Winchendon is a town in Worcester County, United States. The population was 10,300 at the 2010 census; the town includes the villages of Winchendon Springs. A census-designated place named Winchendon, is defined within the town for statistical purposes; the Winchendon State Forest, a 174.5 acres parcel, is located within the township as is Otter River State Forest. The House of Representatives made the grant of New Ipswich Canada, now Winchendon, on June 10, 1735, in answer to a petition from Lt. Abraham Tilton of Ipswich; the petition was on behalf of veterans or surviving heirs participating in the 1690 expeditions against Canada. Winchendon was incorporated in 1764, named after Nether Winchendon, England, which itself was the site of land owned by Governor Francis Bernard, who signed the town's incorporation into law; the Millers River provided water power for mills, at one time Winchendon produced so many wooden shingles that it was nicknamed Shingletown. Morton E. Converse started his business career in New Hampshire, manufacturing acids.
In 1873, he purchased a nearby mill to make wooden products. He started making toys there, but soon teamed with Orland Mason of Winchendon to form the Mason & Converse Company, which lasted until 1883. Converse partnered with his uncle, Alfred C. Converse, Converse Toy & Woodenware Company was formed. In 1887, the company changed its name to Morton E. Company, it remained in business until 1934. Converse made a great variety of toys, including Noah's Arks, doll furniture, kiddie riding racers, hobby horses, floor whirligigs, wagon blocks, building blocks, trunks, ten pins, farm houses, musical roller chimes; such a large number of toys were made in Winchendon. The original Giant Rocking Horse was built in 1912 by Morton Converse; the 12-foot grey hobby horse was named Clyde, made from nine pine trees. It was a copy of the company’s #12 rocking horse. In 1914, Clyde entered the local parade to celebrate the town’s 150th anniversary. Clyde was moved to the railroad station for about 20 years. In 1934, he moved to the edge of the Toy Town Tavern for about 30 years.
After that, he fell into disrepair. A replica, Clyde II, was sculpted in 1988 using the original as a model, he is now on display in a covered pavilion. In addition to the manufacturing of wood products, Winchendon is known for its textile business during the Industrial Revolution. Located at the headwaters of the Millers River, Joseph ‘Deacon’ White of West Boylston, with his son Nelson, purchased a textile mill in Spring Village in 1843. By 1857, the Nelson Mills had revamped a previous facility. In 1870, Joseph N. White, son of Nelson, traveled to Canada to recruit additional workers from Quebec. Spring Village became a prototype ` company town' with housing and a school for its workers. A second mill was known as the Glenallan Mill; the business thrived during the last half of the first half of the 20th centuries. As the south was modernized during the 1930s, textile operations in New England migrated south. In 1911, Lewis Hine, a noted photographer employed by the US Government, visited the Nelson Mills in Spring Village and documented the presence of child laborers teenage girls who were employed at reloading spindles of cotton thread for the looms.
Both World War II and the Korean War demands for denim were instrumental in keeping White Brothers, Inc. in business. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 44.1 square miles, of which 43.3 square miles is land and 0.8 square miles, or 1.77%, is water. Winchendon is drained by the Millers River. Winchendon is home to the Lake Dennison Recreation Area and Whitney Pond, shares Lake Monomonac with Rindge, New Hampshire to the north. Along the path of the Millers River, in the western part of town, much of the land is marshy, with several brooks feeding into both the Millers River and the nearby Otter River, which flows into the Millers River in the southwest corner of town; the town lies on flat high ground, with the western slope of Town Line Hill being the highest point in town, near the southeast corner of town. Two protected areas, the Birch Hill Wildlife Management Area and the Otter River State Forest, both have part of their lands within the town, as well as the small Winchendon State Forest.
Winchendon is the middle town of the three Worcester County towns bordering New Hampshire's Cheshire County. It is bounded by Fitzwilliam and Rindge to the north, Ashburnham to the east, Gardner to the southeast, Templeton to the southwest, Royalston to the west. From its town center, Winchendon is 16 miles northwest of Fitchburg, 20 miles southeast of Keene, New Hampshire, 35 miles north-northwest of Worcester and 60 miles northwest of Boston. Winchendon has no limited access highways within town. U. S. Route 202 passes through the town before heading into New Hampshire. Route 12 passes through the town, from Ashburnham towards Fitzwilliam and Keene. T
Far East Air Force (United States)
The Far East Air Force was the military aviation organization of the United States Army in the Philippines just prior to and at the beginning of World War II. Formed on 16 November 1941, FEAF was the predecessor of the Fifth Air Force of the United States Army Air Forces and the United States Air Force; the Far East Air Force included aircraft and personnel of the Philippine Army Air Corps. Outnumbered operationally more than three-to-one by aircraft of the Japanese Navy and Army, FEAF was destroyed during the Philippines Campaign of 1941–42; when 14 surviving B-17 Flying Fortresses and 143 personnel of the heavy bombardment force were withdrawn from Mindanao to Darwin, Australia in the third week of December 1941, Headquarters FEAF followed it within days. The B-17s were the only combat aircraft of the FEAF to escape destruction. FEAF, with only 16 Curtiss P-40s and 4 Seversky P-35 fighters remaining of its original combat force, was broken up as an air organization and moved by units into Bataan 24–25 December.
49 of the original 165 pursuit pilots of FEAF's 24th Pursuit Group were evacuated during the campaign, but of non-flying personnel, only one of 27 officers and 16 wounded enlisted men escaped the Philippines. Nearly all ground and flying personnel were employed as infantry at some point during their time on Bataan, where most surrendered on 9 April 1942; the surviving personnel and a small number of aircraft received from the United States were re-organized in Australia in January 1942, on 5 February 1942 redesignated as "5 Air Force". With most of its aircraft based in Java, the FEAF was nearly destroyed a second time trying to stem the tide of Japanese advances southward. In August 1907, Brigadier General James Allen, the United States Army's Chief Signal Officer, established the Aeronautical Division as the nation's air service and oversaw the introduction of powered heavier-than-air flight as a military application. Four years Allen recommended the establishment of an air station in the Philippines.
Military aviation began there on 12 March 1912, when 1st Lt. Frank P. Lahm of the 7th Cavalry, detailed to the Division, opened the Philippine Air School on the polo field of Fort William McKinley, using a single Wright B airplane to train pilots. Attriting four of the Army's first 18 airplanes, aviation went temporarily out of business when the last plane crashed into Corregidor's San Jose Bay on 12 January 1915; the first U. S. aviation unit stationed overseas was the 1st Company, 2nd Aero Squadron, sent to Corregidor in January 1916. It used four Martin S seaplanes to adjust battery fire for Fort Mills, but was demobilized at the end of World War I. A new 2d Aero Squadron returned in December 1919, a permanent military aviation presence was established with the organization on 20 March 1920 of the 1st Observation Group of the United States Army's Air Service at Fort Stotsenburg, consisting of the 2nd Squadron on Corregidor and the 3rd Squadron at Fort Stotsenburg. An additional squadron, the 28th, was activated on 1 September 1922 at Nichols Field, the group, now at Clark Field, was redesignated the 4th Composite Group on 2 December 1922.
On 25 January 1923 the three squadrons, all equipped with the Boeing DH-4, were redesignated the 2nd Observation, 3rd Pursuit, 28th Bombardment Squadrons. The air forces in the Philippines were a component of the Army's Philippine Department, like the Army Air Corps in the continental United States, operated under split authority, their nominal head was the Air Officer, Philippine Department, a staff member who did not exercise command of any operational units. Actual command of the operational forces resided with the group commander, who reported through the chief of staff to the commanding general of the Philippine Department, through the Air Officer to the Chief of the Air Corps. Installations and airfields were maintained by service forces assigned to the Philippine Department, over which neither officer had any authority. Maintenance of a defensive status quo of the Philippine Department was mandated by provisions of the 1922 Conference on the Limitation of Armament, although air power was not mentioned in its terms.
Between 1924 and 1931, when deliveries of new aircraft ceased because of the Great Depression, the department received first-line equipment including the Martin NBS-1. The primary observation aircraft after the retirement of the DH-4 was the Thomas-Morse O-19. After 1931 the 4th Composite Group became a "dumping ground" for aircraft that had become obsolete or worn out, discarded by units in both the Continental United States and the Hawaiian Department. By September 1939 the aggressive threat of Japanese imperial ambitions to the Philippines was recognized by the United States, but the Army and Navy were at odds on a strategic stance for countering it; the Air Board determined in keeping with War Department policy that air defenses of the islands would not be strengthened by modernization or expansion, tacitly accepting that the Philippine Department was a "sacrifice force." On 31 May 1940, Maj. Gen. George C. Grunert, a mustang officer who had entered the Army during the Spanish–American War, took command of the Philippine Department.
From the first he was dissatisfied with the staffing and level of training of the department, but in particular the air forces, intensively lobbied the War Department for modernization and reinforcements. Of thirteen fields available for use throughout the islands, only Clark Field was considered a first rate facility, the small number of total fields made dispersal during wa
Croix de guerre (Belgium)
The Croix de guerre or Oorlogskruis, both translating as "War Cross", is a military decoration of the Kingdom of Belgium established by royal decree on 25 October 1915. It was awarded for bravery or other military virtue on the battlefield; the award was reestablished on 20 July 1940 by the Belgian government in exile for recognition of bravery and military virtue during World War II. The post-1940 decoration could be awarded to units that were cited; the decoration was again reestablished by royal decree on 3 April 1954 for award during future conflicts. The World War I Croix de guerre was established by royal decree on 25 October 1915 as an award for bravery or other military virtue on the battlefield, it was only awarded to individuals. The Croix de guerre was not only awarded for bravery but for three years or more of service on the front line, or for good conduct on the battlefield, it was awarded to volunteers older than 40 or younger than 16 after a minimum of 18 months of service, to escaped prisoners of war rejoining the armed forces, to military personnel who were placed on inactive duty because of injury.
The World War I Croix de guerre was a 40mm wide bronze Maltese cross with 3mm in diameter balls at its eight points. It had a 14mm in diameter central medallion bearing the relief image of a "lion rampant" on its obverse and the royal cypher of King Albert I on its reverse. Two 37mm long crossed swords point upwards between it arms. A 14mm high "inverted V" between the two points of the top cross arm is secured to the inside of a 25mm wide by 25mm high royal crown, the ribbon's suspension ring passes through the top orb of the crown giving the cross a total height of 65mm; the World War I Croix de guerre's ribbon is red with five 2mm wide light green longitudinal stripes, three at the center separated by 3mm and one on each side 3mm from the edges. When the person being awarded the Croix de guerre was mentioned in despatches, this distinction was denoted by a device worn on the ribbon, either a small lion or a palm adorned with the monogram "A": Bronze lion: regimental level Silver lion: brigade level Gold lion: divisional level Bronze palm: Army level Silver palm: five bronze palms Gold palm: five silver palmsWhen awarded posthumously, the ribbon of the Croix de guerre was adorned with a narrow black enamel bar.
The individuals listed below were awarded the World War I Croix de guerre: BelgianHis Majesty the King. Robert, 7th Duke d'Ursel Charles de Hemricourt de Grunne Aviator Lieutenant Colonel Baron Willy Coppens Lieutenant General Jean-Baptiste Piron Cavalry Lieutenant General Baron Victor Van Strijdonck de Burkel Lieutenant General knight Antonin de Selliers de Moranville Lieutenant General Félix Wielemans Lieutenant General Baron Émile Dossin de Saint-Georges Lieutenant General Count Gérard-Mathieu Leman Lieutenant General Baron Jules Jacques de Dixmude Lieutenant General Albert Lantonnois van Rode Lieutenant General Baron Armand de Ceuninck Cavalry Lieutenant General Baron Léon de Witte de Haelen Major General Doctor Antoine Depage ′Major General Baron Edouard Empain Georges Lemaître François Ernest SamrayOther CountriesCommandant Kristian Løken Lieutenant Colonel James Neville Marshall Lieutenant Charles Nungesser Sergeant Archie Barwick Corporal Richard Reading, CdeG Major Richard Winters Private Arthur H Whitwell CdeG 1st Class, 12th Royal Fusiliers <London Gazette 15/04/1918 Page 4543> Captain William R. Strong, U.
S. Army 91st Devision <The Helena Independent 21/10/1919 Page 1> The World War II Croix de guerre was established on 20 July 1940 by the Belgian government in exile, it differed from the World War I version in its statute and slight changes to the reverse of the central medallion and the ribbon. It was still awarded to individuals, but was now authorized as a unit award. A war cross being presented to a unit was denoted by a ribbon of the war cross being affixed to the unit coloursThe Belgian fourragère was awarded by the Belgian Government to a unit, cited twice. Award of the fourragère required a specific decree of the Belgian Government; the fourragère is in the same colours as the ribbon of the World War II Croix de guerre. The Belgian fourragère was only worn by those; the World War II Croix de guerre was constructed in the same dimensions as its World War I predecessor, the only real difference being the royal cypher of King Leopold III on its reverse. The new ribbon was still red with light green stripes but there were now six, 1mm wide, positioned three on each side 2mm apart beginning 2mm from the edge of the ribbon.
The same ribbon devices were used as in World War I except the palms were now adorned with the monogram "L". The individuals listed below were awarded the World War II Croix de guerre: Lieutenant General Jean-Baptiste Piron Lieutenant General Jules Joseph Pire Cavalry Lieutenant General Sir Maximilien de Neve de Roden Cavalry Lieutenant General Baron Victor Van Strijdonck de Burkel Count Charles of Limburg Stirum Josephine Van Durme Membre de la résistance Belge François Ernest Samray Larry "Scrappy" Blumer USAAF General George Patton Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery General Harry Crerar Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld Colonel Whitfield Jack First Lieutenant Audie Murphy Major Richard D. "Dick" Winters Christopher Peto General Carl Spaatz William P. Straitiff Sgt. Allison Greenfield TSgt. Captain William A. Dwight Liberation of Bastogne Private - William John Hobson On 3 April 1954, the Belgian government re-established the Croix de guerre but this time without any reference to a specific conflict.
Bronze Star Medal
The Bronze Star Medal, unofficially the Bronze Star, is a United States decoration awarded to members of the United States Armed Forces for either heroic achievement, heroic service, meritorious achievement, or meritorious service in a combat zone. When the medal is awarded by the Army and Air Force for acts of valor in combat, the "V" Device is authorized for wear on the medal; when the medal is awarded by the Navy, Marine Corps, Coast Guard for acts of valor or meritorious service in combat, the Combat "V" is authorized for wear on the medal. Officers from the other Uniformed Services of the United States are eligible to receive this award, as are foreign soldiers who have served with or alongside a service branch of the United States Armed Forces. Civilians serving with U. S. military forces in combat are eligible for the award. For example, UPI reporter Joe Galloway was awarded the Bronze Star with "V" Device during the Vietnam War for rescuing a badly wounded soldier under fire in the Battle of la Drang, in 1965.
Another civilian recipient was writer Ernest Hemingway. The Bronze Star Medal was established by Executive Order 9419, 4 February 1944; the Bronze Star Medal may be awarded by the Secretary of a military department or the Secretary of Homeland Security with regard to the Coast Guard when not operating as a service in the Navy, or by such military commanders, or other appropriate officers as the Secretary concerned may designate, to any person who, while serving in any capacity in or with the Army, Marine Corps, Air Force, or Coast Guard of the United States, after 6 December 1941, distinguishes, or has distinguished, herself or himself by heroic or meritorious achievement or service, not involving participation in aerial flight— while engaged in an action against an enemy of the United States. The acts of heroism are of a lesser degree than required for the award of the Silver Star; the acts of merit or acts of valor must be less than that required for the Legion of Merit but must have been meritorious and accomplished with distinction.
The Bronze Star Medal is awarded only to service members in combat zones who are receiving imminent danger pay. The Bronze Star Medal may be awarded to each member of the Armed Forces of the United States who, after 6 December 1941, was cited in orders or awarded a certificate for exemplary conduct in ground combat against an armed enemy between 7 December 1941 and 2 September 1945. For this purpose, the US Army's Combat Infantryman Badge or Combat Medical Badge award is considered as a citation in orders. Documents executed since 4 August 1944 in connection with recommendations for the award of decorations of higher degree than the Bronze Star Medal cannot be used as the basis for an award under this paragraph. Effective 11 September 2001, the Meritorious Service Medal may be bestowed in lieu of the Bronze Star Medal for meritorious achievement in a designated combat theater; the Bronze Star Medal was designed by Rudolf Freund of the jewelry firm Banks & Biddle. The medal is a bronze star 1 1⁄2 inches in circumscribing diameter.
In the center is a 3⁄16 inch diameter superimposed bronze star, the center line of all rays of both stars coinciding. The reverse bears the inscription "HEROIC OR MERITORIOUS ACHIEVEMENT" with a space for the name of the recipient to be engraved; the star hangs from its ribbon by a rectangular metal loop with rounded corners. The suspension ribbon is 1 3⁄8 inches wide and consists of the following stripes: 1⁄32 inch white 67101; the Bronze Star Medal with the "V" device to denote heroism is the fourth highest military decoration for valor. Although a service member may be cited for heroism in combat and be awarded more than one Bronze Star authorizing the "V" device, only one "V" may be worn on each suspension and service ribbon of the medal; the following ribbon devices must be authorized in the award citation in order to be worn on the Bronze Star Medal, the criteria for and wear of the devices vary between the services: Oak leaf cluster – In the Army and Air Force, the oak leaf cluster is worn to denote additional awards.
5/16 inch star – In the Navy and Marine Corps and Coast Guard, the 5/16 inch star is worn to denote additional awards. "V" device – In the Army, the "V" is worn to denote "participation in acts of heroism involving conflict with an armed enemy.". Combat "V" – In the Navy and Marine Corps and Coast Guard, the "V" is worn to denote combat heroism or to recognize individuals who are "exposed to personal hazard during direct participation in combat operations". Colonel Russell P. "Red" Reeder conceived the idea of the Bronze Star Medal in 1943. Reeder felt another medal was needed as a ground equivalent of the Air Medal, suggested calling the proposed new award the "Ground Medal"; the idea rose through the military bureaucracy and gained supporters. General George C. Marshall, in a memorandum to President Franklin D. Roosevelt dated 3
Aerospace Defense Command
Aerospace Defense Command was a major command of the United States Air Forces, responsible for continental air defense. It was activated in 1968 and disbanded in 1980, its predecessor, Air Defense Command, was established in 1946 inactivated in 1950, reactivated in 1951, redesignated Aerospace rather than Air in 1968. Its mission was to provide air defense of the Continental United States, it directly controlled all active measures, was tasked to coordinate all passive means of air defense. Continental United States air defense forces during World War II were under the command of the four air districts - Northeast Air District, Northwest Air District, Southeast Air District, Southwest Air District; the air districts were established on 16 January 1941 before the Pearl Harbor attack. The four air districts handled USAAF combat training with the Army Ground Forces and "organization and training of bomber and other units and crews for assignments overseas"; the air districts were redesignated on 26 March 1941 as the 1st Air Force, 2nd Air Force, 3rd Air Force, & 4th Air Force and Fourth Air Forces, through their interceptor commands, managed the civilian Aircraft Warning Service on the West and East Coasts.
The USAAF's Aircraft Warning Corps provided air defense warning with information centers that networked an area's "Army Radar Stations" which communicated radar tracks by telephone. The AWC information centers integrated visual reports processed by Ground Observer Corps filter centers. AWC information centers notified air defense command posts of the "4 continental air forces" for deploying interceptor aircraft which used command guidance for ground-controlled interception; the USAAF inactivated the aircraft warning network in April 1944. Continental Air Forces was activated on 12 December 1944 with the four "Air Forces" as components to consolidate the CONUS air defense mission under one command. For aircraft warning, in 1945 CAF had recommended "research and development be undertaken on radar and allied equipment for an air defense system the future threat", e.g. a "radar range of 1,000 miles, at an altitude of 200 miles, at a speed of 1,000 miles per hour". CAF's January 1946 Radar Defense Report for Continental United States recommended military characteristics for a post-war Air Defense System "based upon such advanced equipment," and the HQ AAF Plans reminded "the command that radar defense planning had to be based on the available equipment."Planning to reorganize for a separate USAF had begun by the fall 1945 Simpson Board to plan "the reorganization of the Army and the Air Force".
The Continental Air Forces reorganization began in 1945, when ground radar and interceptor plans were prepared for the transfer at CAF HQ "in expectation that it would become" Air Defense Command. CAF military installations that became ADC bases included Mitchel Field, Hamilton Army Airfield, Myrtle Beach Army Air Field, Shaw Field, McChord Field, Grandview Army Air Field, Seymour Johnson Field, Tyndall Field. Air Defense Command was activated on 21 March 1946 with the former CAF Fourth Air Force, the tbd's Tenth Air Force, the tbd's Fourteenth Air Force In December 1946 "Development of Radar Equipment for Detecting and Countering Missiles of the German A-4 type" was planned; the Distant Early Warning Line was "first conceived—and rejected—in 1946". A 1947 proposal for 411 radar stations and 18 control centers costing $600 million was the Project Supremacy plan for a postwar Radar Fence, rejected by Air Defense Command since "no provision was made in it for the Alaska to Greenland net with flanks guarded by aircraft and picket ships for 3 to 6 hours of warning time", "Congress failed to act on legislation required to support the proposed system".
By 1948 there were only 5 AC&W stations, including the Twin Lights station in NJ that opened in June and Montauk NY "Air Warning Station #3 --cf. SAC radar stations, e.g. at Dallas & Denver Bomb Plots. ADC became a subordinate operational command of Continental Air Command on 1 December 1948 and on 27 June 1950, United States air defense systems began 24-hour operations two days after the start of the Korean War. By the time ADC was inactivated on 1 July 1950, ADC had deployed the Lashup Radar Network with existing radars at 43 sites. In addition, 36 Air National Guard fighter units were called to active duty for the mission. ADC was reinstated as a major command on 1 January 1951 at New York; the headquarters was moved to Ent Air Force Base in Colorado Springs on 8 January 1951. It received. ADC was assigned the 25th, 26th 27th and 28th Air Divisions ADC completed the Priority Permanent System network for Aircraft Warning and Control in 1952. Gaps were filled by additional Federal Aviation Administration radar stations and the Ground Observation Corps.
In May 1954, ADC moved their 1951 command center from a former hallway/latrine area of the Ent AFB headquarters building into a "much improved 15,000-square-fo
Jupiter is the northernmost town in Palm Beach County, United States. According to a 2017 Census Bureau estimate, the town had a population of 64,976, it is 87 miles north of Miami, the northernmost community in the Miami metropolitan area, home to 6,012,331 people in a 2015 Census Bureau estimate. Jupiter was rated as the 12th Best Beach Town in America by WalletHub in 2018, as the 9th Happiest Seaside Town in America by Coastal Living in 2012; the area where the town now sits was named for the Hobe Indian tribe which lived at the mouth of the Loxahatchee River and whose name is preserved in the name of nearby Hobe Sound. A mapmaker misunderstood the Spanish spelling Jobe of the native people name Hobe and recorded it as Jove. Subsequent mapmakers further misunderstood this to be the name of the Roman god known as Jupiter, they adopted the more familiar name of Jupiter; the god Jupiter is the chief Roman god, god of light, of the sky and weather, of the state and its welfare and its laws. Jupiter's consort was Juno, inspiring a neighboring town to name itself Juno Beach.
The most notable landmark is the Jupiter Inlet Lighthouse, completed in 1860. Made of brick, it was painted red in 1910 to cover discoloration caused by humidity. Hurricane Jeanne in 2004 sandblasted the paint from the upper portion of the tower, the tower was repainted using a potassium silicate mineral coating; the lighthouse is used as the symbol for Jupiter. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 21.1 square miles, of which 20.0 square miles is land and 1.1 square miles is water. Jupiter has a Tropical rainforest climate. Much of the year is warm to hot in Jupiter, frost is rare; as is typical in South Florida, there are two basic seasons in Jupiter, a mild and dry winter, a hot and wet summer. Daily thundershowers are common in the hot season; the city of Jupiter is home to many tropical trees, the town is known for its lush landscaping around private homes and public parks. As of 2010, there were 29,825 households out of which 19.8% were vacant. In 2000, 26.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.8% are married couples living together, 8.4% have a female householder with no husband present, 32.7% are non-families.
25.8% of all households are made up of individuals and 10.4% have someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.32 and the average family size is 3.15 In 2000, the town's population consisted of 20.7% under the age of 18, 5.1% from 18 to 24, 28.8% from 25 to 44, 26.5% from 45 to 64, 18.9% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 42 years. For every 100 females, there are 97.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 94.2 males. In 2017, the median income for a household in the town is $76,687, the median income for a family is $71,233. Males have a median income of $44,883 versus $33,514 for females; the per capita income for the town is $48,563. 4.8% of the population and 3.0% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 4.7% of those under the age of 18 and 4.7% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line. As of 2000, those who spoke only English at home accounted for 88.5% of all residents, while those who reported speaking Spanish were 7.2%, Italian 1.7% of the population.
The School District of Palm Beach County provides public education. Jupiter is home to several private and religious schools. Jupiter's population is served by two public high schools, Jupiter Community High School in Jupiter, William T. Dwyer High School in Palm Beach Gardens. Jupiter Christian School is a private school in the town. Universities and Colleges Harriet L. Wilkes Honors College Florida Atlantic University – John D. MacArthur campus Since 1984, Palm Beach County Fire Rescue provides fire protection and emergency medical services to the citizens of the Town of Jupiter. There are three fire stations assigned to the town: Station 16 – Engine 16, Rescue 16 and Brush 16. Station 19 is the headquarters for Battalion 1, which covers Jupiter, Juno Beach, Lake Park and unincorporated areas of Palm Beach County such as Jupiter Farms and Palm Beach Country Estates; the Jupiter Police Department consists of 118 sworn officers and 25 civilian support staff personnel, maintains its headquarters in Town Hall.
Its operational divisions include Road Patrol, Criminal Investigations, Traffic, K-9, Beach Patrol, Crime Scene Investigation, SWAT and Hostage Negotiation. The department has a volunteer Community Emergency Response Team, sponsors a Police Explorer Post. Companies based in Jupiter include G4S Secure Solutions; the following list includes persons who were born in Jupiter lived in Jupiter, or reside in Jupiter. Robert Allenby – Australian professional golfer on PGA Tour Rick Ankiel – professional baseball player Briny Baird – professional golfer on PGA Tour Daniel Berger – professional golfer on PGA Tour Matt Bosher – professional football player Don Brewer – drummer, original member of Grand Funk Railroad Philip J. Corso – U. S. Army lieutenant colonel and author of The Day After Roswell Ernie Els – South African professional golfer on PGA Tour Rickie Fowler – professional golfer on PGA Tour Hermes Franca – Brazilian mixed martial artist and UFC fighter Drew Garrett – actor Rob Grill – singer, The Grass Roots Matt Holliday – professional baseball player Hugh Howey – writer Michael Jordan – Hall of Fame NBA basketball player, majority owner of Charlotte Hornets Brook
94th Fighter Squadron
The 94th Fighter Squadron is a unit of the United States Air Force 1st Operations Group located at Joint Base Langley–Eustis, Virginia. The 94th is equipped with the F-22 Raptor; the 94 FS is one of the oldest units in the United States Air Force, first being organized on 20 August 1917 as the 94th Aero Squadron of the United States Army Air Service at Kelly Field, Texas. The squadron deployed to France and fought on the Western Front during World War I as a pursuit squadron, it took part in the Champagne-Marne defensive. In 1924, it was consolidated with the 103d Aero Squadron; the 103d was composed of former members of the French Air Service Lafayette Escadrille. This was a squadron of American volunteer pilots who had joined the French Air Service prior to the United States entry into the war on 6 April 1917. In July 1926, with the disestablishment of the U. S. Army Air Service, the squadron became part of the U. S. Army Air Corps. In June 1941, the squadron became part of the renamed U. S. Army Air Forces.
During World War II the unit served in the Mediterranean Theater of Operations as part of Twelfth Air Force as a P-38 Lightning fighter squadron, participating in the North African and Italian campaigns. In September 1947, it became part of the newly-established United States Air Force. During the Cold War it was both an Air Defense Command fighter-interceptor squadron, as part of Tactical Air Command, it was one of the first USAF operational squadrons equipped with the F-15A Eagle in January 1976. With the disestablishment of TAC in 1992, it was assigned to the newly-established Air Combat Command; the 94 Fighter Squadron is tasked to provide air superiority for the United States and allied forces by engaging and destroying enemy forces, defenses or installations for global deployment as part of the 1st Fighter Wing. The squadron flies one of today's most advanced air dominance fighters, the F-22A Raptor, being the USAF's second operational F-22 squadron in 2006. 94 FS aircraft, like other aircraft from the 1st Fighter Wing, have the tail code "FF".
The 94th Fighter Squadron has a long history and traditions that date back to World War I. The squadron was activated at Texas, on 20 August 1917 as the 94th Aero Squadron. On 8 April 1924, the unit was consolidated with the 103d Aero Squadron, organized on 31 August 1917. See 94th Aero Squadron for an expanded World War I history On 30 September 1917, two officers and 150 enlisted men left Texas for France and were sent to seven different aircraft factories for maintenance and repair training. In April 1918, the 94th was reunited and stationed at the Gengault Aerodrome near Toul, where it began operations as the first American squadron at the front, it was placed under the command of Major Raoul Lufbery, an ace pilot and veteran of the Lafayette Escadrille. As the first American squadron in operation, its aviators were allowed to create their squadron insignia, they used the opportunity to commemorate the United States' entry into World War I by taking the phrase of tossing one's "hat in the ring" and symbolizing it with the literal image of Uncle Sam's red and blue top hat going through a ring.
On 14 April, Lt. Douglas Lt. Alan Winslow downed two German aircraft; these were the first victories scored by an American unit. No 94th pilot achieved more aerial victories than 1st Lt. Edward V. "Eddie" Rickenbacker, named America's "Ace of Aces" during the war. In his Nieuport 28 and his SPAD S. XIII, Rickenbacker was credited with 26 of the squadron's 70 kills during World War I. By the end of hostilities, the 94th had won battle honors for participation in 11 major engagements and was awarded the Croix de Guerre with Palm; the squadron was assigned to the 1st Pursuit Group based at Toul, subsequently at Touquin and Rembercourt. Rickenbacker took command of the squadron on 25 September, at the start of the Meuse Argonne Offensive, retained it through the end of the war. Another flying ace of this squadron was Harvey Weir Cook; the 103d Aero Squadron constructed facilities, December 1917 – 1 February 1918. On 8 April 1924, the 103d was consolidated by the Air Service with the 94th Pursuit Squadron.
The squadron returned home in the spring of 1919, after several moves, the 94th settled with the 1st Pursuit Group at Selfridge Field, Michigan, in July 1922. In 1923, the unit was re-designated the 94th Pursuit Squadron; the squadron stayed in Michigan for the remainder of the inter-war years, training in its pursuit role. The squadron flew 17 different aircraft during this period. One week after Pearl Harbor, the 94th moved to California. Expecting to see action in the Pacific, the squadron instead received orders for Europe. In the summer of 1942, the 94th and its parent group deployed under its own power to England, the U. K. via Canada, Labrador and Iceland as part of Operation Bolero. This marked the first time that a fighter squadron flew its own aircraft from the United States to Europe. In May 1942, all pursuit groups and squadrons were re-designated "fighter". In November the 94th Fighter Squadron entered combat in North Afr