Lord Lieutenant of Ireland
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland was the title of the chief governor of Ireland from the Williamite Wars of 1690 until the Partition of Ireland in 1922. This spanned the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland; the office, under its various names, was more known as the viceroy, his wife was known as the vicereine. The government of Ireland in practice was in the hands of the Lord Deputy up to the 17th century, of the Chief Secretary for Ireland. Although in the Middle Ages some Lords Deputy were Irish noblemen, only men from Great Britain peers, were appointed to the office of Lord Lieutenant; the Lord Lieutenant possessed a number of overlapping roles. He was the representative of the King. Grand Master of the Order of St. PatrickPrior to the Act of Union 1800 which abolished the Irish parliament, the Lord Lieutenant formally delivered the Speech from the Throne outlining his Government's policies, his Government exercised effective control of parliament through the extensive exercise of the powers of patronage, namely the awarding of peerages and state honours.
Critics accused successive viceroys of using their patronage power as a corrupt means of controlling parliament. On one day in July 1777, Lord Buckinghamshire as Lord Lieutenant promoted 5 viscounts to earls, 7 barons to viscounts, created 18 new barons; the power of patronage was used to bribe MPs and peers into supporting the Act of Union 1800, with many of those who changed sides and supported the Union in Parliament awarded peerages and honours for doing so. The Lord Lieutenant was advised in the governance by the Irish Privy Council, a body of appointed figures and hereditary title holders, which met in the Council Chamber in Dublin Castle and on occasion in other locations; the chief constitutional figures in the viceregal court were: Chief Secretary for Ireland: From 1660 the chief administrator, but by the end of the 19th century the prime minister in the administration, with the Lord Lieutenant becoming a form of constitutional monarch. Under-Secretary for Ireland: The head of the civil service in Ireland.
Lord Justices: Three office-holders who acted in the Lord Lieutenant's stead during his absence. The Lord Justices were before 1800 the Lord Chancellor of Ireland, the Speaker of the Irish House of Commons, the Church of Ireland Archbishop of Armagh as Primate of All Ireland. Lords Lieutenant were appointed for no set term but served for "His/Her Majesty's pleasure"; when a ministry fell, the Lord Lieutenant was replaced by a supporter of the new ministry. Until the 16th century, Irish or Anglo-Irish noblemen such as the 8th Earl of Kildare and the 9th Earl of Kildare traditionally held the post of Justiciar or Lord Deputy. Following the plantations, noblemen from Great Britain were given the post; the last Irish Catholic to hold the position was Lord Tyrconnell from 1685–91, during the brief Catholic Ascendancy in the reign of James II, ended by the Williamite war in Ireland. Until 1767 none of the latter lived full-time in Ireland. Instead they resided in Ireland during meetings of the Irish Parliament.
However the British cabinet decided in 1765 that full-time residency should be required to enable the Lord Lieutenant to keep a full-time eye on public affairs in Ireland. In addition to the restriction that only English or British noblemen could be appointed to the viceroyalty, a further restriction following the Glorious Revolution excluded Roman Catholics, though it was the faith of the overwhelming majority on the island of Ireland, from holding the office; the office was restricted to members of the Anglican faith. The first Catholic appointed to the post since the reign of the Catholic King James II was in fact the last viceroy, Lord FitzAlan of Derwent, in April 1921, his appointment was possible because the Government of Ireland Act 1920 ended the prohibition on Catholics being appointed to the position. FitzAlan was the only Lord Lieutenant of Ireland to hold office when Ireland was partitioned into Southern Ireland and Northern Ireland; the post ebbed and flowed in importance, being used on occasion as a form of exile for prominent British politicians who had fallen afoul of the Court of St. James's or Westminster.
On other occasions it was a stepping stone to a future career. Two Lords Lieutenant, Lord Hartington and the Duke of Portland, went from Dublin Castle to 10 Downing Street as Prime Minister of Great Britain, in 1756 and 1783 respectively. By the mid-to-late 19th century the post had declined from being a powerful political office to that of being a symbolic quasi-monarchical figure who reigned, not ruled, over the Irish administration. Instead it was the Chief Secretary for Ireland who became central, with he, not the Lord Lieutenant, sitting on occasion in the British cabinet; the official residence of the Lord Lieutenant was the Viceregal Apartments in Dublin Castle, where the Viceregal Court was based. Other summer or alternative residences used by Lord Lieutenant or Lords Deputy included Abbeville in Kinsealy, Chapelizod House, in which the Lord Lieutenant lived while Dublin Castle was being rebuilt following a fire but which he left due to the building being haunted, Leixlip Castle and St. Wolstan's in Celbridge.
The Geraldine Lords Deputy, the 8th Earl of Kildare and the 9th Earl of Kildare, being native Irish, both lived in, among other locations, their castl
Henrietta Godolphin, 2nd Duchess of Marlborough
Henrietta Godolphin, 2nd Duchess of Marlborough, Princess of Mindelheim, Princess of Mellenburg, Princess of the Holy Roman Empire, Countess of Godolphin was the daughter of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, general of the army, Sarah Jennings, Duchess of Marlborough, close friend and business manager of Queen Anne. She was born Henrietta Churchill, became The Hon. Henrietta Churchill when her father was made a Scottish Lord of Parliament in 1682 and Lady Henrietta Churchill in 1689, when her father was created Earl of Marlborough, she married The Hon. Francis Godolphin in 1698, she became Viscountess Rialton in 1706 when her father-in-law was created Earl of Godolphin, Countess of Godolphin in 1712 when her husband succeeded as 2nd Earl of Godolphin. An act of English parliament in 1706 allowed the 1st Duke's daughters to inherit his English titles. Following his death in 1722, Lady Godolphin became suo jure Duchess of Marlborough, she bore five children during her marriage to Lord Godolphin: William Godolphin, Marquess of Blandford, married Maria Catherina de Jong, no issue Lord Henry Godolphin Lady Henrietta Godolphin, married the 1st Duke of Newcastle, no issue Lady Margaret Godolphin Lady Mary Godolphin, married the 4th Duke of Leeds and had issue.
It was rumored that Lady Mary Godolphin was not, in fact, the daughter of the 2nd Earl of Godolphin, but rather daughter of the playwright William Congreve and Henrietta Godolphin. The Duchess died in 1733, aged 52, in Harrow and she was buried on 9 November 1733 in Westminster Abbey, her titles passed to the 5th Earl of Sunderland. 1681–1682: Miss Henrietta Churchill 1682–1689: The Honourable Henrietta Churchill 1689–1698: Lady Henrietta Churchill 1698–1706: Lady Henrietta Godolphin 1706–1712: Viscountess Rialton 1712–1722: The Right Honourable The Countess of Godolphin 1722–1733: Her Grace The Duchess of MarlboroughThe Duchess did not inherit her father's imperial princely title as the Empire operated Salic Law, preventing female succession. However, she was a princess of the Holy Roman Empire and a Princess of Mindelheim, subsequently a Princess of Mellenburg after her father's lands in the empire were exchanged for one another. Sambrook, James. "Godolphin, suo jure duchess of Marlborough".
Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/92329. Retrieved 2009-06-28
Duke of Marlborough (title)
Duke of Marlborough is a title in the Peerage of England. It was created by Queen Anne in 1702 for John Churchill, 1st Earl of Marlborough, the noted military leader. In historical texts, it is to him that an unqualified use of the title refers; the name of the dukedom refers to Marlborough in Wiltshire. The earldom of Marlborough was held by the family of Ley from its creation 1626 until its extinction with the death of the 4th earl in 1679; the title was recreated 10 years for John Churchill. Churchill had been made Lord Churchill of Eyemouth in the Scottish peerage, Baron Churchill of Sandridge and Earl of Marlborough in the Peerage of England. Shortly after her accession to the throne in 1702, Queen Anne made Churchill the first Duke of Marlborough and granted him the subsidiary title Marquess of Blandford. In 1678, Churchill married a courtier and influential favourite of the queen, they had seven children, of whom four daughters married into some of the most important families in Great Britain.
He was pre-deceased by his son, John Churchill, Marquess of Blandford, in 1703. When the 1st Duke of Marlborough died in 1722 his title as Lord Churchill of Eyemouth in the Scottish peerage became extinct and the Marlborough titles passed, according to the Act, to his eldest daughter Henrietta, the 2nd Duchess of Marlborough, she had a son who predeceased her. When Henrietta died in 1733, the Marlborough titles passed to her nephew Charles Spencer, the third son of her late sister Anne, who had married the 3rd Earl of Sunderland in 1699. After his older brother's death in 1729, Charles Spencer had inherited the Spencer family estates and the titles of Earl of Sunderland and Baron Spencer of Wormleighton, all in the Peerage of England. Upon his maternal aunt Henrietta's death in 1733, Charles Spencer succeeded to the Marlborough family estates and titles and became the 3rd Duke; when he died in 1758, his titles passed to his eldest son George, succeeded by his eldest son George, the 5th Duke.
In 1815, Francis Spencer was created Baron Churchill in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. In 1902, his grandson, the 3rd Baron Churchill, was created Viscount Churchill. In 1817, the 5th Duke obtained permission to assume and bear the surname of Churchill in addition to his surname of Spencer, to perpetuate the name of his illustrious great-great-grandfather. At the same time he received Royal Licence to quarter the coat of arms of Churchill with his paternal arms of Spencer; the modern Dukes thus bore the surname "Spencer": the double-barrelled surname of "Spencer-Churchill" as used since 1817 remains in the family, though some members have preferred to style themselves "Churchill". The 7th Duke was the paternal grandfather of the British Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill, born at Blenheim Palace on 30 November 1874; the 11th Duke, John Spencer-Churchill died in 2014, having assumed the title in 1972. The 12th and present Duke is Charles James Spencer-Churchill; the family seat is Blenheim Palace in Oxfordshire.
After his leadership in the victory against the French in the Battle of Blenheim on 13 August 1704, the 1st Duke was honoured by Queen Anne granting him the royal manor of Woodstock, building him a house at her expense to be called Blenheim. Construction started in 1705 and the house was completed in 1722, the year of the 1st Duke's death. Blenheim Palace has since remained in Spencer-Churchill family. With the exception of the 10th Duke and his first wife, the Dukes and Duchesses of Marlborough are buried in Blenheim Palace's chapel. Most other members of the Spencer-Churchill family are interred in St. Martin's parish churchyard at Bladon, a short distance from the palace; the dukedom can theoretically pass through a female line. However, unlike the remainder to heirs general found in most other peerages that allow male-preference primogeniture, the grant does not allow for abeyance and follows a more restrictive Semi-Salic formula designed to keep succession wherever possible in the male line.
The succession is as follows: Succession to the title under the first and second contingencies have lapsed. It is now unlikely that the dukedom will be passed to a woman or through a woman, since all the male-line descendants of the 1st Duke's second daughter Anne Spencer, Countess of Sunderland—including the lines of the Viscounts Churchill and Barons Churchill of Wychwood and of the Earl Spencer and of the entire Spencer-Churchill and Spencer family—would have to become extinct. If that were to happen, the Churchill titles would pass to the Earl of Jersey and his family, the heir-male of the 1st Duke's granddaughter Anne Villiers, Countess of Jersey, daughter of Elizabeth Egerton, Duchess of Bridgewater, the third daughter of the first Duke; the next heir would be the Duke of Buccleuch and his family, the heir-male of the 1st Duke's great-granddaughter Elizabeth Montagu, Duchess of Buccleuch, the daughter of Mary Montagu, Duchess of Montagu, the daughter of the 1st Duke's youngest daughter Mary, Duchess of Montagu.
The fourth surviving line is represented by the Earl of Chichester and his family, the heir-male of the 1st Duke's most senior great-great-granddaughter Mary Henrietta Osborne, Countess of Chichester, daughter of Francis Osborne, 5th Duke of Leeds, only child of Mary Godolphin, Duchess of Leeds, daugh
Henry Spencer, 1st Earl of Sunderland
Henry Spencer, 1st Earl of Sunderland, 3rd Baron Spencer of Wormleighton, known as The Lord Spencer between 1636 and June 1643, was an English peer and politician from the Spencer family who fought and died in the English civil war on the side of the Cavaliers. Henry was born at Althorp to William Spencer, 2nd Baron Spencer of Wormleighton and Lady Penelope Wriothesley, daughter of Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton, was baptised on 23 November 1620 at Great Brington church, he attended Magdalen College and graduated from there with a Master of Arts degree on 31 August 1636. He succeeded to his father's title of Baron Spencer that year on 19 December 1636. On 20 July 1639 at Penhurst, he married Lady Dorothy Sidney, daughter of Robert Sidney, 2nd Earl of Leicester at Penshurst Place, it was believed to be a love marriage and had his father-in-law's warm approval: after Sunderland's death her father consoled Dorothy by reminding her of her happy marriage, which he was happy to have helped bring about.
Sunderland and his wife had three children: Lady Dorothy Spencer, married George Savile, 1st Marquess of Halifax and had issue. Robert Spencer, 2nd Earl of Sunderland Lady Penelope Spencer, died unmarried, he was the 8th paternal great grandfather of Princess of Wales. Henry fought in the Battle of Edgehill in 1642 and was rewarded for his services on 8 June 1643 by being created 1st Earl of Sunderland, he fought in the Siege of Gloucester in August 1643 and the First Battle of Newbury on 20 September 1643, where he was killed, aged 22, by a cannonball. Cokayne writes that "he was, according to Clarendon, a lord of a great fortune, tender years... and an early judgment.
First Lord of the Treasury
The First Lord of the Treasury is the head of the commission exercising the ancient office of Lord High Treasurer in the United Kingdom, is by convention the Prime Minister. This office is not equivalent to the usual position of the "Treasurer" in other governments; as of the beginning of the 17th century, the running of the Treasury was entrusted to a commission, rather than to a single individual. Since 1714, it has permanently been in commission; the commissioners have always since that date been referred to as Lords Commissioners of the Treasury, adopted ordinal numbers to describe their seniority. In the middle of the same century, the First Lord of the Treasury came to be seen as the natural head of the overall ministry running the country, and, as of the time of Robert Walpole, began to be known, unofficially, as the Prime Minister; the term Prime Minister was but decreasingly, used as a term of derogation. William Pitt the Younger said the Prime Minister "ought to be the person at the head of the finances"—though Pitt served as Chancellor of the Exchequer for the entirety of his time as Prime Minister, so his linkage of the finance portfolio to the premiership was wider than proposing the occupation of the First Lordship by the Prime Minister.
Prior to 1841 the First Lord of the Treasury held the office of Chancellor of the Exchequer unless he was a peer and thus barred from that office. As of 1841, the Chancellor has always been Second Lord of the Treasury when he was not Prime Minister. By convention, the other Lords Commissioners of the Treasury are Government Whips in the House of Commons. 10 Downing Street is the official residence of the First Lord of the Treasury, not the office of Prime Minister. Chequers, a country house in Buckinghamshire, is the official country residence of the Prime Minister, used as a weekend and holiday home, although the residence has been used by other senior members of government. Much of this list overlaps with the list of Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom, but there are some notable differences, principally concerning the Marquess of Salisbury, Prime Minister but not First Lord in 1885–86, 1887–92 and 1895–1902; those First Lords who were Prime Minister are indicated in bold. Thereafter the posts of First Lord of the Treasury and Prime Minister have continually been held by the same person.
Chief Baron of the Exchequer List of Lords Commissioners of the Treasury Minister for the Civil Service, by convention the Prime Minister Secretary to the Treasury
Northamptonshire, archaically known as the County of Northampton, is a county in the East Midlands of England. In 2015 it had a population of 723,000; the county is administered by Northamptonshire County Council and by seven non-metropolitan district councils. It is known as "The Rose of the Shires". Covering an area of 2,364 square kilometres, Northamptonshire is landlocked between eight other counties: Warwickshire to the west and Rutland to the north, Cambridgeshire to the east, Bedfordshire to the south-east, Buckinghamshire to the south, Oxfordshire to the south-west and Lincolnshire to the north-east – England's shortest administrative county boundary at 19 metres. Northamptonshire is the southernmost county in the East Midlands region. Apart from the county town of Northampton, other major population centres include Kettering, Wellingborough and Daventry. Northamptonshire's county flower is the cowslip. Much of Northamptonshire's countryside appears to have remained somewhat intractable with regards to early human occupation, resulting in an sparse population and few finds from the Palaeolithic and Neolithic periods.
In about 500 BC the Iron Age was introduced into the area by a continental people in the form of the Hallstatt culture, over the next century a series of hill-forts were constructed at Arbury Camp, Rainsborough camp, Borough Hill, Castle Dykes, Guilsborough and most notably of all, Hunsbury Hill. There are two more possible hill-forts at Arbury Thenford. In the 1st century BC, most of what became Northamptonshire became part of the territory of the Catuvellauni, a Belgic tribe, the Northamptonshire area forming their most northerly possession; the Catuvellauni were in turn conquered by the Romans in 43 AD. The Roman road of Watling Street passed through the county, an important Roman settlement, stood on the site of modern-day Towcester. There were other Roman settlements at Northampton and along the Nene Valley near Raunds. A large fort was built at Longthorpe. After the Romans left, the area became part of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Mercia, Northampton functioned as an administrative centre.
The Mercians converted to Christianity in 654 AD with the death of the pagan king Penda. From about 889 the area was conquered by the Danes and became part of the Danelaw – with Watling Street serving as the boundary – until being recaptured by the English under the Wessex king Edward the Elder, son of Alfred the Great, in 917. Northamptonshire was conquered again in 940, this time by the Vikings of York, who devastated the area, only for the county to be retaken by the English in 942, it is one of the few counties in England to have both Saxon and Danish town-names and settlements. The county was first recorded as Hamtunscire: the scire of Hamtun; the "North" was added to distinguish Northampton from the other important Hamtun further south: Southampton – though the origins of the two names are in fact different. Rockingham Castle was built for William the Conqueror and was used as a Royal fortress until Elizabethan times. In 1460, during the Wars of the Roses, the Battle of Northampton took place and King Henry VI was captured.
The now-ruined Fotheringhay Castle was used to imprison Queen of Scots, before her execution. George Washington, the first President of the United States of America, was born into the Washington family who had migrated to America from Northamptonshire in 1656. George Washington's ancestor, Lawrence Washington, was Mayor of Northampton on several occasions and it was he who bought Sulgrave Manor from Henry VIII in 1539, it was George Washington's great-grandfather, John Washington, who emigrated in 1656 from Northants to Virginia. Before Washington's ancestors moved to Sulgrave, they lived in Lancashire. During the English Civil War, Northamptonshire supported the Parliamentarian cause, the Royalist forces suffered a crushing defeat at the Battle of Naseby in 1645 in the north of the county. King Charles I was imprisoned at Holdenby House in 1647. In 1823 Northamptonshire was said to " a pure and wholesome air" because of its dryness and distance from the sea, its livestock were celebrated: "Horned cattle, other animals, are fed to extraordinary sizes: and many horses of the large black breed are reared."Nine years the county was described as "a county enjoying the reputation of being one of the healthiest and pleasantest parts of England" although the towns were "of small importance" with the exceptions of Peterborough and Northampton.
In summer, the county hosted "a great number of wealthy families... country seats and villas are to be seen at every step." Northamptonshire is still referred to as the county of "spires and squires" because of the numbers of stately homes and ancient churches. In the 18th and 19th centuries, parts of Northamptonshire and the surrounding area became industrialised; the local specialisation was shoemaking and the leather industry and by the end of the 19th century it was definitively the boot and shoe making capital of the world. In the north of the county a large ironstone quarrying industry developed from 1850. Prior to 1901 the ancient hundreds were disused. Northamptonshire was administered as four major divisions: Northern, Eastern and Southern. During the 1930s, the town of Corby was established as a major centre of the steel industry. Much of Northamptonshire remains rural. Corby was designated a new town in 1950 and Northampton followed in 1968; as of 2005 the government is encouraging d