Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication; some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic; some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The 1911 eleventh edition was assembled with the management of American publisher Horace Everett Hooper. Hugh Chisholm, who had edited the previous edition, was appointed editor in chief, with Walter Alison Phillips as his principal assistant editor. Hooper bought the rights to the 25-volume 9th edition and persuaded the British newspaper The Times to issue its reprint, with eleven additional volumes as the tenth edition, published in 1902.
Hooper's association with The Times ceased in 1909, he negotiated with the Cambridge University Press to publish the 29-volume eleventh edition. Though it is perceived as a quintessentially British work, the eleventh edition had substantial American influences, not only in the increased amount of American and Canadian content, but in the efforts made to make it more popular. American marketing methods assisted sales; some 14% of the contributors were from North America, a New York office was established to coordinate their work. The initials of the encyclopedia's contributors appear at the end of selected articles or at the end of a section in the case of longer articles, such as that on China, a key is given in each volume to these initials; some articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time, such as Edmund Gosse, J. B. Bury, Algernon Charles Swinburne, John Muir, Peter Kropotkin, T. H. Huxley, James Hopwood Jeans and William Michael Rossetti. Among the lesser-known contributors were some who would become distinguished, such as Ernest Rutherford and Bertrand Russell.
Many articles were carried over from some with minimal updating. Some of the book-length articles were divided into smaller parts for easier reference, yet others much abridged; the best-known authors contributed only a single article or part of an article. Most of the work was done by British Museum scholars and other scholars; the 1911 edition was the first edition of the encyclopædia to include more than just a handful of female contributors, with 34 women contributing articles to the edition. The eleventh edition introduced a number of changes of the format of the Britannica, it was the first to be published complete, instead of the previous method of volumes being released as they were ready. The print type was subject to continual updating until publication, it was the first edition of Britannica to be issued with a comprehensive index volume in, added a categorical index, where like topics were listed. It was the first not to include long treatise-length articles. Though the overall length of the work was about the same as that of its predecessor, the number of articles had increased from 17,000 to 40,000.
It was the first edition of Britannica to include biographies of living people. Sixteen maps of the famous 9th edition of Stielers Handatlas were translated to English, converted to Imperial units, printed in Gotha, Germany by Justus Perthes and became part this edition. Editions only included Perthes' great maps as low quality reproductions. According to Coleman and Simmons, the content of the encyclopedia was distributed as follows: Hooper sold the rights to Sears Roebuck of Chicago in 1920, completing the Britannica's transition to becoming a American publication. In 1922, an additional three volumes, were published, covering the events of the intervening years, including World War I. These, together with a reprint of the eleventh edition, formed the twelfth edition of the work. A similar thirteenth edition, consisting of three volumes plus a reprint of the twelfth edition, was published in 1926, so the twelfth and thirteenth editions were related to the eleventh edition and shared much of the same content.
However, it became apparent that a more thorough update of the work was required. The fourteenth edition, published in 1929, was revised, with much text eliminated or abridged to make room for new topics; the eleventh edition was the basis of every version of the Encyclopædia Britannica until the new fifteenth edition was published in 1974, using modern information presentation. The eleventh edition's articles are still of value and interest to modern readers and scholars as a cultural artifact: the British Empire was at its maximum, imperialism was unchallenged, much of the world was still ruled by monarchs, the tragedy of the modern world wars was still in the future, they are an invaluable resource for topics omitted from modern encyclopedias for biography and the history of science and technology. As a literary text, the encyclopedia has value as an example of early 20th-century prose. For example, it employs literary devices, such as pathetic fallacy, which are not as common in modern reference texts.
In 1917, using the pseudonym of S. S. Van Dine, the US art critic and author Willard Huntington Wright published Misinforming a Nation, a 200+
Duke of Sutherland
Duke of Sutherland is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, created by William IV in 1833 for George Leveson-Gower, 2nd Marquess of Stafford. A series of marriages to heiresses by members of the Leveson-Gower family made the Dukes of Sutherland one of the richest landowning families in the United Kingdom; the title remained in the Leveson-Gower family until the death of the 5th Duke of Sutherland in 1963, when it passed to John Egerton, 5th Earl of Ellesmere. The subsidiary titles of the Duke of Sutherland are: Marquess of Stafford, Earl Gower, Earl of Ellesmere, of Ellesmere in the County of Shropshire, Viscount Trentham, of Trentham in the County of Stafford, Viscount Brackley, of Brackley in the County of Northampton, Baron Gower, of Sittenham in the County of York; the marquessate of Stafford, the earldom of Gower and the viscountcy of Trentham are in the Peerage of Great Britain, the dukedom, the earldom of Ellesmere and the viscountcy of Brackley in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, the barony of Gower in the Peerage of England.
The Duke is a Baronet, of Sittenham in the County of York, a title created in the Baronetage of England in 1620. Between 1839 and 1963 the Dukes held the titles of Lord Strathnaver and Earl of Sutherland, both in the Peerage of Scotland; the Scottish titles came into the family through the marriage of the first Duke to Elizabeth Sutherland, 19th Countess of Sutherland. Sir Thomas Gower was created a Baronet, of Sittenham in the County of York, by James I of England in 1620; this title was in the Baronetage of England. His son Thomas, the second Baronet, married daughter of Sir John Leveson, their grandson son William, the fourth Baronet, assumed the additional surname of Leveson. Sir William married Lady Jane, daughter of John Granville, 1st Earl of Bath and sister of Grace Carteret, 1st Countess Granville, their son John, the fifth Baronet, was raised to the Peerage of England as Baron Gower, of Sittenham in the County of York, in 1706. His son, the second Baron, served three times as Lord Privy Seal.
In 1746 he was created Viscount Trentham, of Trentham in the County of Stafford, Earl Gower. Both titles are in the Peerage of Great Britain, his eldest surviving son from his first marriage, the second Earl, was a prominent politician. In 1786 he was created Marquess of Stafford in the Peerage of Great Britain. Lord Stafford married secondly Lady Louisa Egerton, daughter of Scroop Egerton, 1st Duke of Bridgewater, his son from his third marriage to Lady Susanna Stewart, Lord Granville Leveson-Gore, was created Earl Granville in 1833, a revival of the title created for his great-great-aunt in 1715. Lord Stafford was succeeded by his eldest son from George, he married 19th Countess of Sutherland. In 1803 he succeeded to the vast estates of his maternal uncle Francis Egerton, 3rd Duke of Bridgewater. In 1833 he was created Duke of Sutherland in the Peerage of the United Kingdom; the 1st Duke and Duchess of Sutherland remain controversial for their role in the Highland Clearances, when thousands of tenants were evicted and resettled in coastal villages.
This allowed the vacated land to be used for extensive sheep farming, replacing the mixed farming carried out by the previous occupants. This was part of the Scottish Agricultural Revolution; the changes on the Sutherland estate were motivated by two major objectives. The first was to increase the rental income from the estate: sheep farmers could afford much higher rents; the second was to remove the population from the recurrent risks of famine.:157 Historical opinion differs on the relevance and severity of famine years, but most do not dispute that the Highland region remained the only part of mainland Britain, affected in this way at this time.:48The future 1st Duke became the proprietor of the Sutherland Estate on his marriage to Lady Elizabeth Sutherland, the Countess of Sutherland, in 1785. Despite the conventions of the day, Lady Sutherland, retained control of the management of the estate, rather than passing this responsibility to her husband.:154-155The Sutherland Clearances did not start until the 19th century due to insufficient capital – a problem, solved when, in 1803, George Leveson-Gower, the future 1st Duke inherited a huge fortune from the Duke of Bridgewater.
The remaining delay was that many leases did not expire until 1807 or but plans were put together for the interior of the estate to be devoted to large sheep farms, with new settlements to be built for the displaced inhabitants. A tentative start was made to this with the letting of the first big sheep farm at Lairg in 1807, involving the removal of about 300 people. Many of these did not accept their new homes and emigrated, to the dissatisfaction of the estate management and Lady Sutherland.:164-165Lady Sutherland was not happy with the estate factor and, in 1811, replaced him with William Young and Patrick Sellar. Young had a proven track record of agricultural improvement in Moray and Sellar was a lawyer educated at Edinburgh University, they provided an extra level of ambition for the estate.:166 New industries were added to the plans, to employ the resettled population. A coal mine was sunk at Brora, fishing villages were built to exploit the herring shoals off the coast. Other ideas were tanning, flax and brick manufacturing.:167The next clearances were in Assynt in 1812, under the direction of Sellar, establishing large sheep farms and resettling the old tenants on the coast.
Sellar had the assistance of the local tacksmen in this and the process was
Cromartie Sutherland-Leveson-Gower, 4th Duke of Sutherland
Cromartie Sutherland-Leveson-Gower, 4th Duke of Sutherland, styled Lord Cromartie Sutherland-Leveson-Gower until 1858, Earl Gower between 1858 and 1861 and Marquess of Stafford between 1861 and 1892, was a British peer and politician from the Leveson-Gower family. Sutherland was the eldest son of 3rd Duke of Sutherland, he was educated at Eton College. Despite being wealthy, Sutherland became concerned that his landed estates were no longer viable. Towards the end of his life he disposed of properties in the UK and began moving his wealth to Canada, his political allegiance shifted from the Liberal Party to the Conservative Party. As Marquess of Stafford, Sutherland entered the 2nd Life Guards as a cornet, he retired from regular army service as a lieutenant in 1875, but was commissioned Captain in the Staffordshire Yeomanry in 1876 and commanded that regiment as Lieutenant-Colonel from 1891 to 1898, after which he became its honorary colonel. He was Lieutenant-Colonel of the Sutherland Rifles, a volunteer regiment of his ducal county in Scotland, from 1882 to 1891.
From 1911 until his death he was honorary colonel of the 5th Territorial Force battalion of the Seaforth Highlanders. He was President of the Staffordshire Territorial Forces Association from the formation of the Territorial Force in 1908. Sutherland served as MP for Sutherland. On succeeding to his father's peerage in 1892, he became a member of the House of Lords, sitting on the Conservative benches, he served as Mayor of Longton, near Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire, in 1895-96, was an alderman of the borough from 1898. The Duke was appointed a Knight of the Order of the Garter in the 1902 Coronation Honours list published on 26 June 1902, was invested by King Edward VII at Buckingham Palace on 8 August 1902; the Duke was for some time Master of Foxhounds of the North Staffordshire Hunt. He married Lady Millicent St Clair-Erskine, daughter of Robert St Clair-Erskine, 4th Earl of Rosslyn, on 20 October 1884, they had four children: Lady Victoria Elizabeth Sutherland-Leveson-Gower, died young. George Granville Sutherland-Leveson-Gower, 5th Duke of Sutherland Lord Alastair St. Clair Sutherland-Leveson-Gower, married Elizabeth Demarest and had Elizabeth Sutherland-Leveson-Gower, 24th Countess of Sutherland.
Lady Rosemary Millicent Sutherland-Leveson-Gower, dated Edward, Prince of Wales before marrying William Ward, 3rd Earl of Dudley and had issue. Died in a plane crash with Frederick Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood, 3rd Marquess of Dufferin and Ava. In 1900 the Duke of Sutherland owned about 1,358,000 acres and the steam yacht Catania, chartered by some of the super-rich of that era; the Duke died at Dunrobin Castle, Sutherland, on 27 June 1913, aged 61, was buried at Dunrobin. Works by or about Cromartie Sutherland-Leveson-Gower, 4th Duke of Sutherland at Internet Archive Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Duke of Sutherland "SUTHERLAND, 4th Duke of, Cromartie Sutherland-Leveson-Gower". Who's who biographies, 1901. P. 1084
Burke's Peerage Limited is a British genealogical publisher founded in 1826, when Irish genealogist John Burke began releasing books devoted to the ancestry and heraldry of the peerage, baronetage and landed gentry of the United Kingdom. His first publication, a Genealogical and Heraldic Dictionary of the Peerage and Baronetage of the United Kingdom, was updated sporadically until 1847, when the company began releasing new editions every year as Burke's Peerage and Knightage. Other books followed, including Burke's Landed Gentry, Burke's Colonial Gentry, Burke's General Armory. In addition to the peerage, Burke's published books on royal families of Europe and Latin America, ruling families of Africa and the Middle East, distinguished families of the United States and historical families of Ireland; the firm was established in 1826 by progenitor of a dynasty of genealogists and heralds. His son Sir John Bernard Burke was Ulster King of Arms and his grandson, Sir Henry Farnham Burke, was Garter Principal King of Arms.
After his death, ownership passed through a variety of people. Apart from the Burke family, editors have included Arthur Charles Fox-Davies, Alfred Trego Butler, Leslie Gilbert Pine, Peter Townend, Hugh Montgomery-Massingberd. From the start, Burke's works suffered from pomposity and carelessness. Readers may have accepted as a minor eccentricity of style the idolisation of medieval figures who were little more than brigands and the ludicrously reverential tone adopted towards otherwise insignificant people who happened to possess a title or were related to a titled person; the major fault of substance, was the frequent and evident inaccuracy of the articles. Without much knowledge of history or genealogy, one could see improbabilities and inconsistencies both within articles and between articles. Errors in existing articles remained uncorrected between editions and new errors were added in new articles. A minor example can be found as late as 1953, where the article on the Baden-Powell barony contained a statement about the relationship of the first baron to the family of the first Earl Nelson, not supported by the article on the Nelson earldom, because there was no relationship and the statement was untrue.
When such carelessness was shown over recent links, what hope had readers of finding accurate guidance over titles with complicated ascents going back to remote medieval times? Serious scholars have always taken little account of Burke's books, exposing their flaws from time to time. In 1877, the Oxford professor Edward Augustus Freeman attacked in language of unexampled scorn, the fables and the fictions in Burke's, where he could find a pedigree, purely mythical – if indeed mythical is not too respectable a name for what must be in many cases the work of deliberate invention …. All but invariably false; as a rule, it is not only false, but impossible … not fictions, but that kind of fiction which is, in its beginning and interested falsehood. The reputation of the imprint in informed circles was well established by 1893 when Oscar Wilde in the play A Woman of No Importance wrote: "You should study the Peerage, Gerald, it is the one book a young man about town should know and it is the best thing in fiction the English have done!"
Such barbs had little effect for, writing in 1901, the historian J. Horace Round aimed many blows at the old fables and grotesquely impossible tales still being perpetuated by Burke's. More recent editions have been more scrupulously checked and rewritten for accuracy, notably under the chief editorship, from 1949-59, of L. G. Pine-, sceptical regarding many families' claims to antiquity: - and Hugh Massingberd. Almanach de Gotha Burke’s Landed Gentry Debrett's Peerage & Baronetage European royalty Hereditary peers Life Peers Baronets Burke's Peerage website Burke's Peerage Foundation website College of Arms website Lyon Court website Standing Council of the Baronetage website 1st edition - 1826 - Hathitrust 3rd edition - 1830 - Hathitrust 4th edition - 1832 - Vol 1 - Hathitrust 4th edition - 1832 - Vol 2 - Hathitrust 4th edition - 1832 - Vol 2 - Google Books 4th edition - corrected to 1833 - Vol 2 - Hathitrust 5th edition - 1838 - Google Books 6th edition - 1839 - Hathitrust 7th edition - 1843 - Vol 2 - Hathitrust 10th edition - 1848 - Hathitrust 12th edition - 1850 - Hathitrust 20th edition - 1858 - Hathitrust 22nd edition - 1860 - Hathitrust 23rd edition - 1861 - Hathitrust 27th edition - 1865 - Google Books 30th edition - 1868 - Google Books 30th edition - 1868 - Vol 1 - Hathitrust 30th edition - 1868 - Vol 2 - Hathitrust 31st edition - 1869 - Vol 1 - Hathitrust 31st edition - 1869 - Vol 2 - Hathitrust 37th edition - 1875 - Vol 2 - Hathitrust 48th edition - 1886 - University of Dusseldorf 53rd edition - 1891 - University of Dusseldorf 76th edition - 1914 - Archive.org 99th edition - 1949 - Archive.org 102nd edition - 1959 - Hathitrust
George Sutherland-Leveson-Gower, 2nd Duke of Sutherland
George Granville Sutherland-Leveson-Gower, 2nd Duke of Sutherland, KG, styled Viscount Trentham until 1803, Earl Gower between 1803 and 1833 and Marquess of Stafford in 1833, was a British Whig MP and peer from the Leveson-Gower family. Sutherland-Leveson-Gower was born at Portland Place, London, as the eldest son of George Leveson-Gower, 1st Duke of Sutherland and his wife Elizabeth Gordon, de jure Countess of Sutherland, he was educated at Harrow School from 1798 to 1803 entered Christ Church, where he graduated B. A. in 1806 and M. A. in 1810. In 1841 he graduated D. C. L. at the same university. His father died in 1833, only six months after being created Duke of Sutherland by William IV for his support for the Reform Act 1832, so this new title devolved on his eldest son, his mother, 19th Countess of Sutherland in her own right, died in 1839, so her ancient Scottish title passed to George, who became 20th Earl of Sutherland. As a result, the two titles were united in the same person until 1963.
It was the 2nd Duke who assumed the additional surname of Sutherland, so that his family name became Sutherland-Leveson-Gower. Between 1806 and 1808, Earl Gower travelled in Russia. During the Prussian campaign against Napoleon's French forces, he spent time at the Prussians' general headquarters. After returning from Europe, Earl Gower entered the Commons as M. P. for the Cornwall rotten borough of St Mawes in 1808. In 1812, he transferred to sit for the Staffordshire borough of Newcastle-Under-Lyme, until 1815, when he stood to become one of the county MPs for Staffordshire, sitting until 1820, he was Lord Lieutenant for the County of Sutherland from 1831 until his death, was appointed High Steward of the Borough of Stafford in 1833, was Lord Lieutenant of Shropshire from 1839-45. He was appointed Knight of the Order of the Garter in 1841. Sutherland was an active first-class cricketer in 1816 when he played for Marylebone Cricket Club and a team organised by E. H. Budd in a total of three matches.
He was a keen book collector and was one of the founder members of the Roxburghe Club in 1812. He was a trustee of the National Gallery from 1835 and of the British Museum from 1841 to his death, as well as appointed a Fine Arts Commissioner in 1841. Sutherland was deaf and therefore decided not to play a active part in politics, the path well worn by his contemporary peers. Instead he expended his energies by spending some of his vast wealth which he inherited from his father on improving his homes. In 1845, he employed Sir Charles Barry to make vast alterations to Dunrobin Castle. Barry transformed the place into the 189-room ducal palace. In addition to Dunrobin, the Duke had Barry remodel his Staffordshire seat of Trentham Hall, Cliveden House in Buckinghamshire, the family's London townhouse, Stafford House, the most valuable private home in the whole of London; the Duke died, aged 75, at Trentham Hall in Staffordshire, one of his English mansions, after a period of illness. Sutherland married Lady Harriet Elizabeth Georgiana Howard, daughter of George Howard, 6th Earl of Carlisle, on 28 May 1823.
They had eleven children, seven daughters and four sons: Lady Elizabeth Georgiana, married George Douglas Campbell, 8th Duke of Argyll and had issue. Lady Evelyn Leveson-Gower, married Charles Stuart, 12th Lord Blantyre Lady Caroline Leveson-Gower, married Charles FitzGerald, 4th Duke of Leinster and had issue. George Sutherland-Leveson-Gower, 3rd Duke of Sutherland Lady Blanche Julia Sutherland-Leveson-Gower Lord Frederick George Leveson-Gower Lady Constance Leveson-Gower, married Hugh Grosvenor, 1st Duke of Westminster and had issue. Lady Victoria Sutherland-Leveson-Gower Lord Albert, married Grace Abdy, daughter of Sir Thomas Neville Abdy, 1st Baronet and had issue, including Frederick Leveson-Gower. Lord Ronald Gower, died unmarried. Lady Alexandrina Sutherland-Leveson-Gower A large proportion of today's aristocracy are descended from the 2nd Duke of Sutherland. Through the marriages of his daughters, he is the ancestor of the present Dukes of Hamilton & Brandon, Northumberland and Westminster, the present Marquesses of Hertford and Londonderry, the present earls of Selkirk and Cromartie, the present Viscount Dilhorne, among many others.
The heir to the present Duke of Roxburghe is descended from him. His male line died out on the death of his great-grandson, the 5th Duke in 1963, the title passed to John Egerton, a descendant of the 2nd Duke's brother Francis, not descended from the 2nd Duke; the present Countess of Sutherland is a direct descendant of the 2nd Duke. He was the ancestor of the late Duchess of Beaufort, but not of the present Duke of Beaufort. Other notable descendants include the naturalist Gavin Maxwell and the spymaster Eliza Manningham-Buller. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Duke of Sutherland
Duke of Atholl
Duke of Atholl, alternatively Duke of Athole, named after Atholl in Scotland, is a title in the Peerage of Scotland held by the head of Clan Murray. It was created by Queen Anne in 1703 for John Murray, 2nd Marquess of Atholl, with a special remainder to the heir male of his father, the 1st Marquess; as of 2017, there were twelve subsidiary titles attached to the dukedom: Lord Murray of Tullibardine, Lord Murray and Balquhidder, Lord Murray and Gask, Lord Murray and Gask, in the County of Perth, Viscount of Balquhidder, Viscount of Balquhidder and Glenlyon, in the County of Perth, Earl of Atholl, Earl of Tullibardine, Earl of Tullibardine, Earl of Strathtay and Strathardle, in the County of Perth, Marquess of Atholl and Marquess of Tullibardine, in the County of Perth. These titles are in the Peerage of Scotland; the dukes have previously held the following titles: Baron Strange between 1736 and 1764 and 1805 and 1957. From 1786 to 1957 the Dukes of Atholl sat in the House of Lords as Earl Strange.
The Duke's eldest son and heir apparent uses the courtesy title Marquess of Tullibardine. The heir apparent to Lord Tullibardine uses the courtesy title Earl of Strathardle. Lord Strathtay's heir apparent uses the courtesy title Viscount Balquhidder; the Duke of Atholl is the hereditary chief of Clan Murray. The Dukes of Atholl belong to an ancient Scottish family. Sir William Murray of Castleton married daughter of John Stewart, 1st Earl of Atholl. Sir William was one of the many Scottish noblemen killed at the Battle of Flodden in 1513, his son Sir William Murray lived at Tullibardine in Perthshire. The latter's grandson, Sir John Murray, was created Lord Murray of Tullibardine in 1604 and Lord Murray and Balquhidder and Earl of Tullibardine in 1606. All three titles were in the Peerage of Scotland, he was succeeded by William Murray, the second Earl of Tullibardine. He married as daughter of John Stewart, 5th and last Earl of Atholl. Charles I agreed to revive the earldom of Atholl in favour of Lord Tullibardine's children by Lady Dorothea.
Tullibardine resigned his titles in favour of his younger brother, Patrick Murray, created Lord Murray of Gask and Earl of Tullibardine in 1628, with remainder to his heirs male whatsoever and with the precedence of 1606. John Murray, son of the second Earl of Tullibardine by Lady Dorothea Stewart, was created Earl of Atholl in the Peerage of Scotland in 1629, he was succeeded by the second Earl of Atholl. In 1670 he succeeded his cousin James Murray, 2nd Earl of Tullibardine, as third Earl of Tullibardine. In 1676 he was created Lord Murray and Gask, Viscount of Balquhidder, Earl of Tullibardine and Marquess of Atholl, with remainder to the heirs male of his body. All titles were in the Peerage of Scotland. Lord Atholl married daughter of James Stanley, 7th Earl of Derby. On his death the titles passed to the second Marquess, he had been created Lord Murray, Viscount Glenalmond and Earl of Tullibardine for life in the peerage of Scotland in 1696. In 1703 he was made Lord Murray and Gask, in the County of Perth, Viscount of Balwhidder and Glenlyon, in the County of Perth, Earl of Strathtay and Strathardle, in the County of Perth, Marquess of Tullibardine, in the County of Perth, Duke of Atholl, with remainder failing heirs male of his own to the heirs male of his father.
All five titles were in the Peerage of Scotland. His eldest surviving son and heir apparent, William Murray, Marquess of Tullibardine, took part in the Jacobite rising of 1715, he was attainted by Act of Parliament. An Act of Parliament was passed to remove him from the succession to his father's titles. William was, on 1 February 1717, created Duke of Rannoch, Marquis of Blair, Earl of Glen Tilt, Viscount of Glenshie, Lord Strathbran in the Jacobite Peerage; the first Duke was succeeded by his third son, the second Duke. In 1736 he succeeded his kinsman James Stanley, 10th Earl of Derby as 7th Baron Strange and as Lord of Mann. On the death of his brother William in 1746, he succeeded to such as they were; the Duke's two sons both died in infancy. His eldest daughter Lady Charlotte succeeded him in the lordship of Mann. Atholl died in 1764 and was succeeded in the dukedom and remaining titles by his nephew, the third Duke, he was the eldest son of Lt-Gen Lord George Murray, sixth son of the first Duke, the same year he succeeded the House of Lords decided that he should be allowed to succeed in the titles despite his father's attainder.
He married the aforementioned Charlotte Murray, Baroness Strange. They sold their sovereignty over the Isle of Man to the British Crown for £70,000; the Duke and Duchess were both succeeded by the fourth Duke. In 1786 he was created Baron Murray, of Stanley in the County of Gloucester, Earl Strange in the Peerage of Great Britain; these titles gave him a seat in the House of Lords. Atholl sold his remaining properties and privileges in the Isle of Man
Earl of Angus
The Mormaer or Earl of Angus was the ruler of the medieval Scottish province of Angus. The title, in the Peerage of Scotland, is held by the Duke of Hamilton, is used as a courtesy title for the eldest son of the Duke's eldest son. Angus is one of the oldest attested mormaerdoms, with the earliest attested mormaer, Dubacan of Angus, known to have lived in the early 10th century, as recorded in the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba. Angus was, according to the doubtful and legendary text de Situ Albanie, one of the seven original mormaerdoms of the Pictish kingdom of Alba, said to have been occupied by seven brothers, of whom Angus was the eldest. Despite this, the mormaers of Angus are among the most obscure of all. After the death of Mormaer Maol Chaluim, in about 1240, the mormaerdom passed through the marriage of his daughter Matilda, to the line of the Norman Gilbert de Umfraville. Gilbert de Umfraville inherited the Earldom while in his minority after his father's death in 1245. Gilbert fought on the English side during the first war of Scottish independence until his death in 1308.
His heir, second son Robert fought on the side of the English and surrendered to King Robert de Brus during the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314. He was treated with the Scots for peace with England, he was disinherited of his titles. Robert's heir Gilbert continued attempting to recover the Earldom and supported Edward Balliol and other disinherited barons and lords in Scotland. John Stewart of Bonkyll, obtained the title Earl of Angus in 1329 in a new line after the forfeiture of the de Umfraville line, though the latter family continued to use the title in England until 1381; this Stewart line ended with Margaret Stewart, countess of Angus in her own right, widow of Thomas, Earl of Mar. An illicit affair between Margaret Stewart, Countess of Mar and Angus, her brother in law, William Douglas, 1st Earl of Douglas produced George Douglas, 1st Earl of Angus; the Countess secured a charter of her estates for her son, to whom in 1389 the title was granted by King Robert II. He was taken prisoner at Homildon Hill in 1402, died in captivity in England.
Archibald "Bell-the-Cat" the powerful adversary of James III, was his great-grandson. William Douglas 11th Earl of Angus, was created Marquis of Douglas in 1633, he resigned the title of Earl of Angus, having it recreated with the marquessate, so he was the 1st Earl of Angus in the new creation. He outlived his son Archibald Douglas, Earl of Angus and was succeeded by Archibald's son James Douglas, 2nd Marquess of Douglas. James' son and heir Archibald Douglas was created Duke of Douglas, Marquess of Angus and Abernethy, Viscount of Jedburgh Forest, Lord Douglas of Bonkill and Robertoun on 10 April 1703, he died without leaving an heir and the titles acquired with the dukedom became extinct. All his other titles devolved to his distant cousin the 7th Duke of Hamilton, whose descendants hold them still. John Stewart, 1st Earl of Angus Thomas Stewart, 2nd Earl of Angus Margaret Stewart, Countess of Angus and Mar Thomas, Earl of Mar suo jure uxoris Earl of Angus George Douglas, 1st Earl of Angus William Douglas, 2nd Earl of Angus James Douglas, 3rd Earl of Angus George Douglas, 4th Earl of Angus Archibald Douglas, 5th Earl of Angus George Douglas, Master of Angus Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus David Douglas, 7th Earl of Angus Archibald Douglas, 8th Earl of Angus William Douglas, 9th Earl of Angus William Douglas, 10th Earl of Angus William Douglas, 11th Earl of Angus, William Douglas, 1st Marquess of Douglas James Douglas, 2nd Marquess of Douglas Archibald Douglas, 3rd Marquess of Douglas, Archibald Douglas, 1st Duke of Douglas For Earls of Angus and Marquesses of Douglas, see the Duke of Hamilton This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Angus, Earls of". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 43–44. Roberts, John L. Lost Kingdoms: Celtic Scotland in the Middle Ages, pp. 53–4 Chronicle of the Kings of Alba