The Picts were a confederation of peoples who lived in what is today eastern and northern Scotland during the Late Iron Age and Early Medieval periods. Where they lived and what their culture was like can be inferred from the geographical distribution of Brittonic place name elements and Pictish stones; the name Picts appears in written records from Late Antiquity to the 10th century, when they are thought to have merged with the Gaels. They lived to the north of the rivers Forth and Clyde, spoke the Pictish language, related to the Celtic Brittonic language spoken by the Britons who lived to the south of them. Picts are assumed to have been the descendants of the Caledonii and other tribes that were mentioned by Roman historians or on the world map of Ptolemy. Pictland called Pictavia by some sources merged with the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata to form the Kingdom of Alba. Alba expanded, absorbing the Brittonic kingdom of Strathclyde and Northumbrian Lothian, by the 11th century the Pictish identity had been subsumed into the "Scots" amalgamation of peoples.
Pictish society was typical of many Iron Age societies in northern Europe, having "wide connections and parallels" with neighbouring groups. Archaeology gives some impression of the society of the Picts. While little in the way of Pictish writing has survived, Pictish history since the late 6th century is known from a variety of sources, including Bede's Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum, saints' lives such as that of Columba by Adomnán, various Irish annals; the term Pict is thought to have originated as a generic exonym used by the Romans in relation to people living north of the Forth–Clyde isthmus. The Latin word Picti first occurs in a panegyric written by Eumenius in AD 297 and is taken to mean "painted or tattooed people". Pict is Peohta in Old English, Pecht in Scots and Peithwyr in Welsh; some think. In writings from Ireland, the name Cruthin, Cruthni, Cruithni or Cruithini was used to refer both to the Picts and to another group of people who lived alongside the Ulaid in eastern Ulster.
It is accepted that this is derived from *Qritani, the Goidelic/Q-Celtic version of the Britonnic/P-Celtic *Pritani. From this came Britanni, the Roman name for those now called the Britons. What the Picts called themselves is unknown, it has been proposed that they called themselves Albidosi, a name found in the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba during the reign of Máel Coluim mac Domnaill, but this idea has been disputed. A unified "Pictish" identity may have consolidated with the Verturian hegemony established following the Battle of Dun Nechtain in 685 AD. A Pictish confederation was formed in Late Antiquity from a number of tribes—how and why is not known; some scholars have speculated that it was in response to the growth of the Roman Empire. The Chronicon Pictum, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and the early histographers such as Isidore of Seville, Bede, Geoffrey of Monmouth, etc. all present the Picts as conquerors of Alba from Scythia. However, little credence is now given to that view. Pictland had been described by Roman writers and geographers as the home of the Caledonii.
These Romans used other names to refer to tribes living in that area, including Verturiones and Venicones. But they may have heard these other names only second- or third-hand, from speakers of Brittonic or Gaulish languages, who may have used different names for the same group or groups. Pictish recorded history begins in the Dark Ages. At that time, the Gaels of Dál Riata controlled what is now Argyll, as part of a kingdom straddling the sea between Britain and Ireland; the Angles of Bernicia, which merged with Deira to form Northumbria, overwhelmed the adjacent British kingdoms, for much of the 7th century Northumbria was the most powerful kingdom in Britain. The Picts were tributary to Northumbria until the reign of Bridei mac Beli, when, in 685, the Anglians suffered a defeat at the Battle of Dun Nechtain that halted their northward expansion; the Northumbrians continued to dominate southern Scotland for the remainder of the Pictish period. Dál Riata was subject to the Pictish king Óengus mac Fergusa during his reign, though it had its own kings beginning in the 760s, does not appear to have recovered its political independence from the Picts.
A Pictish king, Caustantín mac Fergusa, placed his son Domnall on the throne of Dál Riata. Pictish attempts to achieve a similar dominance over the Britons of Alt Clut were not successful; the Viking Age brought great changes in Britain and Ireland, no less in Scotland than elsewhere, with the Vikings conquering and settling the islands and various mainland areas, including Caithness and Galloway. In the middle of the 9th century Ketil Flatnose is said to have founded the Kingdom of the Isles, governing many of these territories, by the end of that century the Vikings had destroyed the Kingdom of Northumbria weakened the Kingdom of Strathclyde, founded the Kingdom of York. In a major battle in 839, the Vikings killed the King of Fortriu, Eógan mac Óengusa, the King of Dál Riata Áed mac Boanta, many others. In the aftermath, in the 840s, Cínaed mac Ailpín became king of the Picts. During the reign of Cínaed's grandson, Caustantín mac Áeda, outsiders began to refer to the region as the Kingdom of Alba rather than the Kingdom of the Picts, but it is not known whether this was because a new kingdom was established or Alba was a closer
Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany
Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany, a member of the Scottish royal house, served as regent to three different Scottish monarchs. He held the titles of Earl of Menteith, Earl of Fife, Earl of Buchan and Earl of Atholl, in addition to his 1398 creation as Duke of Albany. A ruthless politician, Albany was regarded as having caused the murder of his nephew, the Duke of Rothesay, brother to the future King James I of Scotland. James was held in captivity in England for eighteen years, during which time Albany served as regent in Scotland, king in all but name, he died in 1420 and was succeeded by his son, Murdoch Stewart, Duke of Albany, who would be executed for treason when James returned to Scotland in 1425 causing the complete ruin of the Albany Stewarts. Robert Stewart was the second son of the future King Robert II of Scotland and of Elizabeth Mure of Rowallan, his parents' marriage was deemed as uncanonical at first, which, in some circle, gave their children and descendants the label of illegitimacy, but the granting of a papal dispensation in 1349 saw their remarriage and their children's legitimisation.
Robert's grandfather was Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland and his father was the first monarch of the House of Stewart. His great-grandfather was legendary victor of the Battle of Bannockburn. Robert Stewart was raised in a large family with many siblings, his older brother John Stewart became Earl of Carrick in 1368, would be crowned King of Scotland under the name Robert III. In 1361 Stewart married Margaret Graham, Countess of Menteith, a wealthy divorcee who took Robert as her fourth husband, his sister-in-law's claim to the Earldoms of Menteith and Fife allowed him to assume those titles, becoming Earl of Menteith and Earl of Fife. In 1362 the couple had a son and heir, Murdoch Stewart, who would in time inherit his father's titles and estates. Stewart was responsible for the construction of Doune Castle, which remains intact today; when Stewart was created Earl of Menteith, he was granted the lands on which Doune Castle now stands. Building may have started any time after this, the castle was at least complete in 1381, when a charter was sealed here.
Scottish politics in the late 14th century was unstable and bloody, much of Albany's career would be spent acquiring territory and titles by violent means. In 1389 his son Murdoch Stewart was appointed Justiciar North of the Forth, father and son would now work together to expand their family interest, bringing them into violent confrontation with other members of the nobility such as Donald McDonald, 2nd Lord of the Isles. During the reign of their infirm father as King Robert II, Robert Stewart and his older brother Lord Carrick functioned as regents of Scotland, kings in all but name, with Albany serving as High Chamberlain of Scotland, he led several military expeditions and raids into the Kingdom of England. In 1389, the Earl of Carrick became incapacitated in an accident and, though he acceded to the throne as King Robert III in 1390, this "sickness of the body" caused control of the kingdom to devolve in 1399 to his son and heir apparent, David Stewart, Duke of Rothesay, who held the first dukedom created in the Scottish Peerage.
Although in 1398 Robert was himself appointed Duke of Albany, bringing him still greater power and wealth, power had begun to shift away from Albany and towards his nephew. However, the English soon invaded Scotland, serious differences emerged between Albany and Rothesay. In 1401, Rothesay was accused of unjustifiably appropriating sums from the customs of the burghs on the east coast and confiscating the revenues of the temporalities of the vacant bishopric of St Andrews. Rothesay had in conjunction with his uncle, Alexander Stewart, Earl of Buchan, confronted Albany's influence in central Scotland—as soon his lieutenancy expired in 1402 Albany acted swiftly and ruthlessly. Rothesay was arrested and imprisoned in Albany's Falkland Castle where he died in March 1402. Rothesay's death lay with Albany and Douglas who would have looked upon the possibility of the young prince acceding to the throne with great apprehension. Albany fell under suspicion but he was cleared of all blame by a general council, which found that'by divine providence and not otherwise, it is discerned that he departed from this life.'
However though Albany was exonerated from blame, suspicions of foul play persisted, suspicions which never left Rothesay's younger brother the future James I of Scotland, which would lead to the downfall of the Albany Stewarts. John Debrett, writing in 1805, was in no doubt of Duke Robert's motives and guilt: "This Robert, Duke of Albany, having obtained the entire government from his brother, King Robert, he caused the Duke of Rothesay to be murdered, thinking to bring the Crown into his own family". After Rothesay's death, the King began to fear for his second son James, who fled Scotland for his own safety. Debrett continues: "to avoid the like fate, King Robert resolved to send his younger son James, to France about nine years old, who being sea-sick, forced to land on the English coast...was detained a captive in England eighteen years. At these misfortunes King Robert died of grief in 1406." After the death of his brother King Robert III, Albany ruled Scotland as regent. His young nephew, the future James I of Scotland, would remain in exile and imprisonment in England for 18 years.
Duke of Albany
Duke of Albany was a peerage title, bestowed on the younger sons in the Scottish and the British royal family in the Houses of Stuart and Windsor. The Dukedom of Albany was first granted in 1398 by King Robert III of Scotland on his brother, Robert Stewart, the title being in the Peerage of Scotland. "Albany" was a broad territorial term representing the parts of Scotland north of the River Forth the former Kingdom of the Picts. The title was the first Dukedom created in Scotland, it passed to Robert's son Murdoch Stewart, was forfeited in 1425 due to the attainder of Murdoch. The title was again created in 1458 for Alexander Stewart but was forfeit in 1483, his son John Stewart was restored to the second creation in 1515 but died without heirs in 1536. In 1541 Robert, second son of James V of Scotland, was styled Duke of Albany, but he died at less than a month old; the fourth creation, along with the Earldom of Ross and Lordship of Ardmannoch, was for Mary, Queen of Scots' king consort Lord Darnley, whose son James VI of Scotland, I of England and Ireland, inherited the titles on his death.
That creation merged with the Scottish crown upon James's ascension. The title, along with the title of Duke of York, with which it has since been traditionally coupled, was created for a fifth time in 1604 for Charles, son of James VI and I. Upon Charles's ascent to the throne in 1625, the title of Duke of Albany merged once again in the crowns; the title was next granted in 1660 to Charles I's son, James, by Charles II. When James succeeded his elder brother to the throne in 1685, the titles again merged into the crown; the cities of New York and Albany, New York, were thus both named after James, as he was the Duke of York and of Albany. The pretender, Charles Edward Stuart, gave the title Duchess of Albany to his illegitimate daughter Charlotte; the title "Duke of York and Albany" was granted three times by the Hanoverian kings. The title of "Albany" alone was granted for the fifth time, this time in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, in 1881 to Prince Leopold, the fourth son of Queen Victoria.
Prince Leopold's son, Prince Charles Edward, was deprived of the peerage in 1919 for bearing arms against the United Kingdom in World War I. His grandson, Ernst Leopold, only son of Charles Edward's eldest son Johann Leopold, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, sometimes used the title "Duke of Albany", although the Titles Deprivation Act 1917 stipulates that any successor of a suspended peer shall be restored to the peerage only by direction of the sovereign, the successor's petition for restoration having been submitted for and obtained a satisfactory review of the appropriate Privy Council committee. Other titles: Earl of Fife, Earl of Buchan, Earl of Atholl Robert Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany, third son of Robert IIOther titles: Earl of Menteith, Earl of Fife, Earl of Buchan Murdoch Stewart, 2nd Duke of Albany, eldest son of the 1st Duke was attainted and his honours forfeit in 1425 Other titles: Earl of March, Earl of Mar and Earl of Garioch Alexander Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany, second son of James II, forfeited his honours in 1479, was restored in 1482 forfeited them again in 1483Other titles: Earl of March John Stewart, 2nd Duke of Albany, only legitimate son of the 1st Duke, was restored to his father's dukedom and Earldom of March in 1515.
The honours became extinct upon his death without issue Thomas Norton and Thomas Sackville's play Gorboduc includes Fergus, the Duke of Albany, who tries to claim the British throne after Gorboduc's death through his royal descent. William Shakespeare's King Lear includes as a major character the Duke of Albany, husband to Lear's daughter Goneril. In the movie Kate & Leopold, Leopold is the Duke of Albany meant to be the same person as the historic Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany, who would have held the title at that time, as the fictitious character comments that his surname is Mountbatten. Duchess of Albany Duke of York Duke of York and Albany Alba Albany
Fortriu or the Kingdom of Fortriu is the name given by historians for a Pictish kingdom recorded between the 4th and 10th centuries, used synonymously with Pictland in general. While traditionally located in and around Strathearn in central Scotland, it is more to have been located in and around Moray and Easter Ross in the north; the people of Fortriu left no surviving indigenous writings and the name they used to describe themselves is unrecorded. The population group was first documented in the late 4th century by the Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus, who referred to them in Latin as the Verturiones; the Latin root verturio has been connected etymologically by John Rhys with the Welsh word gwerthyr, meaning "fortress", suggesting that both came from a Common Brittonic root vertera, implying that the group's name meant "Fortress People". A reconstructed form in the Pictish language would be something like *Uerteru. A connected Old Irish form of the name appears from the 6th to the 10th centuries in the Annals of Ulster and sources, which contain repeated references to rex Fortrenn, la firu Fortrenn and Maigh Fortrenn, alongside references to battles occurring i Fortrinn.
These are examples of a common pattern of Goidelic languages rendering with an f what in Brittonic languages is U/V, W or Gw. The word Fortriu is a modern reconstruction of a hypothetical nominative form for this word that has survived only in these genitive and dative cases. Anglo-Saxon sources, from the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in the 6th century to Bede in the 8th century, refer to the group using the Old English form of the name Waerteras. Modern scholars writing in English refer to the Kingdom using the name Fortriu and the adjective Verturian, use the name the Waerteras to refer to the people as an ethnic group. Traditionally the kingdom has been seen as centred on central Scotland, equivalent to the Kingdom of the Southern Picts, with a heartland in Strathearn. Over the last century or so this has become a scholarly consensus. However, new research by Alex Woolf seems to have destroyed this consensus, if not the idea itself; as Woolf has pointed out, the only basis for it had been that a battle had taken place in Strathearn in which the Men of Fortriu had taken part.
This is an unconvincing reason on its own, because there are two Strathearns — one in the south, one in the north — and, every battle has to be fought outside the territory of one of the combatants. By contrast, a northern recension of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle makes it clear that Fortriu was north of the Mounth, in the area visited by Columba; the long poem known as The Prophecy of Berchán, written in the 12th century, but purporting to be a prophecy made in the Early Middle Ages, says that Dub, King of Scotland was killed in the Plain of Fortriu. Another source, the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba, indicates that King Dub was killed at Forres, a location in Moray. Moreover, additions to the Chronicle of Melrose confirm that Dub was killed by the men of Moray at Forres; the Prophecy of Berchán states that "Mac Bethad, the glorious king of Fortriu, will take." As Macbeth, King of Scotland may have been Mormaer of Moray before he became King of Scots, it is possible that Fortriu was understood to be interchangeable with Moray in the High Middle Ages.
Fortriu is mentioned as one of the seven ancient Pictish kingdoms in the 13th-century source known as De Situ Albanie. There can be little or no doubt that Fortriu centred on northern Scotland. Other Pictish scholars, such as James E. Fraser are now taking it for granted that Fortriu was in the north of Scotland, centred on Moray and Easter Ross, where most early Pictish monuments are located. Hence, it is in these areas that the united kingdom of the Picts originated acquiring southern Pictland after the expulsion of the Northumbrians by King Bridei III of the Picts at the Battle of Dun Nechtain in 685 CE. Relocating Fortriu north of the Mounth increases the importance of the Vikings; the Viking impact on the north was greater than in the south, in the north, the Vikings conquered and made permanent territorial gains. The creation of Alba or the Kingdom of Scotland from Pictland, traditionally associated with a conquest by Kenneth MacAlpin in 843, can be better understood in this context, it appears from a discovery made by Oliver Curran, a Northern Irish historian, that a tribe of the Fortriu were located at Newry, County Down: according to an 18th-century translation of Ptolemy's map of Ireland they are seen in the wider area marked Voluntii which he says corresponds with the Cruithne.
It is not yet known. There have been Pictish'Z' rod carvings and a settlement found on Trusty's hill at Gatehouse of Fleet and Galloway. There are numerous cup and ring carvings and megaliths in the Machars and the Rhins of Galloway hinting at a migration route to Ireland. Mormaer of Moray Anderson, Alan Orr, Early Sources of Scottish History: AD 500-1286, 2 Vols, Sally M.. Picts and Gaels — Early Historic Scotland. Edinburgh: Birlinn. ISBN 9781780271910. Fraser, James. From Caledonia to Pictland: Scotland to 795. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 9780748612321. Hudson, Benjamin T. Kings of Celtic Scotland, William J.. Taylor, Simon, ed; the Celtic Placenames of Scotland. Edinburgh: Birlinn. ISBN 9781841583235. Woolf, Alex. "The Verturian Hegemony: A Mirror in the North". In Brown, Michelle P.. Mercia: an Anglo-Saxon Kingdom in Europe. Leicester: Leicester Un
Earl of Fife
The Earl of Fife or Mormaer of Fife was the ruler of the province of Fife in medieval Scotland, which encompassed the modern counties of Fife and Kinross. Due to their royal ancestry, the Earls of Fife were the highest ranking nobles in the realm, had the right to crown the King of Scots. Held by the MacDuff family until it passed by resignation to the Stewarts, the earldom ended on the forfeiture and execution of Duke Murdoch in 1425; the earldom was revived in 1759 with the style of Earl Fife for William Duff, a descendant of the MacDuffs. His great-great-grandson, the 6th Earl Fife, was made Earl of Fife in 1885 and Duke of Fife in 1889; the Mormaers of Fife, by the 12th century, had established themselves as the highest ranking native nobles in Scotland. They held the office of Justiciar of Scotia - highest brithem in the land - and enjoyed the right of crowning the Kings of the Scots; the Mormaer's function, as with other medieval Scottish lordships, was kin-based. Hence, in 1385, the Earl of Fife, seen as the successor of the same lordship, is called capitalis legis de Clenmcduffe.
The lordship existed in the Middle Ages until its last earl, Duke of Albany, was executed by James I of Scotland. The first Earl of Fife was Alexander Scrymgeour. Alexander served under Robert the Bruce. Was the official and hereditary Banner Bearer for the King of Scotland. Was awarded title of Earl and given the demesne of Fife for services rendered; the deputy or complementary position to mormaer or earl of Fife was leadership as Chief of Clan MacDuff. There is little doubt that the style MacDuib, or Macduff, derives from the name of King Cináed III mac Duib, from this man's father, King Dub. Compare, for instance, that Domhnall, Lord of the Isles, signed a charter in 1408 as MacDomhnaill; the descendants of Cináed III adopted the name in the same way that the descendants of Brian Bóruma mac Cennétig called themselves Uí Briain, although it does seem that at least MacDuff was a style reserved for the man who held the Mormaership of Fife. The chieftaincy of the clan was not always held by the mormaer after the mormaerdom became subject to the laws of feudal primogeniture in the reign of Donnchadh I.
For example, at the Battle of Falkirk, it is the head of the clan who led the men of Fife, rather than the Mormaer. The Macduff line continued without interruption until the time of Isabella, the only child of Donnchad IV, Earl of Fife, his wife Mary de Monthermer, she succeeded her father as suo jure Countess of Fife on his death in 1358, making her one of the most eligible maidens in Scotland. She married four times. In 1371 she was persuaded to name Robert Stewart, Earl of Menteith as her heir, her brother-in-law by her second marriage to Walter Stewart, he thus succeeded her as twelfth Earl of Fife on her death in 1389. Duke Robert was succeeded as Duke of Albany, Earl of Fife, etc. by his son Murdoch in 1420. Duke Murdoch was forfeited and executed in 1425, due to his father's part in the death of Prince David, Duke of Rothesay, thus the earldom of Fife came to an end. The arms of the earldom of Fife are or, a lion rampant gules, that is, a red lion rampant on gold; these arms are testament to the Earls' royal connection, as they differ to the King's arms only in the exclusion of the flowered border, or royal tressure.
The device of a lion is attested for the first time on the seal of the tenth Earl, but had been used for a long time before this, though some early seals show a different shield, bearing pallets or vertical stripes. The arms of the Earl of Fife are the basis for the arms of Fife Council, which show a knight on horseback in full armorial regalia, his shield and the caparison of his horse bedecked with red lions; the Fife lion appears in the first quarter of the Duke of Fife's arms. The earldom of Fife was resurrected in 1759 for William Duff, after he proved his descent from the original Earls of Fife; this title was in the Peerage of Ireland, notwithstanding. The title of Earl of Fife in the Peerage of the United Kingdom was created in 1885 by Queen Victoria for Alexander Duff, 6th Earl Fife, he married Princess Louise, the third child and eldest daughter of Albert, Prince of Wales King Edward VII. When it became clear that Alexander was not going to have a son, Queen Victoria created a second dukedom of Fife which could pass through the female line.
After his death in 1912, the dukedom of Fife created in 1900 passed to his eldest daughter Lady Alexandra, while his other titles, including the 1759 earldom, became extinct. The fourth and current Duke of Fife is David Carnegie, is the grandson of Duke Alexander's younger daughter.? Giric mac Cináeda meic Duib? Macduib Causantín, Earl of Fife, See Mormaer Beth and Ethelred of Scotland for common confusion here Gille Míchéil, Earl of Fife Donnchadh I, Earl of Fife Donnchadh II, Earl of Fife Maol Choluim I, Earl of Fife Maol Choluim II, Earl of Fife Colbán, Earl of Fife, Donnchadh III, Earl of Fife Donnchadh IV, Earl of Fife, considered by King David II to have forfeited the earldom Sir William Ramsay of Colluthie, Earl of Fife
Earl of Strathearn
Earl or Mormaer of Strathearn is a title of Scottish nobility, referring to the region of Strathearn in southern Perthshire. Of unknown origin, the mormaers are attested for the first time in a document dating to 1115; the first known mormaer, Malise I, is mentioned by Ailred of Rievaulx as leading native Scots in the company of King David at the Battle of the Standard, 1138. The last ruler of the Strathearn line was Malise Earl of Caithness and Orkney, who had his earldom forfeited by King Edward Balliol. In 1344 it was regranted by King David to Maurice de Moravia, a royal favourite who had a vague claim to the earldom as Malise's nephew and stepfather. Strathearn has since been used as a peerage title for James Stewart, an illegitimate son of King James V of Scotland, created Lord Abernethy and Strathearn and Earl of Moray in 1562. In 1631, William Graham, 7th Earl of Menteith was confirmed in this dignity as heir of line of Euphemia Stewart, Countess of Strathearn, but was forced to settle for the less prestigious title of the Earl of Airth in 1633.
It has been granted to members of the royal family in the titles of Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn, Duke of Kent and Strathearn and Duke of Connaught and Strathearn. On 29 April 2011, the title was recreated when Queen Elizabeth II conferred the title on Prince William of Wales; as a result, on marriage his wife Catherine became Countess of Strathearn. He uses this title in Scotland. Malise I Ferteth Gille-Brigte or Gilbert Robert Malise II Malise III, buried beside the high altar of Inchaffray Abbey Malise IV, captured his father Malise V Maurice de Moravia, Earl of Strathearn Robert Stewart, Earl of Strathearn David Stewart, Earl of Strathearn Euphemia Stewart, Countess of Strathearn m. Patrick Graham Malise Graham, Earl of Strathearn, deprived of the peerage before 1427 Walter Stewart, Earl of Strathearn Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, Earl of Strathearn, Baron Carrickfergus Duke of Connaught and Strathearn Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn Duke of Kent and Strathearn Neville, Cynthia J. Native Lordship in Medieval Scotland: the Earldoms of Strathearn and Lennox, c.
1140–1365, Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2005 ISBN 1-85182-890-7 --do.--The Earls of Strathearn from the twelfth to the mid fourteenth century, with an edition of their written acts. 2 vols. 1983. Ph. D. thesis, University of Aberdeen