Early Modern English or Early New English is the stage of the English language from the beginning of the Tudor period to the English Interregnum and Restoration, or from the transition from Middle English, in the late 15th century, to the transition to Modern English, in the mid-to-late 17th century. Before and after the accession of James I to the English throne in 1603, the emerging English standard began to influence the spoken and written Middle Scots of Scotland; the grammatical and orthographical conventions of literary English in the late 16th century and the 17th century are still influential on modern Standard English. Most modern readers of English can understand texts written in the late phase of Early Modern English, such as the King James Bible and the works of William Shakespeare, they have influenced Modern English. Texts from the earlier phase of Early Modern English, such as the late-15th century Le Morte d'Arthur and the mid-16th century Gorboduc, may present more difficulties but are still closer to Modern English grammar and phonology than are 14th-century Middle English texts, such as the works of Geoffrey Chaucer.
The change from Middle English to Early Modern English was not just a matter of changes of vocabulary or pronunciation. An era of linguistic change in a language with large variations in dialect was replaced by a new era of a more standardised language, with a richer lexicon and an established literature. 1476 – William Caxton starts printing in Westminster. 1485 – Caxton publishes Thomas Malory's Le Morte d'Arthur, the first print bestseller in English. Malory's language, while archaic in some respects, is Early Modern and is a Yorkshire or Midlands dialect. 1491 or 1492 – Richard Pynson starts printing in London. C. 1509 – Pynson becomes the King's official printer. From 1525 – Publication of William Tyndale's Bible translation, banned. 1539 – Publication of the Great Bible, the first officially-authorised Bible in English. Edited by Myles Coverdale, it is from the work of Tyndale, it is read to congregations in churches, which familiarises much of the population of England with a standard form of the language.
1549 – Publication of the first Book of Common Prayer in English, under the supervision of Thomas Cranmer, which standardises much of the wording of church services. Some have argued that since attendance at prayer book services was required by law for many years, the repetitive use of its language helped to standardise Modern English more than the King James Bible did. 1557 – Publication of Tottel's Miscellany. Elizabethan era 1582 – The Rheims and Douai Bible is completed, the New Testament is released in Rheims, France, in 1582, it is the first complete English translation of the Bible, sponsored and carried out by the Catholic Church. Though the Old Testament is ready complete, it is not published until 1609–1610, when it is released in two volumes, it does not make a large impact on the English language at large, it plays a role in the development of English in the world's heavily-Catholic English-speaking areas. Christopher Marlowe, fl. 1586–1593 1592 – The Spanish Tragedy by Thomas Kyd c. 1590 to c. 1612 – Shakespeare's plays written.
1609 – Shakespeare's sonnets published Other playwrights: Ben Jonson Thomas Dekker Beaumont and Fletcher John Webster 1607 – The first successful permanent English colony in the New World, Jamestown, is established in Virginia. Early vocabulary specific to American English comes from indigenous languages. 1611 – The King James Bible is published based on Tyndale's translation. It remains the standard Bible in the Church of England for many years. 1623 – Shakespeare's First Folio published 1630–1651 – William Bradford, Governor of Plymouth Colony, writes in his journal. It will become Of one of the earliest texts written in the American Colonies. 1647 – Publication of the first Beaumont and Fletcher folio. The English Civil War and the Interregnum were times of social and political upheaval and instability; the dates for Restoration literature are a matter of convention and differ markedly from genre to genre. In drama, the "Restoration" may last until 1700, but in poetry, it may last only until 1666, the annus mirabilis, prose, it last until 1688, with the increasing tensions over succession and the corresponding rise in journalism and periodicals, or until 1700, when those periodicals grew more stabilised.
1651 – Publication of Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes. 1660–1669 – Samuel Pepys writes in his diary, which will become an important eyewitness account of the Restoration Era. 1662 – New edition of the Book of Common Prayer based on the 1549 and subsequent editions, which long remains a standard work in English. 1667 – Publication of Paradise Lost by John Milton and of Annus Mirabilis by John Dryden. The 17th-century port towns and their forms of speech gain influence over the old county towns. From around the 1690s onwards, England experienced a new period of internal peace and relative stability, which encouraged the arts including literature. Modern English can be taken to have emerged b
George Forrest VC was born St Michael's, Dublin and was an Irish recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. Forrest was about 57 years old, a lieutenant in the Bengal Veteran Establishment, Bengal Army during the Indian Mutiny when the following deed took place on 11 May 1857 at Delhi, India for which he was awarded the VC. Lieutenant Forrest was one of nine men who defended the Magazine for more than five hours against large numbers of rebels, until, on the wall being scaled and there being no hope of help, they fired the Magazine. Five of the defending band died in the explosion and one shortly afterwards, but many of the enemy were killed. See John Buckley and William Raynor, his citation in the London Gazette reads:For gallant conduct in the defence of the Delhi Magazine, on 11 May 1857. Forrest achieved the rank of captain and died at Dehra Dun, India, on 3 November 1859.
Listed in order of publication year The Register of the Victoria Cross Clarke, Brian D. H.. "A register of awards to Irish-born officers and men". The Irish Sword. XVI: 185–287. Ireland's VCs Monuments to Courage Irish Winners of the Victoria Cross
Carrément à l'Ouest is a 2001 French comedy drama directed and written by Jacques Doillon. It was screened in the Un Certain Regard section at the 2001 Cannes Film Festival. Lou Doillon as Fred Caroline Ducey as Silvia Guillaume Saurrel as Alex Camille Clavel as François, the student Xavier Villeneuve as Xavier, Alex's brother Hafed Benotman as Ben, François's friend Joshua Phillips as Hotel clerk Antoine Chain as Customer Arthur Chain as Hotel bellboy Aurore Giradolle as Girl in night-club Hervé Duhamel as Cash machine customer Hassan Dramé as 18 Arrondissement boy Carrément à l'Ouest on IMDb Carrément à l'Ouest at AllMovie Carrément à l'Ouest at the British Film Institute's Film and TV Database Carrément à l'Ouest at Films de France