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Early modern Europe

Early modern Europe is the period of European history between the end of the Middle Ages and the beginning of the Industrial Revolution the late 15th century to the late 18th century. Historians variously mark the beginning of the early modern period with the invention of moveable type printing in the 1450s, the Fall of Constantinople in 1453, the end of the Wars of the Roses in 1487, the beginning of the High Renaissance in Italy in the 1490s, the end of the Reconquista and subsequent voyages of Christopher Columbus to the Americas in 1492, or the start of the Protestant Reformation in 1517; the precise dates of its end point vary and are linked with either the start of the French Revolution in 1789 or with the more vaguely defined beginning of the Industrial Revolution in late 18th century England. Some of the more notable trends and events of the early modern period included the Reformation and the religious conflicts it provoked, the rise of capitalism and modern nation states, widespread witch hunts and European colonization of the Americas.

The early modern period was characterized by profound changes in many realms of human endeavor. Among the most important include the development of science as a formalized practice rapid technological progress, the establishment of secularized civic politics, law courts and the nation state. Capitalist economies began to develop in a nascent form, first in the northern Italian republics such as Genoa and Venice as well as in the cities of the Low Countries, in France and England; the early modern period saw the rise and dominance of the economic theory of mercantilism. As such, the early modern period is associated with the decline and eventual disappearance of feudalism and serfdom; the Protestant Reformation altered the religious balance of Christendom, creating a formidable new opposition to the dominance of the Catholic Church in Northern Europe. The early modern period witnessed the circumnavigation of the Earth and the establishment of regular European contact with the Americas and South and East Asia.

The ensuing rise of global systems of international economic and intellectual exchange played an important role in the development of capitalism and represents the earliest phase of globalization. Regardless of the precise dates used to define its beginning and end points, the early modern period is agreed to have comprised the Renaissance, the Reformation, the Scientific Revolution, the Enlightenment; as such, historians have attributed a number of fundamental changes to the period, notably the rapid progress of science and technology, the secularization of politics, the diminution of the absolute authority of the Roman Catholic Church as well as the lessening of the influence of all faiths upon national governments. Many historians have identified the early modern period as the epoch in which individuals began to think of themselves as belonging to a national polity—a notable break from medieval modes of self-identification, based upon religion, language, or feudal allegiance; the beginning of the early modern period is not clear-cut, but is accepted to be in the late 15th century or early 16th century.

Significant dates in this transitional phase from medieval to early modern Europe can be noted: 1450The invention of the first European movable type printing process by Johannes Gutenberg, a device that fundamentally changed the circulation of information. Movable type, which allowed individual characters to be arranged to form words and, an invention separate from the printing press, had been invented earlier in China.1453The conquest of Constantinople by the Ottomans signalled the end of the Byzantine empire. The end date of the early modern period is variously associated with the Industrial Revolution, which began in Britain in about 1750, or the beginning of the French Revolution in 1789, which drastically transformed the state of European politics and ushered in the Napoleonic Era and modern Europe; the role of nobles in the Feudal System had yielded to the notion of the Divine Right of Kings during the Middle Ages. Among the most notable political changes included the abolition of serfdom and the crystallization of kingdoms into nation-states.

More with the advent of the Reformation, the notion of Christendom as a unified political entity was destroyed. Many kings and rulers use

Chennai–Alleppey Express

Alleppey Express is one of the oldest trains in the Southern Railway zone of the Indian Railways that runs from Chennai to Alappuzha. The train was introduced in 1977; the Government of Kerala, in 2012, has asked an extension of this train to Vikram Sarabhai Terminal in the state capital of Thiruvananthapuram. Alleppey Express earlier used to run from Chennai to Kochi; the train's assigned number is 22639. The corresponding Chennai SuperFast Express runs from Alleppey to Chennai. 2 2-tier AC coaches 4 3-tier AC coaches 12 second class sleeper coaches 5 General Compartment 22639- Departs from Chennai Central at 21:05 and arrives Alappuzha at 10:40 A. M next day. 22640- Departs from Alappuzha at 16:05 and arrives Chennai Central at 05:50 A. M next day. Trivandrum Mail Guruvayur Express West Coast Express Kerala Express Cheran Express Nilgiri Express Alleppey Express Route

Johann Hoffmann (footballer)

Johann "Hans" Hoffmann was an Austrian footballer. In the 1920s Hoffmann won 2 national Austrian titles with SK Rapid Wien. In 1929 Hoffmann had his sole start for the Austrian national selection. In the 1930s Hoffmann won both the German-bohemian champions title and the French champions title with different clubs. In November 1925, at the age of 17 Hoffmann had his first cap for the starting 11 of SK Rapid Wien in the position of center forward, he racked up 9 goals in his first season. In 1927 Hoffmann garnered his first title with a 3:0 win over FK Austria Wien in the Austrian's Soccer Associations cup final. In the same year SK Rapid Wien participated in the Mitropa Cup where Hoffmann scored 4 goals in the first round against Hajduk Split but didn't start in the final against AC Sparta Prague. In the following years Hoffmann played the right mid-fielder for SK Rapid Wien but was not a guaranteed starter in that position. Up to 1931 he won two Austrian national championships with SK Rapid Wien.

In 1932 after losing his starting position he transferred to DSV Saaz in Bohemia with whom he won 2 league titles. In 1936, Hoffmann transferred to French first division team RC Strasbourg with whom in his first season they finished 3rd and in the following year 6th in the French premier division. In the same season RC Strasbourg lost 1:2 in the French Cup final against FC Sochaux; the following season Hoffmann won the French championship title. After his playing Career came to an end he returned to Vienna and coached the SC Weiße Elf Wien. 2 × Mitropacup finalist: 1927, 1928 2 × Austrian Champion: 1929, 1930 1 × French Champion: 1938 2 × German-Bohemian Champion: 1934, 1935 1 × Austrian-Cup winner: 1927 1 × German-Bohemian Cup winner: 1934 1 start for Austria's National team: 1929 Xander Schauffele Johann Hoffmann