SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Early Middle Ages

Historians regard the Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, sometimes referred to as the Dark Ages, as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century. They marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history; the alternative term "Late Antiquity" emphasizes elements of continuity with the Roman Empire, while "Early Middle Ages" is used to emphasize developments characteristic of the earlier medieval period. As such the concept overlaps with Late Antiquity, following the decline of the Western Roman Empire, precedes the High Middle Ages; the period saw a continuation of trends evident since late classical antiquity, including population decline in urban centres, a decline of trade, a small rise in global warming and increased migration. In the 19th century the Early Middle Ages were labelled the "Dark Ages", a characterization based on the relative scarcity of literary and cultural output from this time. However, the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantine Empire, continued to survive, though in the 7th century the Rashidun Caliphate and the Umayyad Caliphate conquered swathes of Roman territory.

Many of the listed trends reversed in the period. In 800 the title of "Emperor" was revived in Western Europe with Charlemagne, whose Carolingian Empire affected European social structure and history. Europe experienced a return to systematic agriculture in the form of the feudal system, which adopted such innovations as three-field planting and the heavy plough. Barbarian migration stabilized in much of Europe, although the Viking expansion affected Northern Europe. Starting in the 2nd century, various indicators of Roman civilization began to decline, including urbanization, seaborne commerce, population. Archaeologists have identified only 40 percent as many Mediterranean shipwrecks from the 3rd century as from the first. Estimates of the population of the Roman Empire during the period from 150 to 400 suggest a fall from 65 million to 50 million, a decline of more than 20 percent; some scholars have connected this de-population to the Dark Ages Cold Period, when a decrease in global temperatures impaired agricultural yields.

Early in the 3rd century Germanic peoples migrated south from Scandinavia and reached the Black Sea, creating formidable confederations which opposed the local Sarmatians. In Dacia and on the steppes north of the Black Sea the Goths, a Germanic people, established at least two kingdoms: Therving and Greuthung; the arrival of the Huns in 372–375 ended the history of these kingdoms. The Huns, a confederation of central Asian tribes, founded an empire, they had mastered the difficult art of shooting composite recurve bows from horseback. The Goths sought refuge in Roman territory; however many bribed the Danube border-guards into allowing them to bring their weapons. The discipline and organization of a Roman legion made it a superb fighting unit; the Romans preferred infantry to cavalry because infantry could be trained to retain the formation in combat, while cavalry tended to scatter when faced with opposition. While a barbarian army could be raised and inspired by the promise of plunder, the legions required a central government and taxation to pay for salaries, constant training and food.

The decline in agricultural and economic activity reduced the empire's taxable income and thus its ability to maintain a professional army to defend itself from external threats. In the Gothic War, the Goths revolted and confronted the main Roman army in the Battle of Adrianople. By this time, the distinction in the Roman army between Roman regulars and barbarian auxiliaries had broken down, the Roman army comprised barbarians and soldiers recruited for a single campaign; the general decline in discipline led to the use of smaller shields and lighter weaponry. Not wanting to share the glory, Eastern Emperor Valens ordered an attack on the Therving infantry under Fritigern without waiting for Western Emperor Gratian, on the way with reinforcements. While the Romans were engaged, the Greuthung cavalry arrived. Only one-third of the Roman army managed to escape; this represented the most shattering defeat that the Romans had suffered since the Battle of Cannae, according to the Roman military writer Ammianus Marcellinus.

The core army of the Eastern Roman Empire was destroyed, Valens was killed, the Goths were freed to lay waste to the Balkans, including the armories along the Danube. As Edward Gibbon comments, "The Romans, who so coolly and so concisely mention the acts of justice which were exercised by the legions, reserve their compassion and their eloquence for their own sufferings, when the provinces were invaded and desolated by the arms of the successful Barbarians."The empire lacked the resources, the will, to reconstruct the professional mobile army destroyed at Adrianople, so it had to rely on barbarian armies to fight for it. The Eastern Roman Empire succeeded in buying off the Goths with tribute; the Western Roman Empire proved less fortunate. Stilicho, the western empire's half-Vandal military commander, stripped the Rhine frontier of troops to fend off invasions of Italy by the Visigoths in 402–03 and by other Goths in 406–07. Fleeing before the advance of the Huns, the Vandals and Alans launched an attack across the frozen Rhine near Mainz.

There soon followed the bands of the Alamanni. In the fit of anti-barbarian hysteria which followed, the Western Roman Emperor Honorius had Stilicho summarily beheaded. Stilicho submitted his neck, "with a firmness not unworthy of the last

Chinese New Version

The Chinese New Version is a Chinese language Bible translation, completed in 1992 by the Worldwide Bible Society with the assistance of the Lockman Foundation. It was known as the "New Chinese Version", but the English name and abbreviation was changed to avoid confusion with the English New Century Version. John 3:16 神爱世人,甚至把他的独生子赐给他们,叫一切信他的,不至灭亡,反得永生。 It is available in Hong Kong in both the traditional Chinese script and the simplified Chinese used in mainland China - although the version is not approved for use in China by the Three Self Patriotic Movement; the most popular Chinese Bible in mainland China remains the older Chinese Union Version, secondly the produced Today's Chinese Version. The Three Self Church discourages use of the Chinese New Version and other unlicensed versions, but in Taiwan and Hong Kong the CNV has found a following in evangelical circles; the Sword Project and Olive Tree Bible Software both have modules for both the New Chinese Version and the Union Version of the Bible.

More these bibles were made available for parallel searching at BibleHunter.com & Holy-Bibles.net. Chinese Bible Translations wwbibleus.org

Khanty language

Khanty known as Ostyak, is the Uralic language spoken by the Khanty people. It is spoken in Khanty–Mansi and Yamalo-Nenets autonomous okrugs as well as in Aleksandrovsky and Kargosoksky districts of Tomsk Oblast in Russia. According to the 1994 Salminen and Janhunen study, there were 12,000 Khanty-speaking people in Russia; the Khanty language has many dialects. The western group includes the Obdorian, Ob, Irtysh dialects; the eastern group includes the Surgut and Vakh-Vasyugan dialects, which, in turn, are subdivided into thirteen other dialects. All these dialects differ from each other by phonetic and lexical features to the extent that the three main "dialects" are mutually unintelligible. Thus, based on their significant multifactorial differences, Eastern and Southern Khanty could be considered separate but related languages. Cyrillic Cyrillic Latin The Khanty written language was first created after the October Revolution on the basis of the Latin script in 1930 and with the Cyrillic alphabet from 1937.

Khanty literary works are written in three Northern dialects, Kazym and Middle Ob. Newspaper reporting and broadcasting are done in the Kazymian dialect. Khanty is divided in three main dialect groups, which are to a large degree mutually unintelligible, therefore best considered three languages: Northern and Eastern. Individual dialects are named after the rivers they were spoken on. Southern Khanty is extinct by now. Eastern KhantyFar Eastern Surgut transitional: Salym Western Khanty Northern Khanty Obdorsk Berjozov, Sherkal transitional: Atlym, Nizyam Southern Khanty: Upper Demjanka, Lower Demjanka, Cingali, KrasnojarskThe Salym dialect can be classified as transitional between Eastern and Southern; the Atlym and Nizyam dialects show some Southern features. Southern and Northern Khanty share various innovations and can be grouped together as Western Khanty; these include loss of full front rounded vowels: *üü, *öö, *ɔ̈ɔ̈ > *ii, *ee, *ää, loss of vowel harmony, fricativization of *k to /x/ adjacent to back vowels, the loss of the *ɣ phoneme.

A general feature of all Khanty varieties is that while long vowels are not distinguished, a contrast between plain vowels vs. reduced or extra-short vowels is found. This corresponds to an actual length distinction in Khanty's close relative Mansi. According to scholars who posit a common Ob-Ugric ancestry for the two, this was the original Proto-Ob-Ugric situation. Palatalization of consonants is phonemic in Khanty. Retroflex consonants are found in most varieties of Khanty. Khanty word stress is on the initial syllable. 19 consonants are reconstructed for Proto-Khanty, listed with the traditional UPA transcription shown above and an IPA transcription shown below. A major consonant isogloss among the Khanty varieties is the reflexation of the lateral consonants, *ɬ and *l; these merge, however with varying results: /l/ in the Obdorsk and Far Eastern dialects, /ɬ/ in the Kazym and Surgut dialects, /t/ elsewhere. The Vasjugan dialect still retains the distinction word-initially, having instead shifted *ɬ > /j/ in this position.

The palatalized lateral *ľ developed to /lʲ/ in Far Eastern and Obdorsk, /ɬʲ/ in Kazym and Surgut, /tʲ/ elsewhere. The retroflex lateral *ḷ remains in Far Eastern, but in /t/-dialects develops into a new plain /l/. Other dialect isoglosses include the development of original *ć to a palatalized stop /tʲ/ in Eastern and Southern Khanty, but to a palatalized sibilant /sʲ ~ ɕ/ in Northern, the development of original *č to a sibilant /ʂ/ in Northern Khanty also in Southern Khanty; the Vakh dialect is divergent. It has rigid vowel harmony and a tripartite case system: The subject of a transitive verb takes the instrumental case suffix -nə-, while the object takes the accusative case suffix; the subject of an intransitive verb, however, is not marked for case and might be said to be absolutive. The transitive verb agrees with the subject, as in nominative–accusative systems. Vakh has the richest vowel inventory, with four reduced vowels /ĕ ø̆ ɑ̆ ŏ/ and full /i y ɯ u e ø o æ ɑ/; some researchers report /œ ɔ/.

Notes: / tʲ / can be realized as an affricate in the Agan sub-dialects. The velar/uvular contrast is predictable in inherited vocabulary: appears before back vowels, before front and central vowels. However, in loanwords from Russian, may be found before back vowels; the phonemic status of is not clear. It occurs in some words in variation in others in variation with. In the Pim sub-dialect, /ɬ/ has shifted to /t/, a change that has spread from Southern Khanty; the labialized postvelar approximant occurs in the Tremjugan sub-dialect as an allophone of /w/ between back vowels, for some speakers word-initially before back vowels. Research from the early 20th century reported two other labialized phonemes: /kʷ~qʷ/ and /ŋʷ/, but these are no longer distinguished; the Kazym dialect distinguishes 18 consonants. The vowel inventory is much simplified. Eight vowels are distinguished in initial syllables: four full /e a ɒ o/ and four reduced /ĭ ă ŏ ŭ/. In unstressed syllables, four