Maiden Castle, Dorset
Maiden Castle is an Iron Age hill fort 2.5 kilometres south west of Dorchester, in the English county of Dorset. Hill forts were fortified hill-top settlements constructed across Britain during the Iron Age, the earliest archaeological evidence of human activity on the site consists of a Neolithic causewayed enclosure and bank barrow. In about 1800 BC, during the Bronze Age, the site was used for growing crops before being abandoned. Maiden Castle itself was built in about 600 BC, the phase was a simple and unremarkable site, similar to many other hill forts in Britain. At the same time, Maiden Castles defences were more complex with the addition of further ramparts. Around 100 BC habitation at the fort went into decline. It was occupied until at least the Roman period, by time it was in the territory of the Durotriges. After the Roman conquest of Britain in the 1st century AD, Maiden Castle appears to have been abandoned, in the late 4th century AD, a temple and ancillary buildings were constructed.
In the 6th century AD the hill top was entirely abandoned and was used only for agriculture during the medieval period, Maiden Castle has provided inspiration for composer John Ireland and authors Thomas Hardy and John Cowper Powys. The study of hill forts was popularised in the 19th century by archaeologist Augustus Pitt Rivers, in the 1930s, archaeologist Mortimer Wheeler and Tessa Verney Wheeler undertook the first archaeological excavations at Maiden Castle, raising its profile among the public. Further excavations were carried out under Niall Sharples, which added to an understanding of the site, today the site is protected as a Scheduled Ancient Monument and is maintained by English Heritage. Before the hill fort was built, a Neolithic causewayed enclosure was constructed on the site. Dating from around 4000 BC, it was an area enclosed by two ditches, It is called a causewayed enclosure because the way the ditches were dug meant that there would originally have been gaps. These gaps, and the bank being only 17 centimetres high, instead the ditches may have been symbolic, separating the interior of the enclosure and its activities from the outside.
Archaeologist Niall Sharples, who was involved in excavating the fort in the 1980s, has identified the hilltop views of the surrounding landscape as a likely factor for the enclosures position. The interior of the enclosure has been disturbed by habitation, the site does not appear to have been inhabited, although a grave containing the remains of two children, aged 6–7, has been discovered. The enclosure is the earliest evidence of activity on the site. The purpose of Neolithic causewayed enclosures is unclear, and they probably had a variety of functions, radiocarbon dating indicates that the enclosure was abandoned around 3,400 BC
Since the 19th century, the prevailing scholarly consensus has been that the mounds were constructed by indigenous peoples of the Americas. Sixteenth-century Spanish explorers made contact with living in a number of Mississippian cities, described their cultures. By the time of United States westward expansion two hundred years later, Native Americans were generally not knowledgeable about the civilizations that produced the mounds and study of these cultures and peoples has been based mostly on archaeology and anthropology. At one time, the mound builder was applied to the people believed to have constructed these earthworks. In the 16th through 19th centuries and Americans generally thought that an other than one related to the historic Native Americans had built the mounds. The namesake cultural trait of the Mound Builders was the building of mounds and these burial and ceremonial structures were typically flat-topped pyramids or platform mounds, flat-topped or rounded cones, elongated ridges, and sometimes a variety of other forms.
They were generally built as part of villages that arose from more dense populations, with a specialization of skills. The early earthworks built in Louisiana c.3500 BCE are the ones known to be built by a hunter-gatherer culture. The best-known flat-topped pyramidal structure, which at over 100 feet tall is the largest pre-Columbian earthwork north of Mexico, is Monks Mound at Cahokia in present-day Collinsville, Illinois. At its peak about 1150 CE, Cahokia was a settlement with 20, 000-30,000 people. Some effigy mounds were constructed in the shapes or outlines of culturally significant animals, the most famous effigy mound, Serpent Mound in southern Ohio, ranges from 1 to just over 3 feet tall. 20 feet wide, over 1,330 feet long, many different tribal groups and chiefdoms, involving an array of beliefs and unique cultures over thousands of years, built mounds as expressions of their cultures. The general term, mound builder, covered their shared architectural practice of earthwork mound construction and this practice, believed to be associated with a cosmology that had a cross-cultural appeal, may indicate common cultural antecedents.
The first mound building was a marker of political and social complexity among the cultures in the Eastern United States. Watson Brake in Louisiana, constructed about 3500 BCE during the Middle Archaic period, is the oldest dated mound complex in North America and it is one of eleven mound complexes from this period found in the Lower Mississippi Valley. We can conclude that these mound builders were very organized people, hundreds or even thousands of workers had to dig up tons of earth with the hand tools available. Then the dirt had to be moved long distances. The most complete reference for these earthworks is Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley, written by Ephraim G. Squier and it was published in 1848 by the Smithsonian
An outer bailey or outer ward is the defended outer enclosure of a castle. It protects the inner bailey and usually contains those buildings used for the management of the castle or the supply of its occupants. In many cases there was a brewery, a bakehouse, an outer bailey was often called a base court in England. Depending on topography it could be referred to as a bailey or lower ward. Chepstow Castle has lower and upper baileys, the domestic buildings of the continental schloss, often a stately home or palace, may be referred to as an outer ward. These frequently contained a house or a cavalier house, buildings that were not common in medieval castles. Large castles often have more than one bailey, examples include Monschau, at some larger castles, markets were held in the outer bailey. Outer baileys were usually enclosed and protected by a wall and separated from the actual living area of the castle - the inner ward and keep - by a moat, a wall. In lowland castles, the bailey is usually arranged in a half-moon shape around the main castle.
Rudelsburg Castle in Saxony-Anhalt is one of the cases of a hill castle where both baileys are at the same level. This explains why the castle chapel was found in the bailey. Ward Inner bailey Motte and bailey Horst Wolfgang Böhme, Reinhard Friedrich, Barbara Schock-Werner, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-15-010547-1, page 255-256. Friedrich-Wilhelm Krahe and tower houses of the German Middle Ages, volume 1 Thorbecke, Stuttgart 2002, ISBN 3-7995-0104-5, page 53-55. Reprint of the edition of 1912, Augsburg 1994, ISBN 3-89350-554-7, pp. 10–11
The Great Serpent Mound is a 1, 348-foot -long, three-foot-high prehistoric effigy mound on a plateau of the Serpent Mound crater along Ohio Brush Creek in Adams County, Ohio. Maintained within a park by the Ohio History Connection, it has designated a National Historic Landmark by the United States Department of Interior. Researchers have attributed construction of the mound to three different prehistoric indigenous cultures, originally thought to be Adena in origin, a 1996 carbon dating study led scholars to believe the mound was built by members of the Fort Ancient culture around 1070 CE. Most recent dating places the mound at around 300 BCE, once again suggesting Adena construction, Serpent Mound is the largest serpent effigy in the world. Including all three parts, the Serpent Mound extends about 1,376 feet, and varies in height from less than a foot to more than three feet, the effigys extreme western feature is a triangular mound approximately 31.6 feet at its base and long axis. There are serpent effigies in Scotland and Ontario that are very similar, in addition, contemporary American Indians have an interest in the site.
Several attributions have been entered by academic and Native American concerns regarding all three of unknown factors of when designed, when built, and by whom. Over the years, scholars have proposed that the mound was built by members of the Adena culture, both Lenape and Iroquois legends tell of the Allegheny or Allegewi People, sometimes called Tallegewi. They were said to have lived in the Ohio Valley in an ancient period, believed pre-Adena. Recently the dating of the site has brought into question. Radiocarbon dating of charcoal discovered within the mound in the 1990s indicated that people worked on the mound circa 1070 AD, researchers first attributed the mound to the Adena culture. William Webb, noted Adena exponent, found evidence through carbon dating for Kentucky Adena as early as 1200 BC, as there are Adena graves near the Serpent Mound, scholars thought the same people constructed the mound. The skeletal remains of the Adena type uncovered in the 1880s at Serpent Mound indicate that people were unique among the ancient Ohio Valley peoples.
It was more than 45 years before scholars paid sufficient attention to the Adena studies, the Adena culture did build some nearby mounds, so for more than 125 years, many scholars thought they created the Serpent Mound as well. The Adena were renowned for their elaborate earthworks and their creation of sacred circles as part of their cosmology, an unrecorded number of their gravesites throughout the greater Ohio Valley were destroyed before any organized archeological supervision performed correct analysis of their contents. Carbon-dating studies published in 1996 of material from the mound appeared to place the Serpent Mound construction as than the span of the Adena and this suggested that a people subsequent to the Adena may have built or refurbished the site for their own uses and purposes. Although a characteristic of excavation at most Adena mounds has been discovery of related artifacts and this study and its inferences drew the attention of many experts and is further discussed below.
Scholars previously thought that the Fort Ancient culture, an Ohio Valley-based, mound-building society, the Fort Ancient culture was influenced by the contemporary Mississippian culture society based along the mid-Mississippi River valley with its North American center at Cahokia
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Native Americans in the United States
In the United States, Native Americans are people descended from the Pre-Columbian indigenous population of the land within the countrys modern boundaries. These peoples were composed of distinct tribes and ethnic groups. Most Native American groups had historically preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, at the time of first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and mostly Christian immigrants. Some of the Northeastern and Southwestern cultures in particular were matrilineal, the majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of property rights with respect to land that were extremely different. Assimilation became a consistent policy through American administrations, during the 19th century, the ideology of manifest destiny became integral to the American nationalist movement.
Expansion of European-American populations to the west after the American Revolution resulted in increasing pressure on Native American lands and this resulted in the ethnic cleansing of many tribes, with the brutal, forced marches coming to be known as The Trail of Tears. As American expansion reached into the West and miner migrants came into increasing conflict with the Great Basin, Great Plains and these were complex nomadic cultures based on horse culture and seasonal bison hunting. Over time, the United States forced a series of treaties and land cessions by the tribes, in 1924, Native Americans who were not already U. S. citizens were granted citizenship by Congress. Contemporary Native Americans have a relationship with the United States because they may be members of nations, tribes. The terms used to refer to Native Americans have at times been controversial, by comparison, the indigenous peoples of Canada are generally known as First Nations. It is not definitively known how or when the Native Americans first settled the Americas and these early inhabitants, called Paleoamericans, soon diversified into many hundreds of culturally distinct nations and tribes.
The archaeological periods used are the classifications of archaeological periods and cultures established in Gordon Willey and Philip Phillips 1958 book Method and they divided the archaeological record in the Americas into five phases, see Archaeology of the Americas. The Clovis culture, a hunting culture, is primarily identified by use of fluted spear points. Artifacts from this culture were first excavated in 1932 near Clovis, the Clovis culture ranged over much of North America and appeared in South America. The culture is identified by the distinctive Clovis point, a flaked flint spear-point with a notched flute, dating of Clovis materials has been by association with animal bones and by the use of carbon dating methods. Recent reexaminations of Clovis materials using improved carbon-dating methods produced results of 11,050 and 10,800 radiocarbon years B. P, other tribes have stories that recount migrations across long tracts of land and a great river, believed to be the Mississippi River.
Genetic and linguistic data connect the people of this continent with ancient northeast Asians
There are three related types of Neolithic earthwork that are all sometimes loosely called henges. The essential characteristic of all three types is that they feature a bank and ditch, but with the ditch inside the bank rather than outside. Due to the poor defensive utility of an enclosure with an external bank, the three types are as follows, with the figure in brackets being the approximate diameter of the central flat area, Henge. There is typically little if any evidence of occupation in a henge, although they may contain ritual structures such as stone circles, Henge monument is sometimes used as a synonym for henge. Henges sometimes, but by no means always, featured stone or timber circles, the three largest stone circles in Britain are each in a henge. Examples of henges without significant internal monuments are the three henges of Thornborough Henges, although having given its name to the word henge, Stonehenge is an atypical henge in that the ditch is outside the main earthwork bank.
Like an ordinary henge except the central area is between 5 and 20 m in diameter, they comprise a modest earthwork with a fairly wide outer bank. Mini henge or Dorchester henge are sometimes used as synonyms for hengiform monument, an example is the Neolithic site at Wormy Hillock Henge. A Neolithic ring earthwork with the ditch inside the bank, with the flat area having abundant evidence of occupation. Some true henges are as large as this, but lack evidence of domestic occupation, super henge is sometimes used as a synonym for a henge enclosure. The word henge is a backformation from Stonehenge, the monument in Wiltshire. Stonehenge is not a true henge as its ditch runs outside its bank, the term was first coined in 1932 by Thomas Kendrick, who became the Keeper of British Antiquities at the British Museum. Sub groups exist for these two or three internal ditches are present rather than one. Henges are usually associated with the Late Neolithic or Early Bronze Age, and especially with the pottery of this period, Grooved Ware, Impressed Wares, sites such as Stonehenge provide evidence of activity from the Bronze Age Wessex culture.
Henges often contain evidence of a variety of features, including timber or stone circles, pits, or burials. A henge should not be confused with a circle within it, as henges. At Arbor Low in Derbyshire, all the stones except one are laid flat and do not seem to have been erected, often only the stone holes remain to indicate a former circle. Later monuments added after the henge was built might include Bronze Age cairns as at Arbor Low and their chronological overlap with older structures makes it difficult to classify them as a coherent tradition
Silbury Hill is a prehistoric artificial chalk mound near Avebury in the English county of Wiltshire. It is part of the Stonehenge and Associated Sites UNESCO World Heritage Site, and lies at grid reference SU099685. At 39.3 metres high, it is the tallest prehistoric man-made mound in Europe and one of the largest in the world, Silbury Hill is part of the complex of Neolithic monuments around Avebury, which includes the Avebury Ring and West Kennet Long Barrow. Its original purpose is still debated, composed mainly of chalk and clay excavated from the surrounding area, the mound stands 40 metres high and covers about 5 acres. The hill was constructed in stages between c. 2400–2300 BC and displays immense technical skill and prolonged control over labour and resources. Archaeologists calculate that it took 18 million man-hours, equivalent to 500 men working for 15 years to deposit and shape 248,000 cubic metres of earth, the base of the hill is circular and 167 metres in diameter. The summit is flat-topped and 30 metres in diameter, a smaller mound was constructed first, and in a phase much enlarged.
There are indications that the top originally had a rounded profile, the first clear evidence of construction, dated to around 2400 BC consisted of a gravel core with a revetting kerb of stakes and sarsen boulders. There have been excavations of the mound. The site was first illustrated by the seventeenth-century antiquarian John Aubrey, whose notes, William Stukeley wrote that a skeleton and bridle had been discovered during tree planting on the summit in 1723. It is probable that this was a later, secondary burial, the excavation came in October 1776 when a team of Cornish miners overseen by the Duke of Northumberland and Colonel Edward Drax sank a vertical shaft from the top. In 1849 a tunnel was dug horizontally from the edge into the centre, other excavations were undertaken in 1867 and 1886. Flinders Petrie investigated the hill after the First World War, in 1968 to 1970 professor Richard J. C. Atkinson undertook work at Silbury which was broadcast on BBC Television. This excavation revealed most of the evidence known about the site.
He argued that the hill was constructed in steps, each tier being filled in with packed chalk, Atkinson reported the C14 date for the base layer of turf and decayed material indicated a corrected date for the commencement of Silbury was close to 2750 BC. After heavy rains in May 2002, a collapse of the 1776 excavation shaft caused a hole to form in the top of the hill, English Heritage undertook a seismic survey of the hill to identify the damage caused by earlier excavations and determine the hills stability. Repairs were undertaken but the site remained closed to the public, as part of this remedial work English Heritage excavated two further small trenches and made the important discovery of an antler fragment, the first from a secure archaeological context at the site. This produced a radiocarbon date of c
Midwestern United States
It was officially named the North Central region by the Census Bureau until 1984. Illinois is the most populous of the states and North Dakota the least, a 2012 report from the United States Census put the population of the Midwest at 65,377,684. The Midwest is divided by the Census Bureau into two divisions, the East North Central Division includes Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin, all of which are part of the Great Lakes region. Major rivers in the include, from east to west, the Ohio River, the Upper Mississippi River. Chicago is the most populated city in the American Midwest and the third most populous in the entire country, other large Midwest cities include, Columbus, Milwaukee, Kansas City, Minneapolis, Wichita and St. Louis. Chicago and its suburbs form the largest metropolitan area with 9.8 million people, followed by Metro Detroit. Paul, Greater St. Louis, Greater Cleveland, Greater Cincinnati, Kansas City metro area, the term Midwestern has been in use since the 1880s to refer to portions of the central United States.
A variant term, Middle West, has used since the 19th century. Another term sometimes applied to the general region is the heartland. Other designations for the region have fallen out of use, such as the Northwest or Old Northwest, the Northwest Territory was one of the earliest territories of the United States, stretching northwest from the Ohio River to northern Minnesota and upper-Mississippi. The upper-Mississippi watershed including the Missouri and Illinois Rivers was the setting for the earlier French settlements of the Illinois Country, economically the region is balanced between heavy industry and agriculture, with finance and services such as medicine and education becoming increasingly important. Its central location makes it a crossroads for river boats, autos, trucks. Politically the region swings back and forth between the parties, and thus is heavily contested and often decisive in elections, after the sociological study Middletown, which was based on Muncie, commentators used Midwestern cities as typical of the nation.
The region has a higher ratio than the Northeast, the West. Traditional definitions of the Midwest include the Northwest Ordinance Old Northwest states, the states of the Old Northwest are known as Great Lakes states and are east-north central in the United States. The Ohio River runs along the section while the Mississippi River runs north to south near the center. Many of the Louisiana Purchase states in the west-north central United States, are known as Great Plains states. The Midwest lies north of the 36°30′ parallel that the 1820 Missouri Compromise established as the line between future slave and non-slave states
Lidar is a surveying method that measures distance to a target by illuminating that target with a laser light. The name lidar, sometimes considered an acronym of Light Detection And Ranging, was originally a portmanteau of light, the technology is used for control and navigation for some autonomous cars. Lidar sometimes is called laser scanning and 3D scanning, with terrestrial and its first applications came in meteorology, where the National Center for Atmospheric Research used it to measure clouds. The general public aware of the accuracy and usefulness of lidar systems in 1971 during the Apollo 15 mission. Although some sources treat the word lidar as an acronym, the term originated as a portmanteau of light, the first published mention of lidar, in 1963, makes this clear, Eventually the laser may provide an extremely sensitive detector of particular wavelengths from distant objects. Meanwhile, it is being used to study the moon by lidar, the Oxford English Dictionary supports this etymology.
Currently no consensus exists on capitalization, reflecting uncertainty about whether or not lidar is an acronym, various publications refer to lidar as LIDAR, LiDAR, LIDaR, or Lidar. Lidar uses ultraviolet, visible, or near infrared light to image objects and it can target a wide range of materials, including non-metallic objects, rain, chemical compounds, aerosols and even single molecules. A narrow laser-beam can map physical features with high resolutions, for example. Lidar has been used extensively for research and meteorology. Lidar instruments fitted to aircraft and satellites carry out surveying and mapping – a recent example being the U. S. Geological Survey Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar, NASA has identified lidar as a key technology for enabling autonomous precision safe landing of future robotic and crewed lunar-landing vehicles. Wavelengths vary to suit the target, from about 10 micrometers to the UV, typically light is reflected via backscattering, as opposed to pure reflection one might find with a mirror.
Different types of scattering are used for different lidar applications, most commonly Rayleigh scattering, Mie scattering, Raman scattering, based on different kinds of backscattering, the lidar can be accordingly called Rayleigh Lidar, Mie Lidar, Raman Lidar, Na/Fe/K Fluorescence Lidar, and so on. Suitable combinations of wavelengths can allow for remote mapping of atmospheric contents by identifying wavelength-dependent changes in the intensity of the returned signal, in general there are two kinds of lidar detection schemes, incoherent or direct energy detection and coherent detection. In both coherent and incoherent lidar, there are two types of models, micropulse lidar systems and high energy systems. Micropulse systems utilizing intermittent bursts of energy have developed as a result of the amount of computer power available combined with advances in laser technology. They use considerably less energy in the laser, typically on the order of one microjoule, there are several major components to a lidar system, Laser — 600–1000 nm lasers are most common for non-scientific applications.
They are inexpensive, but since they can be focused and easily absorbed by the eye, eye-safety is often a requirement for most applications
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, biofacts or ecofacts, Archaeology can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities. In North America, archaeology is considered a sub-field of anthropology, archaeologists study human prehistory and history, from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi in East Africa 3.3 million years ago up until recent decades. Archaeology as a field is distinct from the discipline of palaeontology, Archaeology is particularly important for learning about prehistoric societies, for whom there may be no written records to study. Prehistory includes over 99% of the human past, from the Paleolithic until the advent of literacy in societies across the world, Archaeology has various goals, which range from understanding culture history to reconstructing past lifeways to documenting and explaining changes in human societies through time.
The discipline involves surveying and eventually analysis of data collected to learn more about the past, in broad scope, archaeology relies on cross-disciplinary research. Archaeology developed out of antiquarianism in Europe during the 19th century, Archaeology has been used by nation-states to create particular visions of the past. Nonetheless, archaeologists face many problems, such as dealing with pseudoarchaeology, the looting of artifacts, a lack of public interest, the science of archaeology grew out of the older multi-disciplinary study known as antiquarianism. Antiquarians studied history with attention to ancient artifacts and manuscripts. Tentative steps towards the systematization of archaeology as a science took place during the Enlightenment era in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries, in Europe, philosophical interest in the remains of Greco-Roman civilization and the rediscovery of classical culture began in the late Middle Age. Antiquarians, including John Leland and William Camden, conducted surveys of the English countryside, one of the first sites to undergo archaeological excavation was Stonehenge and other megalithic monuments in England.
John Aubrey was a pioneer archaeologist who recorded numerous megalithic and other monuments in southern England. He was ahead of his time in the analysis of his findings and he attempted to chart the chronological stylistic evolution of handwriting, medieval architecture and shield-shapes. Excavations were carried out in the ancient towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum and these excavations began in 1748 in Pompeii, while in Herculaneum they began in 1738. The discovery of entire towns, complete with utensils and even human shapes, prior to the development of modern techniques, excavations tended to be haphazard, the importance of concepts such as stratification and context were overlooked. The father of archaeological excavation was William Cunnington and he undertook excavations in Wiltshire from around 1798, funded by Sir Richard Colt Hoare. Cunnington made meticulous recordings of neolithic and Bronze Age barrows, one of the major achievements of 19th century archaeology was the development of stratigraphy.
The idea of overlapping strata tracing back to successive periods was borrowed from the new geological and paleontological work of scholars like William Smith, James Hutton, the application of stratigraphy to archaeology first took place with the excavations of prehistorical and Bronze Age sites
Offas Dyke is a large linear earthwork that roughly follows the current border between England and Wales. The structure is named after Offa, the Anglo-Saxon king of Mercia from AD757 until 796, although its precise original purpose is debated, it delineated the border between Anglian Mercia and the Welsh kingdom of Powys. The Dyke, which was up to 65 feet wide and 8 feet high, traversed low ground, today the earthwork is protected as a scheduled monument. Some of its route is followed by the Offas Dyke Path, the generally accepted theory about much of the earthwork attributes its construction to Offa, King of Mercia from 757 to 796. The structure did not represent a mutually agreed boundary between the Mercians and the Kingdom of Powys and it had a ditch on the Welsh side, with the displaced soil piled into a bank on the Mercian side. This suggests that Mercians constructed it as an earthwork, or to demonstrate the power. Throughout its entire length, the Dyke constantly provides a view from Mercia into Wales.
Where the earthwork encounters hills or high ground, it passes to the west of them, the Tribal Hidage, a primary document, shows the distribution of land within 8th-century Britain, it shows that peoples were located within specified territories for administration. In 1955 Sir Cyril Fox published the first major survey of the Dyke and he concurred with Asser that the earthwork ran from sea to sea, theorising that the Dyke ran from the River Dee estuary in the north to the River Wye in the south, approximately 150 miles. Although Fox observed that Offas Dyke was not a linear structure. Sir Frank Stenton, the UKs most eminent 20th-century scholar on Anglo-Saxon England and he wrote the introduction to Foxs account of the Dyke. In 1978, Dr Frank Noble challenged some of Foxs conclusions and his MPhil thesis entitled Offas Dyke Reviewed raised several questions concerning the accepted historiography of Offas Dyke. Noble helped establish the Offas Dyke Association, which maintains the Offas Dyke Path and this long-distance footpath mostly follows the route of the dyke, and is a designated British National Trail.
John Davies wrote of Foxs study, In the planning of it, there was a degree of consultation with the kings of Powys and Gwent. And, for Gwent, Offa had the dyke built on the eastern crest of the gorge, clearly with the intention of recognizing that the River Wye, ongoing research and archaeology on Offas Dyke has been undertaken for many years by the Extra-Mural Department of the University of Manchester. Interviews with Dr David Hill, broadcast in episode 1 of In Search of the Dark Ages, most recently Hill and Margaret Worthington have undertaken considerable research on the Dyke. Their work, though far from finished, has demonstrated that there is evidence for the Dyke stretching from sea to sea. Rather, they claim that it is a shorter structure stretching from Rushock Hill north of the Herefordshire Plain to Llanfynydd, near Mold, some 64 miles