In baseball statistics, earned run average is the average of earned runs given up by a pitcher per nine innings pitched. It is determined by dividing the number of earned runs allowed by the number of innings pitched and multiplying by nine. Runs resulting from passed balls or defensive errors are recorded as unearned runs and omitted from ERA calculations. Henry Chadwick is credited with devising the statistic, which caught on as a measure of pitching effectiveness after relief pitching came into vogue in the 1900s. Prior to 1900—and, in fact, for many years afterward—pitchers were expected to pitch a complete game, their win-loss record was considered sufficient in determining their effectiveness. After pitchers like James Otis Crandall and Charley Hall made names for themselves as relief specialists, gauging a pitcher's effectiveness became more difficult using the traditional method of tabulating wins and losses; some criterion was needed to capture the apportionment of earned-run responsibility for a pitcher in games that saw contributions from other pitchers for the same team.
Since pitchers have primary responsibility for putting opposing batters out, they must assume responsibility when a batter they do not retire at the plate moves to base, reaches home, scoring a run. A pitcher is assessed an earned run for each run scored by a batter who reaches base while batting against that pitcher; the National League first tabulated official earned run average statistics in 1912, the American League accepted this standard and began compiling ERA statistics. Written baseball encyclopedias display ERAs for earlier years, but these were computed retroactively. Negro League pitchers are rated by RA, or total runs allowed, since the statistics available for Negro League games did not always distinguish between earned and unearned runs; as with batting average, the definition of a good ERA varies from year to year. During the dead-ball era of the 1900s and 1910s, an ERA below 2.00 was considered good. In the late 1920s and through the 1930s, when conditions of the game changed in a way that favored hitters, a good ERA was below 4.00.
In the 1960s, sub-2.00 ERAs returned, as other influences such as ballparks with different dimensions were introduced. In 2019, an ERA under 4.00 is again considered good. The single-season record for the lowest ERA is held by Dutch Leonard, who in 1914 had an earned run average of 0.96, pitching 224.2 innings with a win-loss record of 19-5. The all-time record for the lowest single season earned run average by a pitcher pitching 300 or more innings is 1.12, set by Bob Gibson in 1968. The record for the lowest career earned run average is 1.82, held by Ed Walsh, who played from 1904 through 1917. Some researchers dissent from the official Major League Baseball record and claim that the pitcher with the all-time lowest earned run average is Tim Keefe, who had an earned run average of 0.86 in 1880 while appearing in 12 of his team's 83 games and pitching 105 innings. But a purported record based on so few innings pitched is misleading. Over the years, more than a dozen part-time pitchers have pitched 105 or more innings and had an earned run average lower than 0.86.
Major League Baseball recognizes many records from the 19th century—including Will White's 1879 record of 680 innings pitched, Charles Radbourn's 1884 record of 59 wins, Pud Galvin's 1883 record for 75 games started, but does not recognize Keefe as the pitcher having the all-time lowest single season earned run average. Some sources may list players with infinite ERAs; this can happen. Additionally, an undefined ERA occurs at the beginning of a baseball season, it is sometimes incorrectly displayed as zero or as the lowest ranking ERA though it is more akin to the highest. At times it can be misleading to judge relief pitchers on ERA, because they are charged only for runs scored by batters who reached base while batting against them. Thus, if a relief pitcher enters the game with his team leading by 1 run, with 2 outs and the bases loaded, gives up a single which scores 2 runs, he is not charged with those runs. If he retires the next batter, his ERA for that game will be 0.00 despite having surrendered the lead.
Starting pitchers operate under the same rules but are not called upon to start pitching with runners on base. In addition, relief pitchers know beforehand that they will only be pitching for a short while, allowing them to exert themselves more for each pitch, unlike starters who need to conserve their energy over the course of a game in case they are asked to pitch 7 or more innings; the reliever's freedom to use their maximum energy for a few innings, or for just a few batters, helps relievers keep their ERAs down. ERA, taken by itself, can be misleading when trying to objectively judge starting pitchers, though not to the extent seen with relief pitchers; the advent of the designated hitter rule in the American League in 1973 made the pitching environment different. Since pitchers spending all or most of their careers in the AL have been at a disadvantage in maintaining
Naperville Community Unit School District 203 is a school district headquartered in Naperville, United States. District 203, established in 1972 through the merger of elementary and high school districts, serves central Naperville. All but two of the district's buildings are within the limits of the city of Naperville. Kennedy Junior High School is in Lisle. Steeple Run is in an unincorporated portion of Lisle Township in DuPage County; the current District 203 school buildings were constructed between 1928 and 2010. Additionally, throughout the district's history they have conducted many renovations and additions to schools. For information about renovations and additions to Naperville Central High School or Naperville North High School see their Wikipedia pages. For information on the 2010 additions and construction of the Ann Reid E. C. C. Visit Building the Future on District 203's website. Dan Bridges has served as Superintendent since the 2012-2013 school year. Called Naperville Community High School Naperville Community Unit School District 203 The City of Naperville
Microgomphus souteri is a species of small dragonfly in the family Gomphidae. It is endemic to the forest streams of Western Ghats of India, it is a small dragonfly with bottle-green eyes. Its thorax is black with interrupted mesothoracic collar and narrow ante-humeral stripes. There is a broad black stripe on postero-lateral suture. Abdomen is black, marked with greenish yellow. Segment 1 has a narrow apical border. Segment 2 has a broad basal ring. Segments 3 to 6 have narrow basal rings. Segment 7 is broader. Segments 8 to 10 are unmarked. Female is similar to the male, it looks similar to Microgomphus torquatus. Superior appendages have the inner branches much longer, springing from the appendages much nearer the base, extending beyond their apices; the small outer spine near the apex is much more noticeable. Inferior appendage is more robust and longer, it is distinguished from other similar Gomphidae by the shape of the anal appendages. It is seen resting on stones or rocks in the stream bed. List of odonates of India List of odonata of Kerala
Johanna "Hanna" Schnarf is a World Cup alpine ski racer from Italy. She focuses on the speed events of super-G and downhill and the combined. Born in Brixen, South Tyrol, Schnarf made her World Cup debut at age 20 in December 2004, she competed for Italy at the 2010 Winter Olympics and 2018 Winter Olympics, finished fourth in the super-G, missing the bronze medal by 0.11 seconds, was eighth in the combined. Schnarf has raced in five world championships, with two top tens in the combined. 2 podiums – Johanna Schnarf at the International Ski Federation Johanna Schnarf World Cup standings at the International Ski Federation Johanna Schnarf at Ski-DB Alpine Ski Database Johanna Schnarf at Olympics at Sports-Reference.com Italian Winter Sports Federation – – alpine skiing – Johanna Schnarf – Official website –
Cyril Edward Williams was an English footballer who played as an inside left. He made over 360 Football League appearances in the years after the Second World War; when on song Cyril Williams, known as "Twinkletoes" by the Bristol City fans, could tackle briskly, torment opponents with a bewitching dribble followed by an accurate imaginative pass with judged weight. Williams was a humorous quick witted individual who it is said once pleaded "You can't do that on Christmas Day" with a referee about to send City goalkeeper Frank Clack off after a fracas at a Christmas Day match in 1948 at Aldershot; the referee reversed his City left with a 0 -- 0 draw. At his most dangerous when a forward, like John Atyeo, nodded a hefty City clearance down to Williams who would place a precision through ball for the knowing forward to sprint on to. Cyril Williams played locally in Bristol. Bob Hewison signed Williams in May 1939 for Bristol City without making the first team in the three league matches in the truncated 1939–40 season.
Williams played as a guest for Tottenham Hotspur during the Second World War. During the 1939–1945 war time Williams made 53 appearances scoring 21 goals in regional league matches, 13 appearances scoring 6 goals in other leagues and 28 appearances scoring 11 goals in war time cup competitions for Bristol City. Cyril Williams continued his career for Bristol City after the war. Cyril Williams made his League debut at inside left in a 3–4 defeat at Aldershot on 31 August 1946 at the age of 24 years; when Bristol City finished 3rd in the Division Three South Williams made 41 appearances, missing only one match, scoring 17 goals including a hat-trick in the 3–1 win at Mansfield Town on 17 May 1947. Williams was part of a goalscoring forward trio of Bill Thomas 14 goals and Don Clark a record 36 goals as Bristol City were highest scorers in the Division with 94 goals; the following season inside right Len Townsend joined from Brentford F. C. Willams 10 goals from 37 appearances; this trio scored 63 of the 77 League goals in 1947–48.
Williams scored an FA Cup hat-trick in a 9–2 win v Dartford in a 1st round replay on 6 December 1947. Townsend & Clark scored hat-tricks v Dartford in the same game. In June 1948 Cyril Williams moved to West Bromwich Albion in exchange for Cliff Edwards plus £500. There was thunderous wrath among "Robins" fans at the sale of their ball playing schemer with the silky skills, the creative force behind the ascent up the Third Division South table since the war. West Bromwich Albion finished as runners up in the Second Division in 1948–49 with Williams making 31 appearances scoring 9 goals including another hat-trick in a 5–2 win v Grimsby Town on 11 December 1948. Williams played in all 4 FA Cup ties as West Brom reached the 6th round losing 0–1 at Wolverhampton Wanderers. Playing in the First Division in 1949–50 Williams made 26 appearances scoring 8 goals. After 14 appearances scoring two goals in 1950–51 for West Brom Cyril Williams moved back to Bristol City in August 1951 for £4,500. Williams scored on his return in a 3–1 win v Newport County on 18 August 1951.
He played in both inside forward and wing half positions in making 39 appearances scoring 6 goals in 1951–52. The following season Bristol City rose to 5th place in the Third Division South, near neighbours Bristol Rovers finished as champions, Williams made 42 appearances outscoring John Atyeo with 17 goals including a hat-trick in a 5–0 win v Crystal Palace on 13 September 1952. In 1953–54 Williams played first at left half at inside left making 39 appearances scoring 4 goals with Bristol City rising to 3rd place; when Bristol City won promotion as Third Division South champions in 1954–55 Williams again made 39 appearances scoring 4 goals starting at inside left and ending as left half. In 1955–56 in the Second Division Williams played as left half making 34 appearances and 3 goals; the following season in 1956–57 Williams made 22 appearances scoring 8 goals but only made 3 appearances in his final season at Bristol City in 1957–58. In July 1958 Williams was appointed player manager of Chippenham Town in the Western League.
In August 1966 he spent a single season as manager of Gloucester City in the Southern League Midland Division. After football Cyril Williams ran the Greylands Hotel in Weston-super-Mare before his tragic death in a car crash in January 1980. Alec Briggs a Bristol City full back of the 1960s was married to a daughter of Cyril Williams. With West Bromwich AlbionFootball League Second Division runners up: 1948–49with Bristol CityFootball League Third Division South winner: 1954–55
Muralidhar Rao is an Indian political activist and politician serving as a National General-Secretary of the Bharatiya Janata Party. Prior to joining the BJP, Rao was active in the Swadeshi Jagaran Manch, where he was its Organising Secretary, as well as in other affiliates of the Hindu nationalist organisation Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh. Muralidhar Rao is the son of a farmer at Korapalli village in Karimnagar district, he did his undergraduate studies in Warangal and postgraduate studies in Osmania University, receiving an MA in Philosophy in 1985 and an MPhil in 1986. Rao joined the Indian cultural volunteer organisation Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh at a young age and became its pracharak. Deputed to northern states by the RSS, he was recognised for his skills in organising students. While at Osmania University, he served as the Gen Secretary of Arts College student's union and an activist of Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad. Student politics Muralidhar Rao joined the RSS at a young age, he led ABVP in Hyderabad.
He was general secretary of Osmania University Student's Union in 1984. Assassination attempt Naxals fired at him at point blank range in Nov 1986 on OU Campus. Heading North The ABVP deputed him to Rajasthan in 1987, his remarkable organising skills won. Fighting insurgents The ABVP moved him to J&K in 1991, when there were pressing demands due to insurgency, he rallied the youth against fundamentalist forces, despite threats to his life from jihadists. He assisted RSS leaders Dattopant Thengadi, Madan Das and S Gurumurthy in floating Swadeshi Jagaran Manch, a movement to protect Indian rural economy against the onslaught of globalisation. Muralidhar Rao joined BJP in January 2009 as attaché to the president Rajnath Singh. In 2010, he was made national secretary by Nitin Gadkari. Appointed one of the BJP general secretaries on 1 March 2013. Muralidhar Rao was in contention for the post of the BJP President, after the 2014 Lok Sabha elections saw Rajnath Singh becoming the Union Home Minister. Positions held 2009: Attaché to BJP President.
2010: National secretary, BJP 2013: National General-Secretary, BJP Official website