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Early Cyrillic alphabet

The Early Cyrillic alphabet is a writing system, developed in the First Bulgarian Empire during the late 9th century on the basis of the Greek alphabet for the Slavic peoples living near the Byzantine Empire in South East and Central Europe. The objective was to make it possible to have Christian service in Slavic tongue, instead of in Greek, which locals did not understand, to bring Bulgarian subjects closer to the cultural influence of Christianity, the official religion of the Byzantine Empire, it was used by Slavic peoples in South East and Eastern Europe. It was developed in the Preslav Literary School in the capital city of the First Bulgarian Empire in order to write the Old Church Slavonic language; the modern Cyrillic script is still used for some Slavic languages, for East European and Asian languages that have experienced a great amount of Russian cultural influence. Among some of the traditionally culturally influential countries using Cyrillic script are Bulgaria, Russia and Ukraine.

The earliest form of manuscript Cyrillic, known as ustav, was based on Greek uncial script, augmented by ligatures and by letters from the Glagolitic alphabet for consonants not found in Greek. The Glagolitic alphabet was created by the monk Saint Cyril with the aid of his brother Saint Methodius, around 863, it was an adaptation designed to link the language of their mother, of Slavic origin, their father, the Roman military commander of Thessaloniki, the second most important city of the Byzantine Empire. Cyrillic, on the other hand, was a creation of Cyril's students in the 890s at the Preslav Literary School under Bulgarian Tsar Simeon the Great as a more suitable script for church books, though retaining the original Bulgarian symbols in Glagolitic. An alternative hypothesis proposes that it emerged in the border regions of Greek proselytization to the Slavs before it was codified and adapted by some systematizer among the Slavs. One possibility is that this systematization of Cyrillic was undertaken at the Council of Preslav in 893, when the Old Church Slavonic liturgy was adopted by the Bulgarian Empire.

The Cyrillic alphabet was well suited for the writing of Old Church Slavic following a principle of "one letter for one significant sound", with some arbitrary or phonotactically-based exceptions. This principle is violated by certain vowel letters, which represent plus the vowel if they are not preceded by a consonant, it is violated by a significant failure to distinguish between /ji/ and /jĭ/ orthographically. There was no distinction of capital and lowercase letters, though manuscript letters were rendered larger for emphasis, or in various decorative initial and nameplate forms. Letters served as numerals as well as phonetic signs. Letters without Greek equivalents had no numeral values, whereas one letter, had only a numeric value with no phonetic value. Since its creation, the Cyrillic script has adapted to changes in spoken language and developed regional variations to suit the features of national languages, it has been the subject of political decrees. Variations of the Cyrillic script are used to write languages throughout Eastern Asia.

The form of the Russian alphabet underwent a change when Tsar Peter the Great introduced the Civil Script, in contrast to the prevailing Church Typeface, in 1708. Some letters and breathing marks which were only used for historical reasons were dropped. Medieval letterforms used in typesetting were harmonized with Latin typesetting practices, exchanging medieval forms for Baroque ones, skipping the western European Renaissance developments; the reform subsequently influenced Cyrillic orthographies for most other languages. Today, typesetting standards only remain in use in Church Slavonic. A comprehensive repertoire of early Cyrillic characters is included in the Unicode since version 5.1 standard, which published on April 4, 2008. These characters and their distinctive letterforms are represented in specialized computer fonts for Slavistics. In addition to the basic letters, there were a number of scribal variations, combining ligatures, regionalisms used, all of which varied over time; each letter had a numeric value inherited from the corresponding Greek letter.

A titlo over a sequence of letters indicated their use as a number. In numerals, the ones place was to the left of the tens place, the reverse of the order used in modern Arabic numerals. Thousands are formed using a special symbol, ҂, attached to the lower left corner of the numeral. Many fonts display this symbol incorrectly as being in line with the letters instead of subscripted below and to the left of them. Titlos were used to form abbreviations of nomina sacra. Manuscripts made increasing use of a different style of abbreviation, in which some of the left-out letters were superscripted above the abbreviation and covered with a pokryt

Lancia Omicron

Lancia Omicron is a bus chassis produced by the Italian manufacturer Lancia. Production of the Omicron ended in 1936 after 601 total models were built; this chassis was fitted with many different body types, a short and long versions for urban use, as well as a double-decker version. The bus was used for long trips and it was luxurious for the beginning of the 1930s; the bus is used in the deserts for long journeys to connect places in north African countries such as Sudan and Algeria. Advertising of the Omicron chassis in the UK promoted its high load capacity, including a test to demonstrate the chassis carrying eight tons of steel ingots and hauling five laden trailers, a total weight of over 50 tons; the Omicron chassis was available in three versions. The Omicron C had an 8300mm wheelbase, the Omicron L had a longer wheelbase of 9530mm or 9850mm. Urban bus routes such as Rome and Tivoli used two-door bodies coach-built by Carminati; the six-cylinder Lancia 77 engine powered most models with 96 hp outputs.

The first diesel engine for, made in 1934 and showed the innovation from Lancia vehicles

Luis Conte

Luis Conte is a Cuban percussionist who has backed acts such as James Taylor, Pat Metheny Group, Eric Clapton, Carlos Santana, Phil Collins, Rod Stewart and Shakira. He immigrated to Los Angeles in 1967, where he attended Los Angeles City College studying music, entrenched himself in the music community. Conte began his music career as a studio musician for Latin Jazz acts like Caldera, his live performance and touring career took off. To date, Conte has built an successful career including a run composing and playing in ABC TV’s Dancing with the Stars band, among dozens or hundreds of other tv and film projects; as a child in Cuba, Conte began his musical odyssey playing the guitar. However, he soon switched to percussion, that has remained his primary instrument since, he was sent to Los Angeles by his parents in 1967, in order to prevent him from being forced to serve in the Cuban military. This was a turning point in Conte's life, as the musical community in Los Angeles during this period was quite vibrant.

It was during this period. Conte proved himself versatile musically, by 1973, he was playing in local clubs, he became a busy studio musician, throughout the 1970s, he played in the Latin Jazz band Caldera. In the 1980s, Conte toured with several different musicians, including Madonna, guitarist Al Di Meola, Andy Narell, his debut as a bandleader came in 1987, when he released La Cocina Caliente, which included a Latinized version of Chopin's "Susarasa". Conte played percussion on the Pat Metheny Group release'We Live Here', in 1995, on the Pat Metheny'From This Place', in 2020 as well as I Mother Earth's first two albums Dig and Scenery and Fish. Conte has toured as part of James Taylor's "Band of Legends." He has played alongside such famed musicians as Alex Acuña, Larry Klimas, David Garfield, both as a bandleader and a sideman. Luis Conte was part of Phil Collins 1997 "Dance into the Light" tour and 2004 "First Farewell Tour", performing in both of them Afro-Cuban percussion and adding more depth into the concert songs.

He performed during The Phil Collins Big Band tours in 1996 and 1998 and again during the Phil Collins Not Dead Yet tours 2017/2018. In 1999 Conte collaborated in Maná MTV Unplugged project. In 2009 worked together with Sergio Vallín in his Bendito Entre Las Mujeres album. La cocina caliente Black Forest En casa de Luis With George Cables Shared Secrets Yanow, Scott. Afro-Cuban Jazz. San Francisco: Miller Freeman Books. ISBN 0-87930-619-X. Official website MySpace BFM Jazz Luis Conte School of Percussion

Magna Carter World Tour

The Magna Carter World Tour was a concert tour by American rapper Jay Z. It was promoted by his twelfth studio album Magna Carta Holy Grail. Following his headlining performance at the 2013 Wireless Festival, Jay Z and promoters Live Nation announced a European and North American headlining tour; the venture was Jay Z's first solo headlining tour in four years, following 2009's Fall Tour. According to Pollstar, The tour earned total $48.9m from 52 shows. On February 22, 2013, Jay Z and Justin Timberlake announced their co-headlining Legends of the Summer Tour Initially this tour was speculated to be in promotion of Timberlake's new album The 20/20 Experience and comeback to music, was to only feature Jay Z's previous hits. However, on July 24, 2013, Jay Z released his twelfth studio album Magna Carta Holy Grail. Rumors begun of a solo headlining tour from Jay Z to support the new album and on July 26, 2013, the Magna Carter World Tour was announced; the opening night of the tour received positive reviews from critics.

Katie Fitzpatrick, from Manchester Evening News gave the performance 4 out of 5 stars, stating "If we aren't arm waving along to modern anthems such as 99 Problems and Empire State of Mind, we're standing with respectful attention as though we're beholding a life-altering church sermon." Nick Hasted from The Independent gave the opening concert 4 out of 5 stars. He explained "Regularly tonight, he goes further, breaking down his wall of hip-hop sound for bursts of a cappella rapping. It's the bare, breathing sound of one man's talent, preciously rare at an arena show, his new, twelfth album, Magna Carta Holy Grail, wrestles with the challenges of fame and celebrity family, trying to make them as compelling as the drug-dealing street life he left behind in Brooklyn long ago. But while he's on stage, those contradictions melt away."Rave reviews continued throughout the European leg of the tour. Ed Power from The Telegraph, who attended the first show in Dublin concluded his review with "A tough guy with a gooey centre, little about Jay-Z's swagger is original but he carries it off better than anyone else in the game."

He went on to give the performance 4 out of 5 stars. At the first of his 4 back to back London O2 Arena shows, Hannah Britt from the Daily Express opened her praising review with "With a sea of screaming fans holding their palms up towards him, you'd never know that Jay Z once dealt crack cocaine on the streets of Brooklyn." And continued to positively speak on the rappers personality, stating "With a confidence that comes with being a respected artist, married to Beyoncé and mind-blowingly minted, he seemed as comfortable talking to the crowd as I would be sat on my living room sofa. Picking people from the audience at random, he thanked them for being there, it was a nice touch, adding a sense of humility to his on-stage persona." However, Alicia Adejobi from Entertainment Wise who attended the same show questioned whether the hip hop mogul could still hold a crowd on his own. She concluded with a mixed review of the show stating "Perhaps we're so used to seeing him on stage with the likes of Kanye, Justin Timberlake and his wife Beyonce, but it felt as though something was missing from the night.

It's clear from the frequent breaks and interludes that Jay Z just isn't as energetic as he once was in his 20s" Due to the "phenomenal" demand as well as all dates in the United Kingdom selling out, promoters added second shows in Manchester and London. Ticket prices for the UK leg ranged between £42-£78. Other sources reported that some of the UK dates had sold out within "seconds" with website Mirror.co.uk joking " tickets are fast turning into the Holy Grail". On September 6, 2013, a second leg of the tour was announced, to take place in North America during December 2013/early 2014; the tour was #57 most successful tour in Pollstar's 2013 year end top 100 worldwide tour, with $31.2m gross from 33 shows. Also on their 2014 mid year top 100 North American tours, tour was #14 with $17.7m gross from 19 shows. Based on those Pollstar Reports, the Tour earned $48.9m from 52 Shows from 2013 to 2014. A promotional video for the tour was released by Live Nation's official YouTube account to promote the original ticket sales of the tour.

The video showed footage from Jay Z's headlining performance at the 2013 Wireless Festival, including footage of the large crowd and him on stage Timbaland This set list is representative of the first show in London. It does not represent all concerts for the duration of the tour. Additional notes At the second and thirds shows in London on October 11 and 12, 2013, Coldplay front-man Chris Martin joined Jay Z on stage during the show, they went on to perform Jay Z's song off of his 2001 album "The Blueprint", "Ain't No Love" together. Jay Z, Chris Martin and Timbaland all took the London Underground from Waterloo tube station to the O2 Arena, where Jay Z would perform his 3rd consecutive show in London on October 12, 2013. On November 1 Jay-Z & Timbaland performed at the F1 Grand Prix After-Race concert in Abu Dhabi on Yas Island's du Arena; the set list was the same as his European shows. There was a power-cut in the middle of the show, where Timbaland beat-boxed to improvise for the 37,000 fans.

On January 2, 2014 Jay Z brought out Rick Ross in concert in Sunrise, Florida

Darwinia (plant)

Darwinia, sometimes known as mountain bells or bells, is a genus of about 70 species of evergreen shrubs in the family Myrtaceae, endemic to southeastern and southwestern Australia. The majority are native to southern Western Australia, but a few species occur in South Australia, New South Wales and Victoria; the genus was named in honour of Erasmus Darwin, grandfather of Charles Darwin by Edward Rudge in 1816. Most darwinias grow to a height of between 0.2 and 3 m, many are prostrate shrus. Most have small, simple leaves and the flowers are grouped together, each flower with five red, white or greenish petals and ten stamens. In many species, the flowers are surrounded by large, colourful bracts, giving rise to their common names. Darwinia species are prostrate to erect, woody shrubs growing to a height of 0.2 and 3 m. The leaves are arranged in opposite pairs and are simple, needle-like to oval and contain essential oils; the flowers are arranged near the ends of the branches and are surrounded by leaf-like green bracts and larger coloured bracteoles.

The flowers have five very small sepals and 5 petals which enclose the stamens and may be white or coloured. There are 10 stamens which alternate with 10 staminodes, all of which are enclosed by the petals so that they are not visible in an intact flower; the style has a groups of hairs near the stigma. The fruit is a non-fleshy nut; the genus Darwinia was first formally described by Edward Rudge in 1816 and the type species is Darwinia fascicularis. Rudge published his description in Transactions of the Linnean Society of London. There are about 70 species but many have not been formally described. George Bentham undertook a review of the genus in 1865 when he described 23 species in Flora Australiensis; the genus was named for Erasmus Darwin. About 30 species of Darwinia have been discovered but not yet formally described, they have been given informal names such as Darwinia sp. Bindoon and Darwinia sp. Canna. Darwinias are found in New South Wales, South Australia and Western Australia. Sixty of the 70 species occur in Western Australia and 11 grow in New South Wales.

Land clearing and grazing practices have reduced the areas. Recovery is hindered by drought, changed fire regimes and susceptibility of some species Gillam's Bell to infection by the oomycete Phytophthora cinnamomi; some species in the genus Darwinia are threatened with extinction, being listed as Endangered or Vulnerable on the Australian National List of Threatened Flora. These include Gillam's Bell and Abba Bell. Darwinias can be cultivated from cuttings. FloraBase - Flora of Western Australia: Darwinia Australian National List of Threatened Flora

One Man Revolution

One Man Revolution is the 2007 debut album by The Nightwatchman, including many songs with themes of bitterness and revenge that refer to a world in turmoil, was released on April 24, 2007. It was followed by The Nightwatchman Tour all over the United States; the album’s roots go back to 2003, when Morello was playing his house penned songs at California coffee bars. The Bush administration and Bruce Springsteen's early works are considered his primary inspirations for the politically charged album. Bob Dylan was a chief inspiration for the words Morello crafted in his album. One of the cons for Morello was that he had been a guitarist his entire musical career, so now that he was singing, he had frequent fits of stage fright. By 2004, he was over his stage fright fears and was ready to preach his truth through the “Tell us the Truth Tour”. Not too long he was performing in the “Axis of Justice Tour” and the groundwork was set for the writing of his debut solo album. By 2006, he was working with producer, Brendan O’Brien, the production of his album had begun.

Some of the songs he had written, but a majority of it he had to compose and write during this production time. The album was a culmination of Morello's pent up anger and disdain towards the world and the wrongs he saw America participate in and facilitate. Anger was a vital theme of the album, but so was optimism that these wrongs could soon be corrected with patience and effort. April of 2007 saw the unveiling of the “One Man Revolution” album. Unlike Morello’s previous ventures with Rage Against the Machine and Audioslave, his solo album was an acoustic project; the focus was no longer on his fire spitting guitar solos, but rather the words he was preaching throughout each song. This solo project saw Morello shift towards his more folk and singer/songwriter tendencies than his previous electric guitar-manship, his focus was on the soldier and the factory worker, forgotten about and stepped over by the government and big corporations. His message is meant as a rallying call for the ordinary people that just live their lives and go to work to put food on the table.

He doesn’t focus in on terrorism and government corruption, but rather he shifts his view to the bigger picture and how the everyday man and woman is affected by it. His leftist views that helped make Rage Against the Machine an award winning group back in the 90’s, is on full blast in this record. Calls for the oppressed people of the United States to come up and fight back against the “machine” is a common topic he touches upon, his political thoughts and opinions are showcased in this album, but the album is about his opinion on humanity and how people interact with one another. All tracks are written by Tom Morello. All songs performed by Tom Morello, with additional instruments by Brendan O'Brien Produced by Brendan O'Brien Recorded by Nick Didia at Buds Garage and Southern Tracks Recording, Atlanta, GA Assisted by Tom Tapley, at Henson Recording Studio, Los Angeles, CA – assistant Tom Syrowski Official Site