Topcliffe, North Yorkshire
Topcliffe is a village and civil parish in the Hambleton district of North Yorkshire, England. The village is situated on the River Swale, on the A167 road and close to the A168, it is about 5 miles south-west 11 miles south of the county town of Northallerton. It has a population of 1,489. An Army Barracks, with a Royal Air Force airfield enclosed within, is located to the north of the village; the name is derived from the Old English words topp and clif and combined give the meaning top of the cliff, from its position at the top of a steep bank overlooking the River Swale. The village is mentioned in the Domesday Book as "Topeclive" in the "Yarlestre hundred." At the time of the Norman invasion, the manor was the possession of Bernwulf. Afterwards it was granted to William of Percy; the manor became the chief seat of the Percy family until the middle of the 17th century, though there was some confusion of the line of inheritance in the 12th century. There was a short interruption to this line in the 15th century when the manor was granted to the Neville family following the death of Henry Percy, 3rd Earl of Northumberland at the Battle of Towton in 1461, where he was fighting for the Lancastrians who lost.
This was reversed in the manor restored to the Percy family. In the 16th century there were two other brief periods when the manor was granted first to the Archbishop of York and to the Earl of Warwick; the manor was restored to the Percy family in 1557. The last of the family to hold the manor in their name was Josceline Percy, 11th Earl of Northumberland, though it passed to his daughter who married Charles Seymour, 6th Duke of Somerset, their son inherited the manor, but he died heirless and the manor was passed to his nephew Charles Wyndham, 2nd Earl of Egremont. The manor remained in the Wyndham family into the 20th century. A motte and bailey castle was built at the strategic location of the junction of the River Swale and Cod Beck about 1071, soon after the Harrying of the North and re-fortified in 1174 by the Percy family; this was the principal residence of the Percy family until the early part of the fourteenth century, when Henry de Percy purchased the barony and castle of Alnwick.
The castle was succeeded by a moated manor house on an adjacent site, of which earthworks remain. The manor house was the home of John Topcliffe, Lord Chief Justice of Ireland, who died in 1513; the village was the centre of a large ancient parish in the North Riding of Yorkshire. The parish included the townships of Asenby, Catton, Dishforth, Eldmire with Crakehill, Marton-le-Moor, Rainton with Newby, Skipton-on-Swale and Topcliffe. All of these townships became separate civil parishes in 1866; the village used to be a stop between Thirsk on the Leeds & Thirsk Railway. Topcliffe railway station was opened on 1 June 1848 and closed on 14 September 1959, it was located at the junction of the A167 and Catton Moor Lane to the north of the village near the present day MoD base. During the Second World War an airfield was constructed 1.5 miles from the village, for some time a Royal Canadian Air Force base. After the war it had a number of roles until 1972 when much of it was taken over by the army and converted into Alanbrooke Barracks.
The airfield continues to be used for RAF glider training. The village is located in the Malton UK Parliamentary constituency, it is in the Sowerby electoral division of North Yorkshire County Council and the Topcliffe ward of Hambleton District Council. The population of this ward taken at the 2011 Census was 2,604. Topcliffe District ward includes the settlements of Skipton-onSwale, Dalton, Crakehill and Hutton Sessay; the civil parish of Topcliffe is bounded by the civil parishes of Sowerby, Carlton Miniott, Rainton, Asenby and Dalton. The local Parish Council has five members; the village is located on the east bank of the River Swale just north of its confluence with Cod Beck, one of its major tributaries. The villages of Baldersby St James, Dishforth, Rainton, Asenby and Dalton all lie within a radius of 2.5 miles. It lies on the A167 road from Darlington to its terminus at the junction with the A168, it is 2.8 miles east of the A1. On the early morning of Friday 3 December 2010, the weather station air temperature was −19 °C, making it the lowest temperature recorded in Yorkshire.
It features in the Met Office stats as having the lowest minimum temperature anywhere in the UK. In 1881 the UK Census recorded the population as 615; the 2001 UK Census recorded the population as 1,336 in 400 households. The population was 58.7% male and 41.3% female. The 2011 UK Census recorded the population as 1,489, an increase of 11.45% compared with the previous census. The population was 40.9 % female. The ethnic mix was made of 1.5 % Mixed race, 2.6 Asian. 1.9% Black and 1.5% other race. The village is surrounded by farmland and it played an important role in the past as a major market place, much lessened these days. There are a number of small businesses around the village. There is a large industrial estate within the Parish boundary on the outskirts of neighbouring Dalton. On the outskirts near the bridge over the river is a caravan park. On Catton Lane just outside the village is Topcliffe Mill, a Grade II Listed building. A mill at Topcliffe was mentioned in the Domesday Book and may have been situated on the current site of the Roller Mill, which produced flour until 1961.
It now houses apartments. Topcliffe has two pubs, The Angel and The Swan; the old school house of Topcliffe is now a post office, the toll house is now an ordinary cottage. Topcliffe has been exten
Hugh d'Avranches, Earl of Chester
Hugh d'Avranches known as Hugh the Fat or Hugh the Wolf, was the second Norman Earl of Chester and one of the great magnates of early Norman England. Hugh d'Avranches was born around 1047 as the son of Richard le Viscount of Avranches, his mother was identified as Emma de Conteville. P. Lewis, author of Hugh's entry in the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, states that the identification was made "on the basis of unsatisfactory evidence" and that his mother is unknown. Hugh inherited from his father large estates, not just in the Avranchin but scattered throughout western Normandy; the Avranchin belonging to the Duchy of Brittany, is located on the Cotentin Peninsula of northern France, just east of Mont-Saint-Michel. Hugh became an important councillor of Duke of Normandy, his father contributed sixty ships to William's invasion of England. Hugh was given the command of Tutbury Castle in Staffordshire after Duke William became William I of England. In 1071, Gerbod the Fleming, 1st Earl of Chester was taken prisoner at the Battle of Cassel in France.
Taking advantage of the circumstances, the king declared giving Hugh the Earldom. The new Earl was given palatine powers in view of Cheshire's strategic location on the Welsh Marches. On Hugh's promotion and its surrounding lands were passed to the Norman Knight, Henry de Ferrers. In 1082, Hugh succeeded to the title of Vicomte d'Avranches; the earl regarded St Anselm his friend and, during his lifetime, founded the Benedictine Abbeys of Sainte-Marie-et-Saint-Sever, Saint-Sever-Calvados, Normandy and St. Werburgh in Chester as well as giving land endowments to Whitby Abbey, North Yorkshire. Hugh remained loyal to King William II during the rebellion of 1088, he served Henry I as one of his principal councillors at the royal court. Hugh spent much of his time fighting with his neighbours in Wales. Together with his cousin Robert of Rhuddlan he subdued a good part of northern Wales. Robert of Rhuddlan held north-east Wales as a vassal of the tenant-in-chief. In 1081 Gruffudd ap Cynan, King of Gwynedd was captured through the treachery of one of his own men at a meeting near Corwen.
Gruffudd was imprisoned by Earl Hugh in his castle at Chester, but it was Robert who took over his kingdom, holding it directly en liege from the king. When Robert was killed by a Welsh raiding party in 1093 Hugh took over these lands, becoming ruler of most of North Wales, but he lost Anglesey and much of the rest of Gwynedd in the Welsh revolt of 1094, led by Gruffudd ap Cynan, who had escaped from captivity. In the summer of 1098 Hugh joined forces with Hugh of Montgomery, 2nd Earl of Shrewsbury, in an attempt to recover his losses in Gwynedd. Gruffudd ap Cynan had retreated to Anglesey, but was forced to flee to Ireland when a fleet he had hired from the Danish settlement in Ireland changed sides. Things were altered by the arrival of a Norwegian fleet under the command of King Magnus III of Norway known as Magnus Barefoot, who attacked the Norman forces near the eastern end of the Menai Straits. Earl Hugh of Shrewsbury was killed by an arrow said to have been shot by Magnus himself; the Normans were obliged to evacuate Anglesey altogether leaving Gruffydd who had returned from Ireland to take possession the following year.
Hugh made an agreement with him and did not again try to recover these lands. Owing to his gluttony, Hugh became so fat that he could hardly walk, earning him the nickname of le Gros, he would earn the nickname Lupus for his savage ferocity in battle against the Welsh, after he was dead. Hugh d'Avranches married Ermentrude of Claremont, daughter of Hugh I, Count of Clermont-en-Beauvaisis. Hugh and Ermentrude had the following children: Richard d'Avranches, 2nd Earl of Chester, who died in the White Ship disaster of 1120 Matilda d'Avranches Robert FitzHugh I Hugh d'Avranches II Helga de KeveliocHugh is credited as siring children to many mistresses, his illegitimate children include: Robert d'Avranche Ottiwel d'Avranches and tutor to King Henry's sons, married to Marguerite, daughter of Eudo Dapifer, steward to William the Conqueror and Henry I. They had one son William. Ottiwel died in the wreck of the White Ship. Geva, married to Royal Justice Geoffrey Ridel, who died in the White Ship disaster of 1120.
Geva survived her husband and founded the monastic house of Canwell Priory in Staffordshire. Unknown first name daughter married William de la MareHe received many of the local manors held by Edwin the last Saxon Earl of Mercia. Edwin was the grandson of Earl of Mercia. Leofric had been a holder of the Saxon title "Earl of Chester". Hugh fell ill and became a monk in July 1101, he died four days and was buried in the cemetery of St. Werburgh, he was succeeded as Earl of Chester by his son Richard, who married Matilda of Blois, a granddaughter of William the Conqueror. Both Richard and Matilda died in the White Ship disaster, Hugh was succeeded by his nephew Ranulph le Meschin, Earl of Chester, son of his sister Margaret by her husband Ranulf de Briquessart, Viscount of the Bessin, his nephew removed his remains to have them reburied in the Chapter House of Chester Abbey
Syon House, its 200-acre park, Syon Park, is in west London within the parish of Isleworth, in the county of Middlesex. It is now his family's London residence; the family's traditional central London residence had been Northumberland House, now demolished. The eclectic interior of Syon House was designed by the architect Robert Adam in the 1760s. Syon House derives its name from Syon Abbey, a medieval monastery of the Bridgettine Order, founded in 1415 on a nearby site by King Henry V; the abbey moved to the site now occupied by Syon House in 1431. It was one of the wealthiest nunneries in the country and a local legend recites that the monks of Sheen had a ley tunnel running to the nunnery at Syon. In 1539, the abbey was closed by royal agents during the Dissolution of the Monasteries and the monastic community was expelled. On the closure of the abbey on the dissolution of the monasteries Syon became the property of the Crown for a short time before long lease to the 1st Duke of Somerset, who had the site rebuilt as Syon House in the Italian Renaissance style before his death in 1552.
In 1541 and part of the following year Henry VIII's fifth wife Catherine Howard faced her long imprisonment at Syon. In February 1542, the King's men took her to the Tower of London and executed her on charges of adultery. Five years when King Henry VIII died, his coffin surmounted by jewelled effigy rested at Syon House for its one night rest before the procession reached his burial place in St George's Chapel, Windsor. In 1557 it was proposed to convert the new building to the earlier Catholic use but Elizabeth I of England acceded to the throne before this change was effected. Syon was acquired in 1594 by Henry Percy, 9th Earl of Northumberland since when it has remained in his family. In the late 17th century, Syon was in the possession of Charles Seymour, 6th Duke of Somerset, through his wife, Elizabeth Seymour. After the future Queen Anne had a disagreement with her sister, Mary II, over her friendship with Sarah Churchill, Countess of Marlborough, Queen Mary evicted Princess Anne from her court residence at Whitehall and Hampton Court.
Princess Anne came to live at Syon with her close friends, the Somersets, in 1692. Anne gave birth to a stillborn child there. Shortly after the birth, Queen Mary came to visit her, again demanding that Anne dismiss the Countess of Marlborough and stormed out again when Anne flatly refused. In the 18th century, Hugh Percy, 1st Duke of Northumberland, commissioned architect and interior designer Robert Adam and landscape designer Lancelot "Capability" Brown to redesign the house and estate. Work began on the interior reconstruction project in 1762. Five large rooms on the west and east sides of the House, were completed before work ceased in 1769. A central rotunda, which Adam had intended for the interior courtyard space, was not implemented, due to cost. In 1951, Syon House was opened to the public for the first time under Duchess. In 1995 under the 12th Duke, the family rooms became open to the public as well; as the Percy family continues to live there, they continue to enhance the house. Most the Duchess added a new central courtyard with the design of Marchioness of Salisbury.
A £600K restoration was undertaken in late 2007 involving work to the roof area. In 2008 restoration work commenced on the Great Hall and a current long-term project is to restore the Adam Rooms. Syon House's exterior was erected in 1547 while under the ownership of the 1st Duke of Somerset. Syon's current interior was designed by Robert Adam in 1762 under the commission of the 1st Duke and Duchess of Northumberland; the well known "Adam style" is said to have begun with Syon House. It was commissioned to be built in the Neo-classical style, fulfilled, but Adam's eclectic style doesn't end there. Syon is filled with multiple styles and inspirations including a huge influence of Roman antiquity visible Romantic, Picturesque and Mannerist styles and a dash of Gothic. There is evidence in his decorative motifs of his influence by Pompeii that he received while studying in Italy. Adam's plan of Syon House included a complete set of rooms on the main floor, a domed rotunda with a circular inner colonnade meant for the main courtyard, five main rooms on the west and south side of the building, a pillared ante-room famous for its colour, a Great Hall, a grand staircase and a Long Gallery stretching 136 feet long.
Adam's most famous addition is the suite of state rooms and as such they remain as they were built. More specific to the interior of Adam's rooms is where the elaborate detail and colour shines through. Adam added detailed marble chimneypieces, shuttering doors and doorways in the Drawing Room, along with fluted columns with Corinthian capitals; the long gallery, about 14 feet high and 14 feet wide, contains many recesses and niches into the thick wall for books along with rich and light decoration and stucco-covered walls and ceiling. At the end of the gallery is a closet with a domed circle supported by eight columns. In the 1820s the north range of the house, not completed by Adam was redesigned by the 3rd Duke. At this time the house was refaced in Bath stone and the porch rebuilt; this remodelling is thought to have been done by the architect Thomas Cady, who had worked on other estates belonging to the Percy family. Syon House was refurbished again in the 1860s; the 4th Duke had Renaissance-style plaster ceilings p
Henry I of England
Henry I known as Henry Beauclerc, was King of England from 1100 to his death in 1135. Henry was educated in Latin and the liberal arts. On William's death in 1087, Henry's elder brothers Robert Curthose and William Rufus inherited Normandy and England but Henry was left landless. Henry purchased the County of Cotentin in western Normandy from Robert, but William and Robert deposed him in 1091. Henry rebuilt his power base in the Cotentin and allied himself with William against Robert. Henry was present when William died in a hunting accident in 1100, he seized the English throne, promising at his coronation to correct many of William's less popular policies. Henry married Matilda of Scotland but continued to have a large number of mistresses by whom he had many illegitimate children. Robert, who invaded in 1101, disputed Henry's control of England; the peace was short-lived, Henry invaded the Duchy of Normandy in 1105 and 1106 defeating Robert at the Battle of Tinchebray. Henry kept Robert imprisoned for the rest of his life.
Henry's control of Normandy was challenged by Louis VI of France, Baldwin VII of Flanders and Fulk V of Anjou, who promoted the rival claims of Robert's son, William Clito, supported a major rebellion in the Duchy between 1116 and 1119. Following Henry's victory at the Battle of Brémule, a favourable peace settlement was agreed with Louis in 1120. Considered by contemporaries to be a harsh but effective ruler, Henry skilfully manipulated the barons in England and Normandy. In England, he drew on the existing Anglo-Saxon system of justice, local government and taxation, but strengthened it with additional institutions, including the royal exchequer and itinerant justices. Normandy was governed through a growing system of justices and an exchequer. Many of the officials who ran Henry's system were "new men" of obscure backgrounds rather than from families of high status, who rose through the ranks as administrators. Henry encouraged ecclesiastical reform, but became embroiled in a serious dispute in 1101 with Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury, resolved through a compromise solution in 1105.
He supported the Cluniac order and played a major role in the selection of the senior clergy in England and Normandy. Henry's only legitimate son and heir, William Adelin, drowned in the White Ship disaster of 1120, throwing the royal succession into doubt. Henry took a second wife, Adeliza of Louvain, in the hope of having another son, but their marriage was childless. In response to this, Henry declared his daughter, Empress Matilda, his heir and married her to Geoffrey of Anjou; the relationship between Henry and the couple became strained, fighting broke out along the border with Anjou. Henry died on 1 December 1135 after a week of illness. Despite his plans for Matilda, the King was succeeded by his nephew, Stephen of Blois, resulting in a period of civil war known as the Anarchy. Henry was born in England in 1068, in either the summer or the last weeks of the year in the town of Selby in Yorkshire, his father was William the Conqueror, the Duke of Normandy who had invaded England in 1066 to become the King of England, establishing lands stretching into Wales.
The invasion had created an Anglo-Norman elite, many with estates spread across both sides of the English Channel. These Anglo-Norman barons had close links to the kingdom of France, a loose collection of counties and smaller polities, under only the minimal control of the king. Henry's mother, Matilda of Flanders, was the granddaughter of Robert II of France, she named Henry after her uncle, King Henry I of France. Henry was the youngest of Matilda's four sons. Physically he resembled his older brothers Robert Curthose and William Rufus, being, as historian David Carpenter describes, "short and barrel-chested," with black hair; as a result of their age differences and Richard's early death, Henry would have seen little of his older brothers. He knew his sister Adela well, as the two were close in age. There is little documentary evidence for his early years, he was educated by the Church by Bishop Osmund, the King's chancellor, at Salisbury Cathedral. It is uncertain how far Henry's education extended, but he was able to read Latin and had some background in the liberal arts.
He was given military training by an instructor called Robert Achard, Henry was knighted by his father on 24 May 1086. In 1087, William was fatally injured during a campaign in the Vexin. Henry joined his dying father near Rouen in September, where the King partitioned his possessions among his sons; the rules of succession in western Europe at the time were uncertain. In other parts of Europe, including Normandy and England, the tradition was for lands to be divided up, with the eldest son taking patrimonial lands – considered to be the most valuable – and younger sons given smaller, or more acquired, partitions or estates. In dividing his lands, William appears to have followed the Norman tradition, distinguishing between Normandy, which he had inherited, England, which he had acquired through war. William's second son, had died in a hunting accident, leaving
Henry III of England
Henry III known as Henry of Winchester, was King of England, Lord of Ireland, Duke of Aquitaine from 1216 until his death. The son of King John and Isabella of Angoulême, Henry assumed the throne when he was only nine in the middle of the First Barons' War. Cardinal Guala declared the war against the rebel barons to be a religious crusade and Henry's forces, led by William Marshal, defeated the rebels at the battles of Lincoln and Sandwich in 1217. Henry promised to abide by the Great Charter of 1225, which limited royal power and protected the rights of the major barons, his early rule was dominated first by Hubert de Burgh and Peter des Roches, who re-established royal authority after the war. In 1230, the King attempted to reconquer the provinces of France that had once belonged to his father, but the invasion was a debacle. A revolt led by William Marshal's son, broke out in 1232, ending in a peace settlement negotiated by the Church. Following the revolt, Henry ruled England rather than governing through senior ministers.
He travelled less than previous monarchs, investing in a handful of his favourite palaces and castles. He married Eleanor of Provence, with. Henry was known for his piety, holding lavish religious ceremonies and giving generously to charities, he extracted huge sums of money from the Jews in England crippling their ability to do business, as attitudes towards the Jews hardened, he introduced the Statute of Jewry, attempting to segregate the community. In a fresh attempt to reclaim his family's lands in France, he invaded Poitou in 1242, leading to the disastrous Battle of Taillebourg. After this, Henry relied on diplomacy, cultivating an alliance with Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor. Henry supported his brother Richard in his bid to become King of the Romans in 1256, but was unable to place his own son Edmund on the throne of Sicily, despite investing large amounts of money, he was prevented from doing so by rebellions in Gascony. By 1258, Henry's rule was unpopular, the result of the failure of his expensive foreign policies and the notoriety of his Poitevin half-brothers, the Lusignans, as well as the role of his local officials in collecting taxes and debts.
A coalition of his barons probably backed by Eleanor, seized power in a coup d'état and expelled the Poitevins from England, reforming the royal government through a process called the Provisions of Oxford. Henry and the baronial government enacted a peace with France in 1259, under which Henry gave up his rights to his other lands in France in return for King Louis IX recognising him as the rightful ruler of Gascony; the baronial regime collapsed but Henry was unable to reform a stable government and instability across England continued. In 1263, one of the more radical barons, Simon de Montfort, seized power, resulting in the Second Barons' War. Henry mobilised an army; the Battle of Lewes occurred in 1264, where Henry was taken prisoner. Henry's eldest son, escaped from captivity to defeat de Montfort at the Battle of Evesham the following year and freed his father. Henry enacted a harsh revenge on the remaining rebels, but was persuaded by the Church to mollify his policies through the Dictum of Kenilworth.
Reconstruction was slow and Henry had to acquiesce to various measures, including further suppression of the Jews, to maintain baronial and popular support. Henry died in 1272, he was buried in Westminster Abbey, which he had rebuilt in the second half of his reign, was moved to his current tomb in 1290. Some miracles were declared after his death. Henry was born in Winchester Castle on 1 October 1207, he was the eldest son of King Isabella of Angoulême. Little is known of Henry's early life, he was looked after by a wet nurse called Ellen in the south of England, away from John's itinerant court, had close ties to his mother. Henry had four legitimate younger brothers and sisters – Richard, Joan and Eleanor – and various older illegitimate siblings. In 1212 his education was entrusted to the Bishop of Winchester. Little is known about Henry's appearance. Henry grew up to show flashes of a fierce temper, but as historian David Carpenter describes, he had an "amiable, easy-going, sympathetic" personality.
He was unaffected and honest, showed his emotions easily being moved to tears by religious sermons. At the start of the 13th century, the Kingdom of England formed part of the Angevin Empire spreading across Western Europe. Henry was named after his grandfather, Henry II, who had built up this vast network of lands stretching from Scotland and Wales, through England, across the English Channel to the territories of Normandy, Brittany and Anjou in north-west France, onto Poitou and Gascony in the south-west. For many years the French Crown was weak, enabling first Henry II, his sons Richard and John, to dominate France. In 1204, John lost Normandy, Brittany and Anjou to Philip II of France, leaving English power on the continent limited to Gascony and Poitou. John raised taxes to pay for military campaigns to regain his lands, but unrest grew among many of the English
Alnwick Castle is a castle and country house in Alnwick in the English county of Northumberland. It is the seat of His Grace The 12th Duke of Northumberland, built following the Norman conquest and renovated and remodelled a number of times, it is a Grade. Alnwick Castle guards a road crossing the River Aln. Yves de Vescy, Baron of Alnwick, erected the first parts of the castle in about 1096. Beatrix de Vesci, daughter of Yves de Vescy married Eustace Fitz John, Constable of Chestershire and Knaresborough. By his marriage to Beatrix de Vesci he gained the Baronies of Alnwick; the castle was first mentioned in 1136. At this point it was described as "very strong", it was besieged in 1172 and again in 1174 by William the Lion, King of Scotland and William was captured outside the walls during the Battle of Alnwick. Eustace de Vesci, lord of Alnwick, was accused of plotting with Robert Fitzwalter against King John in 1212. In response, John ordered the demolition of Alnwick Castle and Baynard's Castle, but his instructions were not carried out at Alnwick.
The castle had been founded in the late 11th century by Ivo de Vesci, a Norman nobleman from Vassy, Calvados in Normandy. Descendent of Ivo de Vesci, John de Vesci succeeded to his father's titles and estates upon his father's death in Gascony in 1253; these included the barony of Alnwick and a large property in Northumberland and considerable estates in Yorkshire, including Malton. As John was under age, King Henry III of England conferred the wardship of his estates to a foreign kinsmen, which caused great offence to the de Vesci family; the family's property and estates had been put into the guardianship of Antony Bek, who sold them to the Percys. From this time the fortunes of the Percys, though they still held their Yorkshire lands and titles, were linked permanently with Alnwick and its castle and have been owned by the Percy family, the Earls and Dukes of Northumberland since; the stone castle Henry Percy bought was a modest affair, but he began rebuilding. Though he did not live to see its completion, the construction programme turned Alnwick into a major fortress along the Anglo-Scottish border.
His son called Henry, continued the building. The Abbot's Tower, the Middle Gateway and the Constable's Tower survive from this period; the work at Alnwick Castle balanced military requirements with the family's residential needs. It set the template for castle renovations in the 14th century in northern England. In 1345 the Percys acquired Warkworth Castle in Northumberland. Though Alnwick was considered more prestigious, Warkworth became the family's preferred residence; the Percy family were powerful lords in northern England. Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland, helped dethrone him; the earl rebelled against King Henry IV and after defeating the earl in the Battle of Shrewsbury, the king chased him north to Alnwick. The castle surrendered under the threat of bombardment in 1403. During the Wars of the Roses, castles were infrequently attacked and conflict was based around combat in the field. Alnwick was one of three castles held by Lancastrian forces in 1461 and 1462, it was there that the "only practical defence of a private castle" was made according to military historian D. J. Cathcart King.
It was held against King Edward IV until its surrender in mid-September 1461 after the Battle of Towton. Re-captured by Sir William Tailboys, during the winter it was surrendered by him to Hastings, Sir John Howard and Sir Ralph Grey of Heton in late July 1462. Grey was surrendered after a sharp siege in the early autumn. King Edward responded with vigour and when the Earl of Warwick arrived in November Queen Margaret and her French advisor, Pierre de Brézé were forced to sail to Scotland for help, they organised a Scots relief force which, under George Douglas, 4th Earl of Angus and de Brézé, set out on 22 November. Warwick's army, commanded by the experienced Earl of Kent and the pardoned Lord Scales, prevented news getting through to the starving garrisons; as a result, the nearby Bamburgh and Dunstanburgh castles surrendered. But Hungerford and Whittingham held Alnwick until Warwick was forced to withdraw when de Breze and Angus arrived on 5 January 1463; the Lancastrians missed a chance to bring Warwick to battle instead being content to retire, leaving behind only a token force which surrendered next day.
By May 1463 Alnwick was in Lancastrian hands for the third time since Towton, betrayed by Grey of Heton who tricked the commander, Sir John Astley. Astley was imprisoned and Hungerford resumed command. After Montagu's triumphs at Hedgeley Moor and Hexham in 1464 Warwick arrived before Alnwick on 23 June and received its surrender next day. After the execution of Thomas Percy, 7th Earl of Northumberland, in 1572 Alnwick castle was uninhabited. In the second half of the 18th century Robert Adam carried out many alterations; the interiors were in a Strawberry Hill gothic style not at all typical of his work, neoclassical. However, in the 19th century Algernon, 4th Duke of Northumberland replaced much of Adam's architecture. Instead he paid Anthony Salvin £250,000 between 1854 and 1865 to remove the Gothic additions and other architectural work. Salvin is responsible for the kitchen, the Prudhoe Tower, the palatial accommodation, the layout of the inner ward. According to the official website a lar