Norman Leslie, 19th Earl of Rothes
Colonel Norman Evelyn Leslie, 19th Earl of Rothes was a Scottish soldier and representative peer. Norman Leslie was the son of Martin Leslie Leslie and Georgina Frances Studdy, daughter of Henry Studdy, of Waddeton Court, Devon. Norman's paternal grandparents were Captain Martin Edward Haworth and Mary Elizabeth Haworth-Leslie, 18th Countess of Rothes. Norman succeeded his grandmother to the earldom in 1893. Lord Rothes was commissioned into a Militia battalion of the Devonshire Regiment in 1895, he was promoted Lieutenant in 1897 and resigned his commission in 1899. In 1905 he was appointed Captain in another Militia regiment, he resigned his commission in 1909. In 1911 he was appointed Lieutenant-Colonel commanding the Highland Cyclist Battalion, badged to the Black Watch; the Earl of Rothes was elected a Scottish representative peer in 1906, a position he retained until 1923. He fought in the First World War and Leslie House, the ancestral family seat, became a hospital for the injured, his wife, Noëlle, Countess of Rothes, worked ceaselessly during the war, both at Leslie House and in London at the Coulter Hospital, serving as a Red Cross nurse.
The earl was promoted to colonel in 1918. He sustained injuries during the war from which he never recovered, he moved his family to England. Lord Rothes married Lucy Noël Martha Dyer-Edwardes, daughter of Thomas Dyer-Edwardes Jr. and Clementina Georgina Lucy Drummond Villiers, on 19 April 1900 in London. They had two children: Malcolm George Dyer-Edwardes Leslie, 20th Earl of Rothes, married Beryl Violet Dugdale, daughter of Captain James Lionel Dugdale and Maud Violet Woodroffe, on 17 July 1926 and had issue; the Honourable John Wayland Leslie. He died on 29 March 1927, aged 49, at their townhouse in Chelsea, he was succeeded in the earldom by his eldest son, Malcolm
Coat of arms
A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon, surcoat, or tabard. The coat of arms on an escutcheon forms the central element of the full heraldic achievement which in its whole consists of shield, supporters and motto. A coat of arms is traditionally unique to an individual person, state, organization or corporation; the Roll of Arms is a collection of many coats of arms, since the early Modern Age centuries it has been a source of information for public showing and tracing the membership of a noble family, therefore its genealogy across time. The ancient Greek hoplites used individual insignia on their shields; the ancient Romans used similar insignia on their shields. Heraldic designs came into general use among western nobility in the 12th century. Systematic, heritable heraldry had developed by the beginning of the 13th century. Who had a right to use arms, by law or social convention, varied to some degree between countries. Early heraldic designs were personal. Arms become hereditary by the end of the 12th century, in England by King Richard I during the Third Crusade.
Burgher arms are used in Northern Italy in the second half of the 13th century, in the Holy Roman Empire by the mid 14th century. In the late medieval period, use of arms spread to the clergy, to towns as civic identifiers, to royally chartered organizations such as universities and trading companies; the arts of vexillology and heraldry are related. The term coat of arms itself in origin refers to the surcoat with heraldic designs worn by combattants in the knightly tournament, in Old French cote a armer; the sense is transferred to the heraldic design itself in the mid-14th century. Despite no widespread regulation, heraldry has remained consistent across Europe, where tradition alone has governed the design and use of arms; some nations, like England and Scotland, still maintain the same heraldic authorities which have traditionally granted and regulated arms for centuries and continue to do so in the present day. In England, for example, the granting of arms has been controlled by the College of Arms.
Unlike seals and other general emblems, heraldic "achievements" have a formal description called a blazon, which uses vocabulary that allows for consistency in heraldic depictions. In the present day, coats of arms are still in use by a variety of institutions and individuals: for example, many European cities and universities have guidelines on how their coats of arms may be used, protect their use as trademarks. Many societies exist that aid in the design and registration of personal arms. Heraldry has been compared to modern corporate logos; the French system of heraldry influenced the British and Western European systems. Much of the terminology and classifications are taken from it. However, with the fall of the French monarchy there is not a Fons Honorum to enforce heraldic law; the French Republics that followed have either affirmed pre-existing titles and honors or vigorously opposed noble privilege. Coats of arms are considered an intellectual property of municipal body. Assumed arms are considered valid unless they can be proved in court to copy that of an earlier holder.
In the heraldic traditions of England and Scotland, an individual, rather than a family, had a coat of arms. In those traditions coats of arms are legal property transmitted from father to son. Undifferenced arms are used only by one person at any given time. Other descendants of the original bearer could bear the ancestral arms only with some difference: a colour change or the addition of a distinguishing charge. One such charge is the label, which in British usage is now always the mark of an heir apparent or an heir presumptive; because of their importance in identification in seals on legal documents, the use of arms was regulated. This has been carried out by heralds and the study of coats of arms is therefore called "heraldry". In time, the use of arms spread from military entities to educational institutes, other establishments. In Scotland, the Lord Lyon King of Arms has criminal jurisdiction to control the use of arms. In England, Northern Ireland and Wales the use of arms is a matter of civil law and regulated by the College of Arms and the High Court of Chivalry.
In reference to a dispute over the exercise of authority over the Officers of Arms in England, Arthur Annesley, 1st Earl of Anglesey, Lord Privy Seal, declared on 16 June 1673 that the powers of the Earl Marshal were "to order and determine all matters touching arms, ensigns of nobility and chivalry. It was further declared that no patents of arms or any ensigns of nobility should be granted and no augmentation, alteration, or addition should be made to arms without the consent of the Earl Marshal. In Ireland the usage and granting of coats of arms was regulated by the Ulster King of Arms from the office's creation in 1552. After Irish independence in 1922 the office was still working out of Dublin Castle; the last Ulster King of Arm
Sir Lucas Pepys, 1st Baronet was an English physician. The son of William Pepys, a banker, his wife Hannah, daughter of Dr. Richard Russell of Brighton, was born in London on 26 May 1742, he was educated at Eton College and at Christ Church, whence he graduated B. A. on 9 May 1764. He studied medicine at Edinburgh, afterwards graduated at Oxford, M. A. on 13 May 1767, M. B. on 30 April 1770, M. D. on 14 June 1774. Before his M. B. degree Pepys obtained a license to practice from the university of Oxford, took a house in London, on 10 February 1769 was elected physician to the Middlesex Hospital, held office for seven years. In the summer he used to practise at Brighton, he was elected a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians on 30 September 1775, was censor in 1777, 1782, 1786, 1796, treasurer from 1788 to 1798, president from 1804 to 1810. In 1777 he was appointed physician-extraordinary to the king, in 1792 physician-in-ordinary, he was created a baronet on 22 January 1784. Pepys was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1780.
Pepys attended George III in his mental disorder of 1788–9, in that of 1804. He was examined on the subject of the king's health by a committee of the House of Commons on 7 January 1789, he thought it that the king would recover in time, stated that he had observed signs of improvement. He attended two days a week at Kew Palace, where the king was, from four in the afternoon till eleven the next morning, having a consultation either with Sir George Baker or Dr. Richard Warren. In 1794 Pepys was made physician-general to the army, was president of an army medical board, on which it was his duty to nominate all the army physicians; when so many soldiers fell ill of fever at Walcheren, he was ordered to report. As a consequence the board was abolished. Pepys had a large practice, after Edward Jenner's discovery he was an active supporter of the National Vaccine Institution, his house was in Park Street, Grosvenor Square, he died there on 17 June 1830. He was described as a man "of great firmness and determination, but somewhat dictatorial in his manner".
Pepys's only published work was the Latin preface to the London Pharmacopœia of 1809. Pepys married, on 30 October 1772, Jane Elizabeth Leslie, 12th Countess of Rothes in her own right, widow of George Evelyn of St Clere and had by her two sons and Henry, a daughter, who married William Courtenay, 10th Earl of Devon, he married again, on 29 June 1813, daughter of Dr. Anthony Askew and his second wife Elizabeth Holford, who survived him; each of his sons, who took their mother's family name, succeeded to the baronetcy in turn. Like her husband, Lady Rothes was a strong and determined character, who fought a lengthy legal battle against her uncle Andrew Leslie to assert her right to succeed her brother, the 11th Earl, as Countess suo jure. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Lee, Sidney, ed.. "Pepys, Lucas". Dictionary of National Biography. 44. London: Smith, Elder & Co
RMS Titanic was a British passenger liner that sank in the North Atlantic Ocean in 1912, after colliding with an iceberg during her maiden voyage from Southampton to New York City. Of the estimated 2,224 passengers and crew aboard, more than 1,500 died, making it one of modern history's deadliest commercial marine disasters during peacetime. RMS Titanic was the largest ship afloat at the time she entered service and was the second of three Olympic-class ocean liners operated by the White Star Line, she was built by the Wolff shipyard in Belfast. Thomas Andrews, chief naval architect of the shipyard at the time, died in the disaster. Titanic was under the command of Capt. Edward Smith, who went down with the ship; the ocean liner carried some of the wealthiest people in the world, as well as hundreds of emigrants from Great Britain and Ireland and elsewhere throughout Europe who were seeking a new life in the United States. The first-class accommodation was designed to be the pinnacle of comfort and luxury, with an on-board gymnasium, swimming pool, high-class restaurants and opulent cabins.
A high-powered radiotelegraph transmitter was available for sending passenger "marconigrams" and for the ship's operational use. Although Titanic had advanced safety features such as watertight compartments and remotely activated watertight doors, it only carried enough lifeboats for 1,178 people—about half the number on board, one third of her total capacity—due to outdated maritime safety regulations; the ship carried 16 lifeboat davits. However, Titanic carried only a total of 20 lifeboats, four of which were collapsible and proved hard to launch during the sinking. After leaving Southampton on 10 April 1912, Titanic called at Cherbourg in France and Queenstown in Ireland before heading west to New York. On 14 April, four days into the crossing and about 375 miles south of Newfoundland, she hit an iceberg at 11:40 p.m. ship's time. The collision caused the hull plates to buckle inwards along her starboard side and opened five of her sixteen watertight compartments to the sea. Meanwhile and some crew members were evacuated in lifeboats, many of which were launched only loaded.
A disproportionate number of men were left aboard because of a "women and children first" protocol for loading lifeboats. At 2:20 a.m. she foundered with well over one thousand people still aboard. Just under two hours after Titanic sank, the Cunard liner RMS Carpathia arrived and brought aboard an estimated 705 survivors; the disaster was met with worldwide shock and outrage at the huge loss of life and the regulatory and operational failures that led to it. Public inquiries in Britain and the United States led to major improvements in maritime safety. One of their most important legacies was the establishment in 1914 of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, which still governs maritime safety. Additionally, several new wireless regulations were passed around the world in an effort to learn from the many missteps in wireless communications—which could have saved many more passengers; the wreck of Titanic was discovered in 1985 during a US military mission, it remains on the seabed.
The ship was split in two and is disintegrating at a depth of 12,415 feet. Thousands of artefacts have been displayed at museums around the world. Titanic has become one of the most famous ships in history. Titanic is the second largest ocean liner wreck in the world, only beaten by her sister HMHS Britannic, the largest sunk, although she holds the record as the largest sunk while in service as a liner due to Britannic being used as a hospital ship at the time of her sinking; the final survivor of the sinking, Millvina Dean, aged two months at the time, died in 2009 at the age of 97. The name Titanic derives from the Titan of Greek mythology. Built in Belfast, Ireland, in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the RMS Titanic was the second of the three Olympic-class ocean liners—the first was the RMS Olympic and the third was the HMHS Britannic. Britannic was to be called Gigantic and was to be over 1,000 feet long, they were by far the largest vessels of the British shipping company White Star Line's fleet, which comprised 29 steamers and tenders in 1912.
The three ships had their genesis in a discussion in mid-1907 between the White Star Line's chairman, J. Bruce Ismay, the American financier J. P. Morgan, who controlled the White Star Line's parent corporation, the International Mercantile Marine Co.. The White Star Line faced an increasing challenge from its main rivals Cunard, which had launched the Lusitania and the Mauretania—the fastest passenger ships in service—and the German lines Hamburg America and Norddeutscher Lloyd. Ismay preferred to compete on size rather than speed and proposed to commission a new class of liners that would be larger than anything that had gone before as well as being the last word in comfort and luxury; the company sought an upgrade in their fleet in response to the Cunard giants but to replace their oldest pair of passenger ships still in service, being the SS Teutonic of 1889 and SS Majestic of 1890. Teutonic was replaced by Olympic. Majestic would be brought back into her old spot on White Star's New York service after Titanic's loss.
The ships were constructed by the Belfast shipbuilders Harland and Wolff, who had a long-established relati
Earl of Haddington
Earl of Haddington is a title in the Peerage of Scotland. It was created in 1627 for judge Thomas Hamilton, 1st Earl of Melrose, he was Lord President of the Court of Session from 1616 to 1625. Hamilton had been created Lord Binning in 1613 and Lord Binning and Byres, in the County of Haddington, Earl of Melrose, in the County of Roxburgh, in 1619; these titles were in the Peerage of Scotland. The title of the earldom derived from the fact that he was in possession of much of the lands of the former Melrose Abbey. However, Hamilton was unhappy with this title and wished to replace it with "Haddington". In 1627 he relinquished the earldom of Melrose and was instead created Earl of Haddington, with the precedence of 1619 and with limitation to his heirs male bearing the surname of Hamilton; this derived from the fact that he considered it a greater honour to take his title from a county rather than from an abbey. Hamilton was a member of the prominent Scottish family of that name and descended from John de Hamilton, younger son of Walter de Hamilton, granted the feudal barony of Cadzow and, the ancestor of the Dukes of Hamilton and Dukes of Abercorn.
Lord Haddington was succeeded by the second Earl. He was a staunch Covenanter. Haddington served as Governor of the Castle of Dunglass, was killed by a massive explosion there in 1640, his eldest son, the third Earl, died childless at an early age and was succeeded by his younger brother, the fourth Earl. On his death the titles passed to the fifth Earl, he married Margaret Leslie, 8th Countess of Rothes, daughter of the noted statesman John Leslie, 1st Duke of Rothes, who had received a re-grant of the earldom of Rothes in 1663 which allowed it to be passed on to his daughter. According to the regrant of 1663, the earldom of Rothes was not allowed to be united with the earldom of Haddington; the couple were therefore in 1689 granted a patent of the marriage contract, which stated that the earldom of Rothes should descend to their eldest son, the Hon. John, while the earldom of Haddington should be inherited by their second son, the Hon. Thomas. According to this patent Lady Rothes was succeeded by the ninth Earl.
Lord Haddington was succeeded accordingly by the sixth Earl. He obtained a new charter of the earldom, he sat in the House of Lords as a Scottish Representative Peer from 1716 to 1735 and served as Lord-Lieutenant of Haddingtonshire from 1716 to 1735. He was appointed Hereditary Keeper of Holyrood Palace, his eldest son Charles Hamilton, Lord Binning, married Rachel, daughter of George Baillie, of Mellerstain House and Jerviswood. Through this marriage Mellerstein House and the Jerviswood estate came into the Hamilton family. Lord Binning predeceased his father. Lord Haddington was therefore succeeded by his grandson, Thomas the seventh Earl, who married Mary Lloyd, née Holt. On his death the titles passed to the eighth Earl, he was a Scottish Representative Peer from 1807 to 1812 and Lord-Lieutenant of Haddingtonshire from 1804 to 1823. He was succeeded by the ninth Earl, he was a Tory politician and served as Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland from 1834 to 1835 and as First Lord of the Admiralty from 1841 to 1846.
In 1827, one year before he succeeded his father in the earldom, he was created Baron Melros, of Tyninghame in the County of Haddington, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. Lord Haddington resigned the office of Hereditary Keeper of Holyrood Park in 1843 for a compensation fee of £40,000, he was childless and on his death in 1859 the barony of Melros became extinct. The ninth Earl was succeeded in the Scottish titles by the tenth Earl, he was the son of George Baillie of Jerviswood, son of the Hon. George Hamilton, younger brother of the seventh Earl, he assumed in 1859 by Royal licence the additional surname of Hamilton to that of Baillie. Lord Haddington was a Scottish Representative Peer in the House of Lords from 1859 to 1870 and served as a government whip in the 1866–1868 Conservative administration. On his death the titles passed to the eleventh Earl, he was Lord-Lieutenant of Haddingtonshire from 1876 to 1917. In 1858 Haddington assumed by Royal licence the additional surname of Arden after that of Baillie-Hamilton.
His eldest son George Baillie-Hamilton, Lord Binning, was a brigadier-general in the army. However, he predeceased his father. Lord Haddington was therefore succeeded by the twelfth Earl, he was the son of Lord Binning. He sat in the House of Lords as a Scottish Representative Peer from 1922 to 1963 and served as Lord-Lieutenant of Berwickshire from 1952 to 1969, he was succeeded by his only son, the thirteenth Earl, in 1986. As of 2017 the titles are held by his only son, the fourteenth Earl, who succeeded in 2016. Several other members of the Baillie-Hamilton family have gained distinction. George Baillie, son of the Hon. George Hamilton, younger brother of the seventh Earl, sat as Member of Parliament for Berwickshire, he was the father of 1) the politician and judge Charles Baillie, Lord Jerviswoode, 2) Reverend t
West Milton, Dorset
West Milton is a village in West Dorset in South West England, about 3 miles northeast of Bridport and 1 mile west of Powerstock. The village is on a tributary of the River Asker. West Milton is part of Powerstock civil parish. In this case the toponym "Milton" is a contraction of "Middleton"; the Domesday Book of AD 1086 records it as Mideltone. An entry for 1212 in the Book of Fees records it as Midelton, it is derived from the Old English middel-tūn. The word tūn meant "fence", but came to mean "enclosure" or "homestead". Hence a Middelton was the middle homestead of a group. "West" distinguishes it from Milton Abbas near Blandford Forum. West Milton has long been a dependent chapelry of Powerstock, it had a Mediæval chapel of St Mary Magdalene, in 1869 the architect GR Crickmay of Weymouth designed a new Gothic Revival chapel to replace it. This was built on a new site 1⁄2 mile west of the old one and completed in 1874, it was a stone building with an apse at one end. In 1873–76 the body of the Mediæval chapel was dismantled and re-erected in Powerstock as an extension to the parish school.
Only the embattled west tower was left in West Milton. This was built about 1500 and is now both a Scheduled Ancient Monument and a Grade II* listed building. In 1976 the 19th-century church was demolished; the village used to have two pubs: The Leopard and The Red Lion. Further, there are records of ale being sold from'The Ship' inn, however it is not known where this was in the village. In the hamlet of Mangerton, on the river about 1 mile west of West Milton is an early 19th-century watermill, it was a grist and flax mill, last worked commercially in 1966. It has since been a tourist attraction and café. West Milton had its own watermill on the same river; the mill was the home of the writer and broadcaster Kenneth Allsop until his death in 1973. Here he wrote In the Country, a collection of essays about the surrounding Dorset countryside. Best, Rosemary. Poorstock in Wessex. Dorset Publishing Company. P. 8. ISBN 090212904X. Connor, Tim. West Milton: the last thousand years. Bridport: Milton Mill Publishing.
P. 36. ISBN 978-0954057053. Ekwall, Eilert. Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Milton. ISBN 0198691033. Gant, Roland. Dorset Villages. Robert Hale Ltd. pp. 130–131. ISBN 0-7091-8135-3. Lewis, Samuel, ed.. A Topographical Dictionary of England. III. London: Samuel Lewis. P. 321. Newman, John. Dorset; the Buildings of England. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. P. 446. ISBN 0-14-071044-2. Poole, Harry S; the Gate on the Hill. Bridport: Hindson. P. 15. Powerstock
John Leslie, 10th Earl of Rothes
General John Leslie, 10th Earl of Rothes KT was a senior British Army officer who became Commander-in-Chief of the Royal Irish Army between 1758 and 1767. Born the eldest son of John Hamilton-Leslie, 9th Earl of Rothes and Lady Jean Hay, daughter of John Hay, 2nd Marquess of Tweeddale, Leslie was commissioned into the 9th Regiment of Dragoons in 1715. In 1717 he transferred to the 3rd Regiment of Foot Guards, he became Commanding Officer of the 21st Regiment of Foot in 1721 and inherited his father's title the following year. He became a Scottish representative peer in 1723. In 1732 he took over command of the 25th Regiment of Foot, he fought at the Battle of Dettingen in 1743 and, having transferred to the Horse Grenadier Guards, at the Battle of Rocoux in 1744. In 1751 he transferred to the military staff in Ireland and in 1758 he became Commander-in-Chief, Ireland, his home, Leslie House in the village of Leslie, was damaged by fire in 1763. He died at his home in 1767. In 1741 he married Hannah Howard, daughter of Matthew Cole of Thorpe and his wife Brittania Cole.
Mary, the youngest daughter, married William Colyear, 3rd Earl of Portmore. In 1763, following the death of his first wife, he married Mary Lloyd, daughter of Gresham Lloyd and Mary Holt, who after Lloyd's death remarried Thomas Hamilton, 7th Earl of Haddington, a close relative of Rothes