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Early Lý dynasty

The Early Lý dynasty called the Former Lý dynasty or Anterior Lý dynasty, was a dynasty which ruled Vietnam from AD 544 to 602. Its founder Lý Bí assumed the title of "Southern Emperor"; the realm of the Early Lý was known as Vạn Xuân and their capital was at Long Biên within modern Hanoi. Lý Bí was born in Thái Bình. In 543, he and his brother Lý Thiên Bảo revolted against the Chinese Liang dynasty to gain Vietnamese independence. Many reasons are given for the motive of his revolt, among them the fact that he was a member of a wealthy family and, having failed an imperial examination, decided to revolt. In 544, Lý Bí proclaimed himself emperor and named the country Vạn Xuân. At this time, he built the Trấn Quốc Pagoda in Hanoi; the sixth century was an important stage in the Vietnamese political evolution toward independence. During this period, the Vietnamese aristocracy, while retaining Chinese political and cultural forms, grew independent of China. At the same time, indigenous leaders arose who claimed power based on Vietnamese traditions of kingship.

A series of failed revolts in the late sixth and early seventh centuries fueled the Vietnamese national consciousness. Lý Bí, the dynasty's founder, was himself descended from a Chinese family that had fled to the Red River Delta during a period of dynastic turbulence in the first century A. D. Lý Bí declared himself emperor of Nam Việt in the tradition of Triệu Đà and organized an imperial court at Long Biên. Lý Bí was killed in 547, but his followers kept the revolt alive for another fifty years, establishing what is sometimes referred to in Vietnamese history as the Earlier Lý Dynasty. While the Lý family retreated to the mountains and attempted to rule in the style of their Chinese overlords, a rebel leader who based his rule on an indigenous form of kingship arose in the Red River Delta. Triệu Quang Phục made his headquarters on an island in a vast swamp. From this refuge, he could strike without warning, seizing supplies from the Liang army and slipping back into the labyrinthine channels of the swamp.

Despite the initial success of such guerrilla tactics, by which he gained control over the Red River Delta, Triệu Quang Phục was defeated by 570. According to a much Vietnamese revolutionary, General Võ Nguyên Giáp, Vietnamese concepts of protracted warfare were born in the surprise offensives, night attacks, hit-and-run tactics employed by Triệu Quang Phục; when the internal conflict of Lý dynasty became uncontrolled, Emperor Wen of Sui started the campaign of invading Vạn Xuân. The king of Vạn Xuân surrendered to the Sui, marking the beginning of renewed Chinese domination in Vietnam. Lý Nam Đế I Lý Nam Đế's pre-throne name was Lý Bí known as Lý Bôn. Lý Thiên Bảo Triệu Việt Vương Lý Nam Đế II Taylor, Keith Weller.. The Birth of Vietnam. University of California Press. ISBN 0520074173. Retrieved 7 August 2013. Tucker, Spencer C. Vietnam. University Press of Kentucky, Feb 25, 1999 – 256 pages

Portland Press Herald

The Portland Press Herald/Maine Sunday Telegram is a morning daily newspaper with a website at pressherald.com that serves southern Maine and is focused on the greater metropolitan area around Portland, Maine, in the United States. Founded in 1862, its roots extend to Maine’s earliest newspapers, the Falmouth Gazette & Weekly Advertiser, started in 1785, the Eastern Argus, first published in Portland in 1803. For most of the 20th century, it was the cornerstone of Guy Gannett Communications, before being sold to The Seattle Times Company in 1998. Today, it is the flagship of MaineToday Media publications, headquartered in South Portland, is part of the state’s largest news-gathering organization, including the newspapers of the Lewiston-based Sun Media Group; the Portland Press Herald/Maine Sunday Telegram has a long-standing and stated commitment to fair and balanced news coverage and hard-hitting watchdog journalism in the interest of the public good. Its work has received Congressional recognition.

On June 28, 2016, the series "Payday at the Mill" and reporters Whit Richardson and Steve Mistler received a Gerald Loeb Award in the "Local" category. In 2012, reporter Colin Woodard received the 2012 George Polk Award for the story, "Special Report: The profit motive behind virtual schools in Maine" in the category, "Education Reporting." In 2006, the paper received a Missouri Lifestyle Journalism Award for General Excellence, Class III. The Portland Daily Press was founded in June 1862 by J. T. Gilman, Joseph B. Hall, Newell A. Foster as a new Republican paper. In 1904 the paper was bought by a syndicate of Maine Republicans, including Henry B. Cleaves, gubernatorial candidate Joseph Homan Manley, who the paper had opposed, it was merged with the Portland Herald in 1921 to form the Portland Press Herald in a sale of the Press from U. S. Senator Frederick Hale to Guy P. Gannett. In 1923, Gannett built a new building to house all of the paper's operations across on Congress Street near City Hall.

In 2010, the newspaper moved its news staff to nearby One City Center. On March 17, 2008, the Press Herald converted from its traditional multi-section format to two sections. A brief editorial highlighted advertising concerns and said the other sections could be found online; the next day, The Seattle Times Company, its owner at the time, announced that it was putting the Press Herald and its other Maine newspaper properties up for sale. After more than a year on the market, on June 15, 2009, the papers were sold to MaineToday Media, Inc. headed by Maine native Richard L. Connor, publisher of Times Leader in Wilkes-Barre, with financing from HM Capital Partners and Citizens Bank. Although MaineToday announced a plan to move the paper's offices out of downtown into the South Portland printing plant, it was reported that the company's headquarters would move to One City Center in downtown Portland; as part of the sale, Portland Newspaper Guild members took a 10-percent pay cut in exchange for 15-percent ownership in MaineToday Media.

More than 30 non-union jobs were eliminated. Effective June 1, 2015, MaineToday Media was sold to Reade Brower, owner of a number of midcoast Maine newspapers and a printing operation in Brunswick, Maine. Notable alumni of the paper include longtime Washington correspondent May Craig and current Boston Herald sports columnist Steve Buckley; the late decorated journalist and editor Steve Riley began his career at the Portland Press Herald. Notable current writers featured in the paper include investigative journalist Colin Woodward, opinion columnist Bill Nemitz, opinion columnist Victoria Hugo-Vidal, restaurant reviewer Andrew Ross, recipe columnist Christine Burns Rudalevige, vegan columnist Avery Yale Kamila, music columnist Aimsel Ponti, garden columnist Tom Atwell; the Portland Newspapers maintained news bureaus in Augusta, Biddeford and Washington, DC. The papers continue to operate six circulation depots, in Bath, Sanford, South Portland and Yarmouth, Maine; the daily Press Herald circulates six days per week in five counties: Cumberland, Lincoln and York.

On Sundays, the Maine Sunday Telegram is sold statewide. MaineToday Media owns the Central Maine Newspapers, publisher of the Morning Sentinel in Waterville and the Kennebec Journal in Augusta; the Press Herald and Sunday Telegram editorial board was once viewed to have center-left political views. It has since criticized the war's execution. In Maine's 2006 campaign for governor, it endorsed John Baldacci, the incumbent Democrat, reelected. In the 2004 presidential election, the paper endorsed Democrat John Kerry, who won Maine but lost the national election. In 2008, it endorsed Barack Obama, who won the general election. However, under Richard Connor, the paper moved to the center, causing some in liberal Portland to abandon the paper in favor of the city's free daily newspaper, The Portland Daily Sun, or for the Bangor Daily News, which made inroads into the Portland market. In 2010, it endorsed conservative Republican candidates in both of Maine's congressional districts, they were both defeated by Chellie Pingree and Mike Michaud.

For Maine's gubernatorial election that same year, it endorsed moderate independent former Democrat Eliot Cutler, a childhood friend of Connor, who came in second with 34% of the vote. On October 28, 2011, Connor announced his resignation effective December 31, 2011; the news

Caucasian snowcock

The Caucasian snowcock is a snowcock in the pheasant family Phasianidae of the order Galliformes, gallinaceous birds. It is endemic to the Caucasus Mountains the Western Caucasus, where it breeds at altitudes from 2000–4000 m on bare stony mountains, it nests in a bare ground scrape and lays 5-6 greenish eggs, which are incubated only by the female. Its food is seeds and vegetable matter, it forms small flocks. This is a 50–60 cm long bird, its plumage is patterned with grey, brown and black, but this snowcock looks grey from any distance. The breast is the flanks ruddier than the rest of the body, it has a white patch on the side of the neck. The nape is rust-coloured. In flight, this wary bird shows white flight feathers and undertail, reddish sides to the tail. Male and female plumages are similar, but the juvenile is smaller and duller in appearance. Caucasian snowcock has a desolate whistling song, sooo-looo-leeee; the calls include bubbled buck-buck-buck-buck-burrrrrr. Media related to Tetraogallus caucasicus at Wikimedia Commons Pheasants and Grouse by Madge and McGowan, ISBN 0-7136-3966-0

Ruger Hauer

Ruger Hauer were a hip hop and rap group from Helsinki, Finland. The band consisted of Paperi T, Pyhimys and Tommishock and was named after firearm manufacturing company Sturm, Ruger & Co. and actor Rutger Hauer. Ruger Hauer's first studio album Se syvenee syksyllä was released in November 2010. Panu Hietaneva of Helsingin Sanomat wrote that while the album has its moments, it fails to offer real surprises. Rumba magazine gave it more positive review, citing it as the best Finnish hip hop album of the year; the group's second album Erectus followed in October 2012, reaching number 16 on the Official Finnish Album Chart. In his positive review of the album, Arttu Tolonen of Soundi noticed that the group's lyrics are dark, though funny, that the sounds of the album are escaping the boundaries of typical hip hop music

Yves Congar

Yves Marie-Joseph Congar was a French Dominican friar and theologian. He is best known for his influence at the Second Vatican Council and for reviving theological interest in the Holy Spirit for the life of individuals and of the church, he was created a cardinal of the Catholic Church in 1994. Congar was born in Sedan in northeast France in 1904, his father Georges Congar was a bank manager. Congar's hometown was occupied by the Germans for much of World War I, his father was among the men deported by the Germans to Lithuania. Upon the urging of his mother, Lucie Congar née Desoye, Congar recorded the occupation in an extensive series of illustrated diaries which were published, they provide a unique historical insight into the war from a child's point of view. Encouraged by a local priest Daniel Lallement, Congar entered the diocesan seminary. Moving to Paris in 1921, he had Jacques Maritain among his philosophy teachers and the Dominican theologian Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange as a retreat master.

After a year of compulsory military service which Congar spent in the Rhineland, in 1925 he joined the Dominican Order at Amiens where he took Marie-Joseph as his name in religion. Towards the end of his theological studies from 1926–1931 at Le Saulchoir, the Dominican theologate which at the time was located in Kain-la-Tombe and focused on historical theology, Congar was ordained a priest on 25 July 1930 by Luigi Maglione, nuncio in Paris. In 1931 Congar defended his doctoral dissertation written at Le Saulchoir, on the unity of the Church. Congar was a faculty member at Le Saulchoir from 1931 to 1939, moving with the Institution in 1937 from Kain-la-Tombe to Étiolles near Paris. In 1932 he began his teaching career as Professor of Fundamental Theology, conducting a course on ecclesiology. Congar was influenced by the Dominicans Ambroise Gardeil and Marie-Dominique Chenu, by the writings of Johann Adam Möhler, by his ecumenical contacts with Protestant and Eastern Orthodox theologians. Congar concluded that the mission of the church was impeded by what he and Chenu termed “baroque theology."In 1937 Congar founded the Unam Sanctam series, addressing historical themes in Catholic ecclesiology.

These books called for a “return to the sources” to set theological foundations for ecumenism, the series would run to 77 volumes. He wrote for a wide variety of scholarly and popular journals, published numerous books. During World War II Congar was drafted into the French army as a chaplain with the rank of Lieutenant, he was captured and held from 1940 to 1945 as a prisoner of war by the Germans in Colditz and Lübeck's Oflag, after repeated attempts to escape. He was made a Knight of the French Legion of Honour, awarded the Croix de Guerre. In addition he was awarded the Médaille des Évadés for his numerous escape attempts. After the war, Congar continued to teach at Le Saulchoir, returned to France, to write becoming one of the most influential theologians of the 20th century on the topic of the Catholic Church and ecumenism. Congar was an early advocate of the ecumenical movement, encouraging openness to ideas stemming from the Eastern Orthodox Church and Protestant Christianity, he promoted the concept of a "collegial" papacy and criticised the Roman Curia and the clerical pomp that he observed at the Vatican.

He promoted the role of lay people in the church. Congar worked with the founder of the Young Christian Workers, Joseph Cardijn, for decades. From 1947 to 1956 Congar's controversial writing was restricted by the Vatican. One of his most important books True and False Reform in the Church and all of its translations were forbidden by Rome in 1952. Congar was prevented from teaching or publishing after 1954, during the pontificate of Pope Pius XII, following publication of an article in support of the "worker-priest" movement in France, he was subsequently assigned to minor posts in Jerusalem, Rome and Strasbourg. In 1956, Archbishop Jean Julien Weber of Strasbourg assisted Congar in returning to France. Congar's reputation recovered in 1960 when Pope John XXIII invited him to serve on the preparatory theological commission of the Second Vatican Council. Although Congar had little influence on the preparatory schemas, as the council progressed his expertise was recognized and some would regard him as the single most formative influence on Vatican II.

He was a member of several committees that drafted conciliar texts, an experience that he documented in great detail in his daily journal. The journal extended from mid-1960 to December 1965. Following his direction, his journal was not released until 2000, was first published in 2002 as Mon Journal du Concile I-II, présenté et annoté par Éric Mahieu. A one-volume English translation appeared in 2012. Congar wrote a diary during his years of trouble with the Holy Office entitled "Journal d'un théologien 1946-1956, édité et presenté par Étienne Fouilloux." An English translation appeared in 2015. After the council, Congar said "respecting many questions, the council remained incomplete, it began a work, not finished, whether it is a matter of collegiality, of the role of the laity, of missions and of ecumenism." Congar's work focused on the theology of the Holy Spirit, his 3-volume work on the Spirit has become a classic. He was a member of the International Theological Commission from 1969 to 1985.

Congar continued to lecture and write, publishing work on wide-ranging topics including Mary, the Eucharist, lay ministry and the Holy Spirit, as well as his diaries. His works include The Meaning of Trad

John M. Crebs

John Montgomery Crebs was a U. S. Representative from Illinois, as well as an officer and brigade commander in the Union Army during the American Civil War. Born in Middleburg, Crebs moved to Illinois in 1837 with his parents, who settled in White County, he subsequently studied law. He commenced practice in White County. Following the outbreak of the Civil War, Crebs was commissioned as the lieutenant colonel of the 87th Illinois Infantry in 1862, he took part in several leading campaigns and battles in the Western Theater, including the Siege of Corinth, Mississippi, in early 1862 and the Vicksburg Campaign the following year. He was a part of the Union effort to take control of Arkansas late in 1864, he subsequently commanded a brigade of cavalry in the Department of the Gulf until the end of the war. After the close of the war, Crebs resigned his commission and returned to White County, where he resumed the practice of law, he was elected as a Democrat to the Forty-first and Forty-second Congresses, defeating incumbent and fellow former Civil War officer Green Raum in the 1868 election.

He was an unsuccessful candidate for renomination in 1872. Crebs engaged in the practice of his profession until his death in Carmi, Illinois, on June 26, 1890, he was interred in Maple Ridge Cemetery. United States Congress. "John M. Crebs". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved on 2008-02-14 This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov