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Earth's rotation

Earth's rotation is the rotation of Planet Earth around its own axis. Earth rotates eastward, in prograde motion; as viewed from the north pole star Polaris, Earth turns counterclockwise. The North Pole known as the Geographic North Pole or Terrestrial North Pole, is the point in the Northern Hemisphere where Earth's axis of rotation meets its surface; this point is distinct from Earth's North Magnetic Pole. The South Pole is the other point where Earth's axis of rotation intersects its surface, in Antarctica. Earth rotates once in about 24 hours with respect to the Sun, but once every 23 hours, 56 minutes, 4 seconds with respect to other, stars. Earth's rotation is slowing with time; this is due to the tidal effects. Atomic clocks show that a modern-day is longer by about 1.7 milliseconds than a century ago increasing the rate at which UTC is adjusted by leap seconds. Analysis of historical astronomical records shows a slowing trend of about 2.3 milliseconds per century since the 8th century BCE.

Among the ancient Greeks, several of the Pythagorean school believed in the rotation of Earth rather than the apparent diurnal rotation of the heavens. The first was Philolaus, though his system was complicated, including a counter-earth rotating daily about a central fire. A more conventional picture was that supported by Hicetas and Ecphantus in the fourth century BCE who assumed that Earth rotated but did not suggest that Earth revolved about the Sun. In the third century BCE, Aristarchus of Samos suggested the Sun's central place. However, Aristotle in the fourth century BCE criticized the ideas of Philolaus as being based on theory rather than observation, he established the idea of a sphere of fixed stars. This was accepted by most of those who came after, in particular Claudius Ptolemy, who thought Earth would be devastated by gales if it rotated. In 499 CE, the Indian astronomer Aryabhata wrote that the spherical Earth rotates about its axis daily, that the apparent movement of the stars is a relative motion caused by the rotation of Earth.

He provided the following analogy: "Just as a man in a boat going in one direction sees the stationary things on the bank as moving in the opposite direction, in the same way to a man at Lanka the fixed stars appear to be going westward."In the 10th century, some Muslim astronomers accepted that Earth rotates around its axis. According to al-Biruni, Abu Sa'id al-Sijzi invented an astrolabe called al-zūraqī based on the idea believed by some of his contemporaries "that the motion we see is due to the Earth's movement and not to that of the sky." The prevalence of this view is further confirmed by a reference from the 13th century which states: "According to the geometers, the Earth is in constant circular motion, what appears to be the motion of the heavens is due to the motion of the Earth and not the stars." Treatises were written to discuss its possibility, either as refutations or expressing doubts about Ptolemy's arguments against it. At the Maragha and Samarkand observatories, Earth's rotation was discussed by Qushji.

In medieval Europe, Thomas Aquinas accepted Aristotle's view and so, did John Buridan and Nicole Oresme in the fourteenth century. Not until Nicolaus Copernicus in 1543 adopted a heliocentric world system did the contemporary understanding of Earth's rotation begin to be established. Copernicus pointed out that if the movement of Earth is violent the movement of the stars must be much more so, he pointed to examples of relative motion. For Copernicus this was the first step in establishing the simpler pattern of planets circling a central Sun. Tycho Brahe, who produced accurate observations on which Kepler based his laws, used Copernicus's work as the basis of a system assuming a stationary Earth. In 1600, William Gilbert supported Earth's rotation in his treatise on Earth's magnetism and thereby influenced many of his contemporaries; those like Gilbert who did not support or reject the motion of Earth about the Sun are called "semi-Copernicans". A century after Copernicus, Riccioli disputed the model of a rotating Earth due to the lack of then-observable eastward deflections in falling bodies.

However, the contributions of Kepler and Newton gathered support for the theory of the rotation of Earth. Earth's rotation implies that the geographical poles are flattened. In his Principia, Newton predicted this flattening would occur in the ratio of 1:230, pointed to the pendulum measurements taken by Richer in 1673 as corroboration of the change in gravity, but initial measurements of meridian lengths by Picard and Cassini at the end of the 17th century suggested the opposite. However, measurements by Maupertuis and the French Geodesic Mission in the 1730s established the oblateness of Earth, thus confirming the positions of both Newton and Copernicus. In Earth's rotating frame of reference, a moving body follows an apparent path that deviates from the one it would follow in a fixed frame of reference; because of the Coriolis effect, falling bodies veer eastward from the vertical plumb line below their point of release, projectiles veer right in the Northern Hemisphere from the direction in which they are shot.

The Coriolis effect is observable at a meteorological scale, where it is responsible for the opposite directions of cyclone rotation in the

Erythranthe parishii

Erythranthe parishii is a species of monkeyflower known by the common name Parish's monkeyflower. It was known as Mimulus parishii, it is native to the mountains and hills of the southern half of California, far western Nevada, northern Baja California, where it grows in wet, sandy habitat such as streambanks. The flowers self-pollinate, but the species evolved from an out-crossing ancestor similar to E. lewisii. The flower size reduced as the species transitioned to self-pollination through changes in a number of genes that each have a small effect on the size. Erythranthe parishii is an annual herb growing up to 50 centimeters in maximum height with a stout, hairy stem; the oppositely arranged oval or lance-shaped leaves are up to 7.5 centimeters long. The narrow, tubular base of the flower is encapsulated in a ribbed calyx of sepals with pointed lobes; the five-lobed flower is white tinged with pink. Calflora Database: Mimulus parishii Jepson Manual eFlora treatment of Mimulus parishii USDA Plants Profile for Parish's monkeyflower UC CalPhotos gallery

List of Captain Barbell episodes

Here are the list of Captain Barbell episodes. May 29 – June 2, 2006In a distant future, a time machine hurtles through space, it lands on Earth in the year 1992. Inside are the wife and son of Captain B. Sending them away seems to be the only way to protect them from the clutches of the evil General. Lolo Aloy and Lola Melay find the time machine with the young Arell still inside, they decide to hold on to the child. As time goes on, Teng grows in strength. Only Lolo Aloy is aware of. Teng uses his strength to come to the aid of Leah. Conversely, Clarisse grows further apart from Teng, blaming him for stealing their Lolo's affections from her. Worst of all, Leah gives Teng the bad news. Still, despite the setbacks, Teng grows into a happy young boy, he has Bobby. He has the tutelage of Lola Melay and Lolo Aloy. Little does he know that his life is fraught with danger and that behind every shadow lurks a possible enemy, but a discovery in a junkyard changes Teng's life forever. June 5 -- 9, 2006Captain Barbell discovers.

He uses them to the best of his abilities in his first public appearance – to rescue Cesar and Melay from the falling bridge. Everyone wonders. Captain Barbell wonders if he can protect his true identity from the rest of the world, will he be able to tackle the new responsibilities of being a superhero. June 12 – 16, 2006Captain Barbell runs to Leah's rescue, only to be attacked by Jared, who has transformed into Putakti - a monstrous wasp, he fails to rescue Leah after the wasp's venom gets into his eye, disabling him to transform again into his superhuman form. When Kit tells her father that Jared might be the wasp, Joe goes to Jared's house to investigate, where he discover the truth. Captain Barbell and Putakti battle it out once again, Jared switches back to his human form after Captain Barbell throws him into a river; when Levi sees the helpless Jared, he beats him to a pulp. June 19 – 23, 2006Levi is released from prison with the help of his father. Viel investigates, trying to kill his son.

Kit and Bobby bring their mysterious new friend "Blanca" to the hospital, only to find out that she is well except for her memory loss. Blanca gets to know Sandra and Cesar. Barbara comes to the rescue during Captain Barbell's battle with Tetano, she brings Teng to her home. He begins to wonder; when Teng retrieves the barbell he used to defeat Tetano, he discovers that it has been drained of its powers. Meanwhile, a new villain, emerges from the depths of Viel's technopark, it ruins Teng's chances of finding out what happened to his Lolo Aloy. June 26 -- 30, 2006Bobby realizes, but Teng can rest easy a secret. Meanwhile, Viel asks Barbara. Barbara lies to Viel saying, she can not remember everything but she is sure that she must be someone else. She vows to find out who she is, as well as who the person in her dreams was; the evil apple doesn’t fall far from the tree as Levi attempts to strong-arm Teng into selling the land. His failure only fuels his father's anger. Boris tries to get on Viel's good side by stealing the land title from Teng, except that Teng catches him in the act.

This leads to Teng meeting Barbara. As the two bond, the young hero begins to feel more at home with this woman, and Viel falls sick. Dexter tells Viel. July 3 – 7, 2006Viel's condition worsens and not a blood transfusion from Boris can help, he continues to keep this secret from Levi. When Levi sees him helpless in Boris’ arms, Viel has no ready explanation; this forces both Levi to go on separate fact-finding missions. They begin sharing information, but Barbara finds out much more. Meanwhile, Kit interviews Bubog, back as Narciso, he discovers through Kit. He vows revenge. July 10 – 14, 2006Everyone's head over heels for the hot new physical education teacher in school, Ms. Eros. Little do they know that Ms. Eros was once the obese Ms. Patti, teased as “Aero Biik.” Her transformation is due to the slimming tea she discovered from a plant contaminated with barbanium. She started the slimming hype in school to help out people like her who have been teased about being overweight, she uses her new power as a way of seeking revenge on people who have been mean to her in the past.

Bobby joins the bandwagon. Ms. Eros becomes Aerobika, the super being, obsessed with making everyone sexy – and addicted to her slimming tea! Meanwhile, Viel becomes more powerful with Dexter's new discovery, the crystal acid. Being the scheming villain that he is, Viel uses this for his evil plans. Levi and Clarisse's friendship grows more each day. July 17 – 21, 2006Levi and Teng's friendship gets back on track when Levi saves Teng from drowning in the river contaminated with crystal acid. Aerobika is running out of leaves for her slimming tea, but she still threatens the police that she will do something disastrous unless they give her a chance to date Captain Barbell. Captain Barbell obliges, but the only problem is his date with Aerobika coincides with Teng's date with Leah. Meanwhile, Viel discovers more uses for his crystal acid, which are all potential threats to the community. July 24 – 28, 2006With the help of Viel's breakth