U.S. Route 84 in Georgia
U. S. Route 84 is a 258-mile-long U. S. Highway in the U. S. state of Georgia, is signed as State Route 38 for its entire length in Georgia. After entering Georgia from Alabama west-northwest of Jakin, the highway travels through the southern portion of the state, meeting its eastern terminus at Interstate 95 east of Midway. US 84 through Georgia is known as the Wiregrass Georgia Parkway. After entering the state from Alabama, US 84/SR 38 travels east through Donalsonville to Bainbridge; the highways travel around the city to the south on a freeway bypass, cosigned with US 27/SR 1. The highway continues east through Cairo to Thomasville, where it bypasses downtown to the north and east, concurrent with US 319 and SR 35 US 19/SR 3/SR 300; the highway continues east to Quitman, where it becomes concurrent with US 221/SR 76/SR 333 to the east, past its interchange with Interstate 75, to Valdosta. In Valdosta, US 221 departs, US 84/SR 38 continues east-northeast to Waycross, where it is concurrent with US 1, US 23, US 82, SR 4, SR 520.
US 84/SR 38 continues northeast from Waycross, traveling through Blackshear before arriving in Jesup. In Jesup, the highway becomes concurrent with US 25, US 301, SR 23 northeast to Ludowici. In Ludowici, US 25, US 301, SR 23 depart to the northwest, US 84/SR 38 continues northeast to Hinesville. In Hinesville, the highway becomes concurrent with SR 196, takes a drastic turn to the east. A short distance SR 196 departs, US 84/SR 38 continues east to their eastern terminus at exit 76 on I-95 east of Midway. Here, the roadway continues as Islands Highway. US 84 is a significant route in southern Georgia. All of the route sees an Average Annual Daily Traffic of 5,000 vehicles or more, the AADT exceeds 20,000 vehicles in and around Waycross and Hinesville; because of this, most of the route is a multi-lane divided highway west of Valdosta. US 84 met its eastern terminus at US 17/SR 25 west of Brunswick, while US 82 followed the present alignment of US 84 to Midway. However, with the realignment of highways near Waycross, the terminus of the two highways were swapped.
In addition, a segment of the highway between Boston and Quitman was relocated to a more northerly routing in 1966, with the former routing being renumbered as State Route 364. SR 364 was decommissioned in 1982. State Route 38 Spur is a short west–east spur route in Cairo connecting SR 93/SR 111 in downtown with the US 84/SR 38 mainline in the eastern part of the city; the entire route is in Grady County. State Route 38 Connector is a short west–east connecting route of SR 38, it connects SR 119 on the Hinesville–Fort Stewart line with US 84/SR 38/SR 196 in northeast Hinesville just west of the Hinesville–Flemington line. It is known as General Stewart Way for its entire length; the entire route is in Liberty County. U. S. Roads portal Georgia portal
Indian removal was a forced migration in the 19th century whereby Native Americans were forced by the United States government to leave their ancestral homelands in the eastern United States to lands west of the Mississippi River to a designated Indian Territory. The Indian Removal Act was signed by Andrew Jackson, who took a hard line on Indian removal, but it was put into effect under the Martin van Buren administration. Indian removal was a consequence of actions first by European settlers to North America in the colonial period by the United States government and its citizens until the mid-20th century; the policy traced its direct origins to the administration of James Monroe, though it addressed conflicts between European Americans and Native Americans, occurring since the 17th century, were escalating into the early 19th century as white settlers were continually pushing westward. The Indian Removal Act was the key law that forced the removal of the Indians, was signed into law by President Andrew Jackson on May 28, 1830.
American leaders in the Revolutionary and Early National era debated whether the American Indians should be treated as individuals or as nations in their own right. Some of these views are summarized below. In a draft, "Proposed Articles of Confederation", presented to the Continental Congress on May 10, 1775, Benjamin Franklin called for a "perpetual Alliance" with the Indians for the nation about to take birth with the Six Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy: Article XI. A perpetual Alliance offensive and defensive, is to be entered into as soon as may be with the Six Nations; the Boundaries and Lands of all the other Indians shall be ascertained and secured to them in the same manner. And all Purchases from them shall be by the Congress for the General Advantage and Benefit of the United Colonies. In his Notes on the State of Virginia, Thomas Jefferson defended American Indian culture and marveled at how the tribes of Virginia "never submitted themselves to any laws, any coercive power, any shadow of government" due to their "moral sense of right and wrong".
He would write to the Marquis de Chastellux in 1785, "I believe the Indian to be in body and mind equal to the whiteman". His desire, as interpreted by Francis Paul Prucha, was for the Native Americans to intermix with European Americans and to become one people. To achieve that end, Jefferson would, as President, offer U. S. citizenship to some Indian nations, propose offering credit to them to facilitate their trade—with the expectation, as Bernard Sheehan argues, that they would be unable to honor their debts and thereby allow the United States to acquire their land. President George Washington, in his address to the Seneca nation in 1790, describing the pre-Constitutional Indian land sale difficulties as "evils", asserted that the case was now altered, publicly pledged to uphold their "just rights". In March and April 1792, Washington met with 50 tribal chiefs in Philadelphia—including the Iroquois—to discuss closer friendship between them and the United States; that same year, in his Fourth Annual Message to Congress, Washington stressed the need for building peace and commerce with America's Indian neighbors: I cannot dismiss the subject of Indian affairs without again recommending to your consideration the expediency of more adequate provision for giving energy to the laws throughout our interior frontier, for restraining the commission of outrages upon the Indians.
To enable, by competent rewards, the employment of qualified and trusty persons to reside among them, as agents, would contribute to the preservation of peace and good neighbourhood. If, in addition to these expedients, an eligible plan could be devised for promoting civilization among the friendly tribes, for carrying on trade with them, upon a scale equal to their wants, under regulations calculated to protect them from imposition and extortion, its influence in cementing their interests with our’s could not but be considerable. In 1795, in his Seventh Annual Message to Congress, Washington intimated that if the U. S. government wanted peace with the Indians it must give peace to them, that if the U. S. wanted raids by Indians to stop raids by American "frontier inhabitants" must stop. The Confederation Congress passed the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, which would serve broadly as a precedent for the manner in which the United States' territorial expansion would occur for years to come, calling for the protection of Indians' "property and liberty": The U.
S. Constitution of 1787 makes Congress responsible for regulating commerce with the Indian tribes. In 1790, the new U. S. Congress passed the Indian Nonintercourse Act to protect and codify the land rights of recognized tribes; as president, Thomas Jefferson developed a far-reaching Indian policy. First, the security of the new United States was paramount, so Jefferson wanted to assure that the Native nations were bound to the United States, not other foreign nations. Second, he wanted "to
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
Indigenous peoples known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the original settlers of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently. Groups are described as indigenous when they maintain traditions or other aspects of an early culture, associated with a given region. Not all indigenous peoples share this characteristic, as many have adopted substantial elements of a colonizing culture, such as dress, religion or language. Indigenous peoples may be settled in a given region or exhibit a nomadic lifestyle across a large territory, but they are historically associated with a specific territory on which they depend. Indigenous societies are found in every inhabited climate continent of the world. Since indigenous peoples are faced with threats to their sovereignty, economic well-being and their access to the resources on which their cultures depend, political rights have been set forth in international law by international organizations such as the United Nations, the International Labour Organization and the World Bank.
The United Nations has issued a Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples to guide member-state national policies to the collective rights of indigenous peoples, such as culture, identity and access to employment, health and natural resources. Estimates put the total population of indigenous peoples from 220 million to 350 million. International Day of the World's Indigenous Peoples is celebrated on 9 August each year; the adjective indigenous was used to describe animals and plant origins. During the late twentieth century, the term Indigenous people began to be used to describe a legal category in indigenous law created in international and national legislations, it is derived from the Latin word indigena, based on the root gen-'to be born' with an archaic form of the prefix in'in'. Notably, the origins of the term indigenous is not related in any way to the origins of the term Indian which until was applied to indigenous peoples of the Americas. Any given people, ethnic group or community may be described as indigenous in reference to some particular region or location that they see as their traditional indigenous land claim.
Other terms used to refer to indigenous populations are aboriginal, original, or first. The use of the term peoples in association with the indigenous is derived from the 19th century anthropological and ethnographic disciplines that Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines as "a body of persons that are united by a common culture, tradition, or sense of kinship, which have common language and beliefs, constitute a politically organized group". James Anaya, former Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, has defined indigenous peoples as "living descendants of pre-invasion inhabitants of lands now dominated by others, they are culturally distinct groups that find themselves engulfed by other settler societies born of forces of empire and conquest". They form at present non-dominant sectors of society and are determined to preserve and transmit to future generations their ancestral territories, their ethnic identity, as the basis of their continued existence as peoples, in accordance with their own cultural patterns, social institutions and legal system.
The International Day of the World's Indigenous People falls on 9 August as this was the date of the first meeting in 1982 of the United Nations Working Group of Indigenous Populations of the Subcommission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities of the Commission on Human Rights. Throughout history, different states designate the groups within their boundaries that are recognized as indigenous peoples according to international or national legislation by different terms. Indigenous people include people indigenous based on their descent from populations that inhabited the country when non-indigenous religions and cultures arrived—or at the establishment of present state boundaries—who retain some or all of their own social, economic and political institutions, but who may have been displaced from their traditional domains or who may have resettled outside their ancestral domains; the status of the indigenous groups in the subjugated relationship can be characterized in most instances as an marginalized, isolated or minimally participative one, in comparison to majority groups or the nation-state as a whole.
Their ability to influence and participate in the external policies that may exercise jurisdiction over their traditional lands and practices is frequently limited. This situation can persist in the case where the indigenous population outnumbers that of the other inhabitants of the region or state. In a ground-breaking 1997 decision involving the Ainu people of Japan, the Japanese courts recognised their claim in law, stating that "If one minority group lived in an area prior to being ruled over by a majority group and preserved its distinct ethnic culture after being ruled over by the majority group, while another came to live in an area ruled over by a majority after consenting to the majority rule, it must be recognised that it is only natural that the distinct ethnic culture of the former group requires greater consideration."In Russia, definition of "indigenous peoples" is contested referring to a number of population (less
Georgia's 2nd congressional district
Georgia's 2nd congressional district is a congressional district in the U. S. state of Georgia. The district is represented by Democrat Sanford D. Bishop, Jr. though the district's boundaries have been redrawn following the 2010 census, which granted an additional congressional seat to Georgia. The first election using the new district boundaries were the 2012 congressional elections. One of the largest districts by size, it comprises much of the southwestern portion of the state of Georgia. Much of the district is rural, although the district has a number of small cities and medium-sized towns, such as Albany, Americus and portions of Columbus and Macon; the district is the historic and current home of President Jimmy Carter. The district is one of the most Democratic in the country, as Democrats have held the seat since 1875; as of May 2017, there is one former member of the U. S. House of Representatives from Georgia's 2nd congressional district, living at this time. Georgia's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C..
The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present PDF map of Georgia's 2nd district at nationalatlas.gov Georgia's 2nd district at GovTrack.us
The Kolomoki Mounds is one of the largest and earliest Woodland period earthwork mound complexes in the Southeastern United States and is the largest in Georgia. Constructed from 350CE to 600CE, the mound complex is located in southwest Georgia, in present-day Early County near the Chattahoochee River; the mounds were designated in 1964 as a National Historic Landmark in 1964. Seven of the eight mounds are protected as part of Kolomoki Mounds State Historic Park. Kolomoki Mounds State Park is an important archaeological site as well as a scenic recreational area. Kolomoki, covering some three hundred acres, is one of the larger preserved mound sites in the USA. In the early millennium of the Common Era, with its surrounding villages, burial mounds, ceremonial plaza, was a center of population and activity in North America; the eight visible mounds of earth in the park were built between 250-950 CE by peoples of the Swift Creek and Weeden Island cultures. These mounds include Georgia's oldest great temple mound.
As with other mound complexes, the people sited and built the earthworks according to a complex cosmology. Researchers have noted. For example, mounds A, D, E, which form the central axis of the site, align with the sun at the spring equinox. Mounds F and D form an alignment with the sun at the summer solstice. Soils at the Park are dark red sandy loams or loamy sands of the Americus and Red Bay series; some pale brown sands of the Troup series occur on the western shores of Kolomoki Lake, at the northern end of the lake is brown or dark gray alluvial loam of the Herod-Muckalee soil association. The Temple Mound measures 325 by 200 feet at the base. Research indicates that it would have taken over two million basket loads carried by individual workers, each holding one cubic foot of earth, to build this mound; the southern half of the mound is three feet higher and was the temple platform. From the top of the steps, most of the Kolomoki Archaeological Area can be viewed. 1,500 - 2,000 residents lived in a village of thatched houses that were built around the large plaza in the center of the complex.
It was a place for public ceremonial rituals, including games. Mound D is one of the eight visible mounds at the Kolomoki site, it is a conical mound, 20 feet high from the ground. It is centrally located at Kolomoki. Archeologists discovered the remains of ceremonial pottery here; the effigy pottery discovered was shaped in various animal and bird shapes, such as deer and owls. Mound D was constructed in each time increasing in size, it began as a square-platform mound, about 6 feet tall. This original platform mound was built from yellow clay. Sixty pottery vessels were placed on the east wall including the above effigy pottery. After many subsequent burials and the addition of more yellow clay in layers, the mound was shaped as a larger circular mound about 10 feet tall; these burials took place on the eastern side of the mound, the skulls face eastward, the direction of the rising sun for religious reasons. Burial objects made from iron and copper and pearl beads were included as ceremonial objects with the burials.
The entire mound was covered with red clay. The park's museum was built to incorporate part of an excavated mound; the museum features a film about how this mound was excavated. In March 1974, a thief entered the museum at the park and stole more than 129 ancient pots and effigies, numerous arrowheads, other treasures; every artifact on display was stolen. Several years many of the pieces were recovered by police and dealers in Miami and St. Augustine, Florida. But, with more than 70 relics still missing, the Georgia Department of Natural Resources has sought public help in recovering these artifacts. Archeologists believe the pots are somewhere in Georgia or Florida held by dealers or private collectors. Park Manager Matt Bruner said, These pieces are an important part of North American history and should be properly protected for future generations to study, they have significant meaning to the Native American people because many were used during burial ceremonies, plus they represent some of the finest craftsmanship of the Kolomoki culture.
He emphasized that the state is more interested in recovering the pots than prosecuting the people who have them. List of burial mounds in the United States List of National Historic Landmarks in Georgia National Register of Historic Places listings in Early County, Georgia "Kolomoki Mounds State Park", Georgia State Parks Kolomoki PDF website about missing artifacts "Kolomoki Mounds Historic Park", Explore Southern History "Kolomoki", New Georgia Encyclopedia The Kolomoki Indian Mounds historical marker "Kolomoki Mounds Archaeological Area", Georgia state historical marker "Kolomoki Mounds State Park", Georgia state historical marker
Earthworks are engineering works created through the processing of parts of the earth's surface involving quantities of soil or unformed rock. Excavation may be classified by type of material: Topsoil excavation Earth excavation Rock excavation Muck excavation – this contains excess water and unsuitable soil Unclassified excavation – this is any combination of material typesExcavation may be classified by the purpose: Stripping Roadway excavation Drainage or structure excavation Bridge excavation Channel excavation Footing excavation Borrow excavation Dredge excavation Underground excavation Typical earthworks include roads, railway beds, dams, levees and berms. Other common earthworks are land grading to reconfigure the topography of a site, or to stabilize slopes. In military engineering, earthworks are, more types of fortifications constructed from soil. Although soil is not strong, it is cheap enough that huge quantities can be used, generating formidable structures. Examples of older earthwork fortifications include moats, sod walls, motte-and-bailey castles, hill forts.
Modern examples include berms. Heavy construction equipment is used due to the amounts of material to be moved — up to millions of cubic metres. Earthwork construction was revolutionized by the development of the scraper and other earth-moving machines such as the loader, the dump truck, the grader, the bulldozer, the backhoe, the dragline excavator. Engineers need to concern themselves with issues of geotechnical engineering and with quantity estimation to ensure that soil volumes in the cuts match those of the fills, while minimizing the distance of movement. In the past, these calculations were done by hand using a slide rule and with methods such as Simpson's rule. Earthworks cost is a function of hauled amount x hauled distance; the goal of mass haul planning is to determine these amounts and the goal of mass haul optimization is to minimize either or both. Now they can be performed with a computer and specialized software, including optimisation on haul cost and not haul distance. Contour trenching Cut and fill Earth movers, construction/engineering vehicles used for earthworks civil engineering Earth structure Gabion Keyline design Land restoration Regrading Spoil tip Terrace Finding Volume of Earthwork using Simpson's Rule