninhabitable. Evidence of the presence of Neanderthals has been discovered on the Gower Peninsula. Whether they remained in the area during periods of extreme cold is unclear.
Sea levels have been 150 metres lower and 8 metres higher than at present, resulting in significant changes to the coastline during this period. Archaeological evidence shows; the oldest known human burial in Great Britain – the Red Lady of Paviland – was discovered in a coastal cave between Port Eynon and Rhossili, on the Gower Peninsula. The'lady' has been radiocarbon dated to c. 29,000 years before present – during the Late Pleistocene – at which time the cave overlooked an area of plain, some miles from the sea. From the end of the last ice age Mesolithic hunter-gatherers began to migrate to the British Peninsula – through Doggerland – from the European mainland. Archaeologist Stephen Aldhouse-Green notes that while Wales has a "multitude" of Mesolithic sites, their settlements were "focused on the coastal plains", the uplands were "exploited only by specialist hunting groups". Human lifestyles in North-West Europe changed around 6000 BP, they cleared the forests to establish pasture and to cultivate the land and developed new technologies such as ceramics and textile production.
A tradition of long barrow construction began in continental Europe during the 7th millennium BP – the free standing megalithic structures supporting a sloping capstone. Nineteen Neolithic chambered five possible henges have been identified in Glamorgan; these megalithic burial chambers, or cromlechi, were built between 6000 and 5000 BP, during the early Neolithic period, the first of them about 1500 years before either Stonehenge or the Egyptian Great Pyramid of Giza was completed. Two major groups of Neolithic architectural traditions are represented in the area: portal dolmens; such massive constructions would have needed a large labour force – up to 200 men – suggestive of large communities nearby. Archaeological evidence from some Neolithic sites has shown the continued use of cromlechi in the Bronze Age; the Bronze Age – defined by the use of metal – has made a lasting impression on the area. Over six hundred Bronze Age barrows and cairns, of various types, have been identified all over Glamorgan.
Other technological innovations – including the wheel. Deforestation continued to the more remote areas as a warmer climate allowed the cultivation of upland areas. By 4000 BP people had begun to bury, or cremate their dead in individual cists, beneath a mound of earth known as a round barrow. From c. 3350 BP, a worsening climate began to make agriculture unsustainable in upland areas. The resulting population pressures appear to have led to co
Earl of Denbigh
Earl of Denbigh is a title in the Peerage of England. It was created in 1622 for soldier William Feilding, 1st Viscount Feilding; the earldom was one of the hereditary peerages whose entitlement to sit in the House of Lords was removed by the House of Lords Act 1999. The family seat is Newnham Paddox House, near Warwickshire; the Feilding Family have been Lords of Newnham Paddox in Monks Kirby, Warwickshire since 1433. Despite certainly being of Warwickshire origin, in the middle of the seventeenth century following their elevation to the peerage, the Feilding family began to claim descent from the Habsburgs through the counts of Laufenburg and Rheinfelden; the claim, though accepted at one time, including by the historian Edward Gibbon, was the subject of ridicule. It was comprehensively debunked at the start of the twentieth century. William Feilding was Master of the Great Wardrobe under King James I and took part in the Expedition to Cádiz of 1625. Feilding had been created Baron Feilding, of Newnham Paddox in the County of Warwick, Viscount Feilding in 1620.
These titles are in the Peerage of England. William Feilding owed his elevation in court and to the peerage to his marriage with Susan Villiers; the Villiers family were minor Midlands gentry until Susan's brother, George Villiers, became the confidante and lover of King James I and was granted the dukedom of Buckingham. Lord Denbigh was succeeded by the second Earl. In contrast to his father he fought as a Parliamentarian in the Civil War. In 1664 he was created Baron St Liz in the Peerage of England, with remainder to the heirs male of his father. William's second son the Hon. George Feilding was created Earl of Desmond in 1628, he died childless and was succeeded by his nephew, William Feilding, 2nd Earl of Desmond, who now became the third Earl of Denbigh. His son, the fourth Earl, served as Lord-Lieutenant of Denbighshire, his great-great-grandson, the seventh Earl, was a courtier. His grandson, the ninth Earl, served as a Lord-in-waiting from 1897 to 1905 in the Conservative administrations of Lord Salisbury and Arthur Balfour.
As of 2010 the titles are held by his great-great-great-grandson, the twelfth Earl, who succeeded his father in 1995. Lord Denbigh is Grand Carver of England; the Hon. George Feilding, second son of the first Earl of Denbigh, was created Baron Fielding, of Lecaghe in the County of Tipperary, Viscount Callan, of Callan in the County of Kilkenny, in 1622, was made Earl of Desmond in 1628. All three titles were in the Peerage of Ireland, he was succeeded by his son, the second Earl, who in 1675 succeeded his uncle as third Earl of Denbigh. See above for further history of the titles. Other members of the Feilding family may be mentioned; the writer Henry Fielding was the son of Edmund Feilding, the third son of John Feilding, the youngest son of the 3rd Earl. His sister Sarah Fielding was a well-known author, their half-brother was John Fielding, the celebrated blind Judge. Lady Elizabeth Feilding, daughter of the first Earl of Denbigh, was created Countess of Guilford for life in 1660; the Hon. Sir Percy Robert Basil Feilding, second son of the seventh Earl, was a General in the Army.
William Feilding, 1st Earl of Denbigh Basil Feilding, 2nd Earl of Denbigh George Feilding, 1st Earl of Desmond, 2nd and youngest son of the 1st Earl William Feilding, 3rd Earl of Denbigh and 2nd Earl of Desmond Basil Feilding, 4th Earl of Denbigh and 3rd Earl of Desmond William Feilding, 5th Earl of Denbigh and 4th Earl of Desmond Basil Feilding, 6th Earl of Denbigh and 5th Earl of Desmond William Robert Feilding, Viscount Feilding William Basil Percy Feilding, 7th Earl of Denbigh and 6th Earl of Desmond Rudolph William Basil Feilding, 8th Earl of Denbigh and 7th Earl of Desmond Rudolph Robert Basil Aloysius Augustine Feilding, 9th Earl of Denbigh and 8th Earl of Desmond Rudolph Edmund Aloysius Feilding, Viscount Feilding William Rudolph Stephen Feilding, 10th Earl of Denbigh and 9th Earl of Desmond William Rudolph Michael Feilding, 11th Earl of Denbigh and 10th Earl of Desmond Alexander Stephen Rudolph Feilding, 12th Earl of Denbigh and 11th Earl of Desmond The heir apparent is the present holder's son, Peregrine Rudolph Henry Feilding, Viscount Feilding.
George Feilding, 1st Earl of Desmond William Feilding, 2nd Earl of Desmond Kidd, Williamson, David. Debrett's Baronetage. New York: St Martin's Press, 1990. Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages Newnam Paddox Art Park Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by William Rudolph Stephen Feilding, 10th Earl of Denbigh Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by William Rudolph Michael Feilding, 11th Earl of Denbigh
Bishop of Salisbury
The Bishop of Salisbury is the ordinary of the Church of England's Diocese of Salisbury in the Province of Canterbury. The diocese covers much of the counties of Dorset; the see is in the City of Salisbury where the bishop's seat is located at the Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary. The current bishop is Nick Holtam, the 78th Bishop of Salisbury, consecrated at St Paul's Cathedral on 22 July 2011 and enthroned in Salisbury Cathedral on 15 October 2011; the Diocese of Sherborne was the origin of the present diocese. Ramsbury's diocese was created from the northwestern territory of the bishop of Winchester in 909. In about 705 the vast diocese of Wessex at Winchester was divided in two with the creation of a new diocese of Sherborne under Bishop Aldhelm, covering Devon and Dorset. Cornwall was added to the diocese at the end of the ninth century, but in about 909 the diocese was divided in three with the creation of the bishoprics of Wells, covering Somerset, Crediton, covering Devon and Cornwall, leaving Sherborne with Dorset.
In 1058, the Sherborne chapter elected Herman, Bishop of Ramsbury to be Bishop of Sherborne. Following the Norman conquest, the 1075 Council of London united his two sees as a single diocese and translated them to the then-larger settlement around the royal castle at Old Sarum. Disputes between Bishops Herbert and Richard Poore and the sheriffs of Wiltshire led to the removal of the see in the 1220s to New Sarum; this was chartered as the city of New Sarum by King Henry III in 1227, but it wasn't until the 14th century that the office was described as the bishop of Sarum. The diocese, like the city it administers, is now known as Salisbury; the archdeaconry around Salisbury, retains the name of Sarum. Reforms within the Church of England led to the annexation of Dorset from the abolished diocese of Bristol in 1836. In 1925 and 1974, new suffragan bishops were appointed to assist the Bishop of Salisbury; until 2009 the bishops operated under an episcopal area scheme established in 1981, with each suffragan bishop having a formal geographical area of responsibility, being known as "area bishops".
The Bishop of Ramsbury had oversight of the diocese's parishes in Wiltshire, while the Bishop of Sherborne had oversight of the diocese's parishes in Dorset. This scheme was replaced to reflect the increased working across the whole diocese by all three bishops; the two suffragans may now function anywhere in the diocese, the Bishop of Salisbury may delegate any of his functions to them. The Bishop of Salisbury's residence is now the South Canonry, near the Cathedral. Official website
Bishop of Winchester
The Bishop of Winchester is the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Winchester in the Church of England. The bishop's seat is at Winchester Cathedral in Hampshire; the Bishop of Winchester is appointed by the Crown, is one of five Church of England bishops who sit ex officio among the 26 Lords Spiritual in the House of Lords, regardless of their length of service. The Diocese of Winchester is one of the most important in England, it was the see of the kingdom of Wessex, with the cathedra at Dorchester Cathedral under Saints Birinus and Agilbert. It was transferred to Winchester in AD 660. During the Middle Ages, it was one of the wealthiest English sees and its bishops have included a number of politically prominent Englishmen, notably the 9th century Saint Swithun and medieval magnates including William of Wykeham and Henry of Blois. A cathedral at Dorchester was founded in 634 by the Roman missionary Saint Birinus, it was the seat of a Bishop of the West Saxons. Winchester was divided in AD 909, with Wiltshire and Berkshire transferring to the new See of Ramsbury.
The domains of the Bishop of Winchester ran from the south coast to the south bank of the River Thames at Southwark, where the bishop had one of his palaces, making it one of the largest as well as one of the richest sees in the land. In more modern times, the former extent of the Diocese of Winchester was reduced by the formation of a new diocese of Southwark in south London, a new diocese of Guildford in Surrey and a new diocese of Portsmouth in Hampshire; the most recent loss of territory was in 2014 when the Channel Islands were removed from the diocese of Winchester after a dispute with Bishop Tim Dakin led to a breakdown in relations. However, this arrangement is expressed to be an interim one and will not become permanent; the Channel Islands remain part of the Diocese of Winchester under a scheme of episcopal delegation. The Bishop of Winchester delegated his episcopal authority in relation to the Channel Islands to the Archbishop of Canterbury who in turn placed the Channel Islands under the pastoral supervision of the Bishop of Dover.
The Channel Islands have not been incorporated within another diocese. Traditionally, in the general order of precedence before 1533, the Bishop of Winchester was given precedence over all other diocesan bishops - that is, the first English bishop in rank behind the archbishops of Canterbury and York, but in 1533, Henry VIII of England raised the rank of the Bishop of London and the Bishop of Durham, relegating Winchester to third. The Bishop of Winchester has always held the office of Prelate of the Order of the Garter since its foundation in 1348; the official residence of the Bishop of Winchester is Wolvesey Palace in Winchester. Other historic homes of the bishops included Farnham Castle, Bishop’s Waltham Palace and a town residence at Winchester Palace in Southwark, Surrey; the bishop is the visitor to five Oxford colleges, including New College, Oxford and St John's College, Oxford. The current Bishop of Winchester, Tim Dakin, was enthroned on 21 April 2012, having been elected on 14 October 2011.
He was consecrated as a bishop at St Paul's Cathedral, London, on 25 January 2012. Deans of Winchester Diocese of Winchester The Bishop of Winchester Academy
Earl of Huntingdon
Earl of Huntingdon is a title, created several times in the Peerage of England. The medieval title was associated with the ruling house of Scotland; the seventh and most recent creation dates to 1529. In this lineage, the current holder of the title is William Hastings-Bass, 17th Earl of Huntingdon. In English folklore, the title has been associated with Robin Hood. Huntingdonshire was part of the Kingdom of East Anglia, inhabited by a group known as the Gyrwas from about the 6th century, it fell to the Danes in the 9th century, but was re-conquered under Edward the Elder in 915. An earldom of Huntingdon was established shortly after, it was one of the seven earldoms of Saxon England during the reign of king Edward the Confessor, it was created for cousin to Harold Godwinson. The earldom at that time carried extensive powers and covered a wide area of the East Midlands, covering the counties of Northamptonshire and Bedfordshire as well as Huntingdonshire. In 1065 the earldom passed to son of Siward, Earl of Northumbria.
Waltheof kept his title following the Conquest in 1066, after his rebellion in 1067, married Judith, King William's niece. However, after a second rebellion in 1076 he was executed and the earldom reduced in size and power; the earldom was inherited by Waltheof's daughter Maud, countess of Huntingdon, passed to her husbands in turn, first Simon de Senlis and David King of Scotland. Following her death, during the reigns of Matilda and Stephen and the anarchy that ensued, the earldom was the subject of dispute between Maud's sons Simon II and Henry the prince, was held by both at various times. In the reign of Henry II, following the death of Simon II, it was settled on the Scottish house, the sons of Prince Henry: first Malcolm William David. With the death of David's childless son John in 1237, the title was not passed on and became extinct. Waltheof Judith of Lens, Countess of Huntingdon Maud, Countess of Huntingdon m. Simon I de Senlis, Earl of Huntingdon-Northampton m. David I of Scotland Henry, Earl of Northumbria Simon II de Senlis, Earl of Huntingdon-Northampton Malcolm IV of Scotland William I of Scotland Simon III de Senlis David of Scotland, Earl of Huntingdon John of Scotland, Earl of Huntingdon William de Clinton, 1st Earl of Huntingdon Guichard d'Angle, Earl of Huntingdon John Holland, 1st Duke of Exeter John Holland, 2nd Duke of Exeter Henry Holland, 3rd Duke of Exeter see Marquess of Dorset, third creation William Herbert (created Earl in compensation for surrendering the Earldom of Pembroke to Edward IV.
The title was re-created for George Hastings, 3rd Baron Hastings, 5th Baron Hungerford, 6th Baron Botreaux and 4th Baron de Moleyns. He fought in the French Wars of Henry VIII. In 1529 the King created him Earl of Huntingdon in the Peerage of England, his eldest son, the second Earl, was a lieutenant-general and served as Commander-in-Chief of the Army. Lord Huntingdon married Catherine, daughter and co-heiress of Henry Pole, 1st Baron Montagu, son of Sir Richard Pole and Margaret Pole, 8th Countess of Salisbury and sole heiress of George, Duke of Clarence, brother of King Edward IV. On his death the titles passed to the third Earl, he was a possible heir presumptive to the crown through his mother, though Elizabeth I never acknowledged his claim officially. Lord Huntingdon was one of the custodians of Mary, Queen of Scots, served as President of the Council of the North, he was succeeded by the fourth Earl. He represented Derbyshire and Leicestershire in the House of Commons and served as Lord-Lieutenant of Rutland and Leicestershire.
When he died the titles passed to his grandson, the fifth Earl. He was the son of Lord Hastings. Lord Huntingdon was Lord-Lieutenant of Leicestershire and Rutland, he was succeeded by the sixth Earl. He sat as Member of Parliament for Leicestershire, his son, the seventh Earl, served as Lord-Lieutenant of Derbyshire. He was succeeded by the eighth Earl, he died at an early age. He was succeeded by the ninth Earl, he carried the Sword of State at the Coronation of King George II. His son, the tenth Earl, was a courtier and notably served as Master of the Horse, he had no legitimate male issue and on his death in 1789 the earldom became dormant. He was succeeded in the baronies of Hastings, Hungerford, de Moleyns and Botreaux by his sister Lady Elizabeth, wife of John Rawdon, 1st Earl of Moira; the earldom was assumed to be Earl's distant relative Reverend Theophilus Henry Hastings. He was the great-great-great-grandson of younger son of the second Earl, he is by some sources considered as the de jure eleventh Earl while some sources do not include him in the numbering of the Earls.
On his death the claim passed to son of George Hastings. He was allowed to take his seat in the House of Lords as the Earl of Huntingdon in 1819. Depending on the sources he is numbered as twelfth Earl. Lord Huntingdon served as Governor of Jamaica from 1822 to 1824, his great-great-grandson, the sixteenth, was an artist and Labour politician. He died without male issue in 1990 and
The Lord Chancellor, formally the Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, is the highest ranking among those Great Officers of State which are appointed in the United Kingdom, nominally outranking the Prime Minister. The Lord Chancellor is outranked only by the Lord High Steward, another Great Officer of State, appointed only for the day of coronations; the Lord Chancellor is appointed by the Sovereign on the advice of the Prime Minister. Prior to the Union there were separate Lord Chancellors for England and Wales, for Scotland and for Ireland; the Lord Chancellor is a member of the Cabinet and, by law, is responsible for the efficient functioning and independence of the courts. In 2007, there were a number of changes to the legal system and to the office of the Lord Chancellor; the Lord Chancellor was the presiding officer of the House of Lords, the head of the judiciary in England and Wales and the presiding judge of the Chancery Division of the High Court of Justice, but the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 transferred these roles to the Lord Speaker, the Lord Chief Justice and the Chancellor of the High Court respectively.
The current Lord Chancellor is David Gauke, Secretary of State for Justice. One of the Lord Chancellor's responsibilities is to act as the custodian of the Great Seal of the Realm, kept in the Lord Chancellor's Purse. A Lord Keeper of the Great Seal may be appointed instead of a Lord Chancellor; the two offices entail the same duties. Furthermore, the office of Lord Chancellor may be exercised by a committee of individuals known as Lords Commissioners of the Great Seal when there is a delay between an outgoing Chancellor and their replacement; the seal is said to be "in commission". Since the 19th century, only Lord Chancellors have been appointed, the other offices having fallen into disuse; the office of Lord Chancellor of England may trace its origins to the Carolingian monarchy, in which a Chancellor acted as the keeper of the royal seal. In England, the office dates at least as far back as the Norman Conquest, earlier; some give the first Chancellor of England as Angmendus, in 605. Other sources suggest that the first to appoint a Chancellor was Edward the Confessor, said to have adopted the practice of sealing documents instead of signing them.
A clerk of Edward's, was named "chancellor" in some documents from Edward's reign. In any event, the office has been continuously occupied since the Norman Conquest; the staff of the growing office became separate from the king's household under Henry III and in the 14th century located in Chancery Lane. The chancellor headed chancery; the Lord Chancellor was always a churchman, as during the Middle Ages the clergy were amongst the few literate men of the realm. The Lord Chancellor performed multiple functions—he was the Keeper of the Great Seal, the chief royal chaplain, adviser in both spiritual and temporal matters. Thus, the position emerged as one of the most important ones in government, he was only outranked in government by the Justiciar. As one of the King's ministers, the Lord Chancellor attended Royal Court. If a bishop, the Lord Chancellor received a writ of summons; the curia regis would evolve into Parliament, the Lord Chancellor becoming the prolocutor of its upper house, the House of Lords.
As was confirmed by a statute passed during the reign of Henry VIII, a Lord Chancellor could preside over the House of Lords if not a Lord himself. The Lord Chancellor's judicial duties evolved through his role in the curia regis. Petitions for justice were addressed to the King and the curia, but in 1280, Edward I instructed his justices to examine and deal with petitions themselves as the Court of King's Bench. Important petitions were to be sent to the Lord Chancellor for his decision. By the reign of Edward III, this chancellery function developed into a separate tribunal for the Lord Chancellor. In this body, which became known as the High Court of Chancery, the Lord Chancellor would determine cases according to fairness instead of according to the strict principles of common law; the Lord Chancellor became known as the "Keeper of the King's Conscience." Churchmen continued to dominate the Chancellorship until the 16th century. In 1529, after Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, Lord Chancellor and Archbishop of York, was dismissed for failing to procure the annulment of Henry VIII's first marriage, laymen tended to be more favoured for appointment to the office.
Ecclesiastics made a brief return during the reign of Mary I, but thereafter all Lord Chancellors have been laymen. Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury was the last Lord Chancellor, not a lawyer, until the appointment of Chris Grayling in 2012; the three subsequent holders of the position, Michael Gove, Elizabeth Truss and David Lidington are not lawyers. However, the appointment of David Gauke in January 2018 meant that once again the Lord Chancellor was a lawyer; when the office was held by ecclesiastics, a "Keeper of the Great Seal" acted in the Lord Chancellor's absence. Keepers were appointed when the office of Lord Chancellor fell vacant, discharged the duties of the office until an appropriate replacement could be found; when Elizabeth I became queen, Parliament passed an Act providing that a Lord Keeper of the Great Seal would be entitled to "like place, pre-eminence, juri
Earl of Derby
Earl of Derby is a title in the Peerage of England. The title was first adopted by Robert de Ferrers, 1st Earl of Derby, under a creation of 1139, it continued with the Ferrers family until the 6th Earl forfeited his property toward the end of the reign of Henry III and died in 1279. Most of the Ferrers property and, by a creation in 1337, the Derby title, were held by the family of Henry III; the title merged in the Crown upon Henry IV's accession to the throne. It was created again for the Stanley family in 1485. Lord Derby's subsidiary titles are Baron Stanley of Bickerstaffe in the County Palatine of Lancaster, Baron Stanley of Preston, in the County Palatine of Lancaster; the 1st to 5th Earls held an earlier Barony of Stanley, created for the 1st Earl's father in 1456 and abeyant. The courtesy title of the heir apparent is Lord Stanley. Several successive generations of the Stanley Earls, along with other members of the family, have been prominent members of the Conservative Party, at least one historian has suggested that this family rivals the Cecils as the single most important family in the party's history.
They were at times one of the richest landowning families in England. The Stanley Cup, the championship trophy of the National Hockey League, was presented to the Dominion of Canada in 1892 by Frederick Stanley, 16th Earl of Derby during his tenure as Governor General of Canada; the family seat is Knowsley Hall, near Merseyside. Ferrières in Normandy, the hometown of the de Ferrers family, was an important centre for iron and takes its name from the iron ore mines used during the Gallo-Roman period. Lord of Longueville, a Domesday Commissioner; the Ferrers, lords of the barony of Ferrières in Normandy, were accompanied to England by three other families who were their underlords in France: the Curzons, the Baskervilles and the Levetts. Robert de Ferrers, 2nd Earl of Ferrières was created Earl of Derby by King Stephen in 1138 for his valiant conduct at the Battle of Northallerton, he was married to Hawise de Vitre and died in 1139. His son Robert de Ferrers, 2nd Earl of Derby became the next earl and was married to Margaret Peverel.
He founded Merevale Abbey. His son William de Ferrers, 3rd Earl of Derby was married to Sybil de Braose, he was imprisoned at Caen, Normandy. He died in the Crusades at the Siege of Acre, he was succeeded by his son William de Ferrers, 4th Earl of Derby who married Agnes de Kevelioc, daughter of Hugh de Kevelioc, 3rd Earl of Chester. He was succeeded by his son William de Ferrers, 5th Earl of Derby who married Sibyl Marshall and Margaret de Quincy with whom he had his son and heir Robert de Ferrers, 6th Earl of Derby, who became the next Earl, he rebelled against King Henry III and was arrested and imprisoned first in the Tower of London in Windsor Castle and Wallingford Castle, in 1266 his lands and earldom were forfeited, including Tutbury Castle which still belongs to the Duchy of Lancaster. Through one line the descent of the Earls of Derby gave rise to the Earls Ferrers. Laurence Shirley, 4th Earl Ferrers, was the only peer of the realm to be hanged for murder. Another familial line takes in the Baron Ferrers of Chartley descent.
The large estates which were taken from Robert in 1266 were given by Henry III to his son, Edmund Crouchback. In 1337 Edmund's grandson, Henry of Grosmont, afterwards Duke of Lancaster, was created Earl of Derby, this title was taken by Edward III's son, John of Gaunt, who had married Henry's daughter, Blanche. John of Gaunt's son and successor was Henry Bolingbroke, who acceded to the throne as Henry IV in 1399; the title Earl of Derby merged into the Crown. The Stanley family was descended from Ligulf of Aldithley, the ancestor of the Audleys. One of his descendants married an heiress whose marriage portion included Stoneley, Staffordshire – hence the name Stanley. Sir Thomas Stanley served as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland and represented Lancashire in the House of Commons. In 1456 he was summoned to the House of Lords as Lord Stanley, his eldest son Thomas Stanley, 2nd Baron Stanley, married Lady Margaret Beaufort, the mother of King Henry VII, Eleanor Nevill. The title of Earl of Derby was conferred on him in 1485 by his stepson Henry VII after the Battle of Bosworth Field where Thomas decided not to support King Richard III.
The title derives from the family's extensive lands in the hundred of West Derby and not the county or city of Derby. His eldest son and heir apparent George Stanley, Lord Stanley, married Joan Strange, 9th Baroness Strange and 5th Baroness Mohun, was summoned to the House of Lords as Lord Strange in right of his wife. Lord Derby was succeeded by the eldest son of Lord Strange, he had succeeded his mother as tenth Baron Strange and sixth Baron Mohun. He married daughter of Lord Hungerford and Hastings; the second Earl's son Edward became the 3rd Earl. He notably served as Lord High Steward at the coronation of Queen Mary of England in 1553 and was Lor