A hillfort is a type of earthworks used as a fortified refuge or defended settlement, located to exploit a rise in elevation for defensive advantage. They are European and of the Bronze and Iron Ages; some were used in the post-Roman period. The fortification follows the contours of a hill, consisting of one or more lines of earthworks, with stockades or defensive walls, external ditches. Hillforts developed in the Late Bronze and Early Iron Age the start of the first millennium BC, were used in many Celtic areas of central and western Europe until the Roman conquest; the terms "hill fort", "hill-fort" and "hillfort" are all used in the archaeological literature. They all refer to an elevated site with one or more ramparts made of earth, stone and/or wood, with an external ditch. Many small early hillforts were abandoned, with the larger ones being redeveloped at a date; some hillforts contain houses. Similar but smaller and less defendable earthworks are found on the sides of hills; these may have been animal pens.
They are most common during periods: Urnfield culture and Atlantic Bronze Age Bronze Age Hallstatt culture late Bronze Age to early Iron Age La Tène culture late Iron AgePrehistoric Europe saw a growing population. It has been estimated that in about 5000 BC during the Neolithic between 2 million and 5 million lived in Europe. Outside Greece and Italy, which were more densely populated, the vast majority of settlements in the Iron Age were small, with no more than 50 inhabitants. Hillforts were the exception, were the home of up to 1,000 people. With the emergence of oppida in the Late Iron Age, settlements could reach as large as 10,000 inhabitants; as the population increased so did the complexity of prehistoric societies. Around 1100 BC hillforts in the following centuries spread through Europe, they served a range of purposes and were variously tribal centres, defended places, foci of ritual activity, places of production. During the Hallstatt C period, hillforts became the dominant settlement type in the west of Hungary.
Julius Caesar described the large late Iron Age hillforts he encountered during his campaigns in Gaul as oppida. By this time the larger ones had become more like cities than fortresses and many were assimilated as Roman towns. Hillforts were occupied by conquering armies, but on other occasions the forts were destroyed, the local people forcibly evicted, the forts left derelict. For example, Solsbury Hill was sacked and deserted during the Belgic invasions of southern Britain in the 1st century BC. Abandoned forts were sometimes reoccupied and refortified under renewed threat of foreign invasion, such as the Dukes' Wars in Lithuania, the successive invasions of Britain by Romans and Vikings. Excavations at hillforts in the first half of the 20th century focussed on the defenses, based on the assumption that hillforts were developed for military purposes; the exception to this trend began in the 1930s with a series of excavations undertaken by Mortimer Wheeler at Maiden Castle, Dorset. From 1960 onwards, archaeologists shifted their attention to the interior of hillforts, re-examining their function.
Post-processual archaeologists regard hillforts as symbols of wealth and power. Michael Avery has stated the traditional view of hillforts by saying, "The ultimate defensive weapon of European prehistory was the hillfort of the first millennium B. C.". Beyond the simple definition of hillfort, there is a wide variation in types and periods from the Bronze Age to the Middle Ages. Here are some considerations of general appearance and topology, which can be assessed without archaeological excavation: Location Hilltop Contour: the classic hillfort. Examples: Brent Knoll, Mount Ipf. Inland Promontory: an inland defensive position on a ridge or spur with steep slopes on 2 or 3 sides, artificial ramparts on the other level approach. Example: Lambert's Castle. Interfluvial: a promontory above the confluence of two rivers, or in the bend of a meander. Examples: Kelheim, Miholjanec. Lowland: an inland location without special defensive advantages, but surrounded by artificial ramparts. Examples: Maiden Castle, Old Oswestry, Stonea Camp.
Sea Cliff: a semi-circular crescent of ramparts backing on to a straight sea cliff. Examples: Daw's Castle, Dinas Dinlle, Dún Aengus. Sea Promontory: a linear earthwork across a narrow neck of land leading to a peninsula with steep cliffs to the sea on three sides. Examples: Huelgoat. Sloping Enclosure or Hill-slope enclosure: smaller earthwork on sloping hillsides. Examples: Goosehill Camp, Plainsfield Camp, Trendle Ring. Area > 20 ha: large enclosures, too extensive to defend used for domesticated animals. Example: Bindon Hill. 1–20 ha: defended areas large enough to support permanent tribal settlement. Example: Scratchbury Camp < 1 ha: small enclosures, more to be individual farmsteads or animal pens. Example: Trendle Ring. Ramparts and ditches Univallate: a single circuit of ramparts for enclosure and defence. Example: Solsbury Hill. Bivallate: a double circuit of defensive earthworks. Example: Battlesbury Camp. Multivallate: more than one layer of defensive earthworks, outer works m
The Birmingham Thunderbolts were a short-lived springtime American football team based in Birmingham, Alabama. This team was part of the failed XFL begun by Vince McMahon of World Wrestling Entertainment and by NBC, a major television network in the United States; the Thunderbolts played in the Eastern Division, with the Chicago Enforcers, Orlando Rage and the New York/New Jersey Hitmen. They finished the only year of XFL play – 2001 – in last place with the worst record in the league, at 2-8; the Thunderbolts played their home games at Birmingham's legendary Legion Field. They were coached by Brooklyn-native Gerry DiNardo, a former star player at the University of Notre Dame, head coach at Vanderbilt University and Louisiana State University. Following the collapse of the XFL, he went on to coach at Indiana University. One of DiNardo's assistants with the Thunderbolts was his predecessor at Curley Hallman; the team's colors were purple and white. Their logo was a stylized'B' with six lightning bolts extending from it.
On the teams helmets, the logo was placed at the front, instead of the customary position on each side, with only the upper three lightning bolts visible. The team was referred to by fans and the media as the Bolts. Team merchandise always used the shortened Bolts moniker; the league had planned to name the team the Blast. As the league soon realized that such a name would have been in poor taste, at the last minute the league changed it to "Thunderbolts," or "Bolts" for short; the team's logo is said to be the same one designed for the Blast. The Thunderbolts were unusual in. While XFL players were encouraged to use nicknames instead of their last names on the backs of their jerseys, DiNardo banned Thunderbolts players from doing so. After losing the opening game to the Memphis Maniax, the Thunderbolts posted wins over the Chicago Enforcers and the New York/New Jersey Hitmen; these would become the only victories the Thunderbolts would see. The Bolts would finish with a 2-8 record. Birmingham went through all 3 quarterbacks during the season.
Former Florida State quarterback Casey Weldon was signed as the starter. Former University of Alabama quarterback Jay Barker was signed as the backup, despite the crowds chanting his name during the home games. Barker would become the starter after Weldon injured his shoulder. Barker suffered a concussion in Chicago when he collided with Enforcers' cornerback Ray Austin while attempting a bootleg run on a broken play, he was replaced by third string QB Graham Leigh. NBC dropped the XFL after the first season due to dismal ratings, the league was disbanded shortly thereafter. Sunday February 4, 2001 L Memphis Maniax 22 at Birmingham Thunderbolts 20 Sunday February 11, 2001 W Birmingham Thunderbolts 19 at New York/New Jersey Hitmen 12 Sunday February 18, 2001 W Chicago Enforcers 3 at Birmingham Thunderbolts 14 Saturday February 24, 2001 L Birmingham Thunderbolts 6 at Orlando Rage 30 Saturday March 3, 2001 L Birmingham Thunderbolts 10 at San Francisco Demons 39 Sunday March 11, 2001 L Los Angeles Xtreme 35 at Birmingham Thunderbolts 26 Saturday March 17, 2001 L Birmingham Thunderbolts 12 at Las Vegas Outlaws 34 Sunday March 25, 2001 L Birmingham Thunderbolts 0 at Chicago Enforcers 13 Saturday March 31, 2001 L Orlando Rage 29 at Birmingham Thunderbolts 24 Sunday April 8, 2001 L New York/New Jersey Hitmen 22 at Birmingham Thunderbolts 0 80 Stepfret Williams WR college played three seasons in the NFL seeing time with the Dallas Cowboys and the Cincinnati Bengals before joining the XFL 33 James Bostic RB college 81 Kaipo Mc Guire WR college Mc Guire played in NFL Europe in the summer of 1999 with the Barcelona Dragons before splitting the 2000 season playing for the NFL's Indianapolis Colts and the CFL's Montreal Alouettes 89 Damon Gourdine WR college, son of singer Little Anthony of Little Anthony and the Imperials.
Alexander joined the Buffalo Bills. 82 Quincy Jackson WR college Jackson played in the Arena Football League in 2000 with the Albany Firebirds before joining the XFL After the league folded, head coach Gerry DiNardo joined the staff of Birmingham sports talk radio station WJOX 690, as did Jay Barker, who did sports commentary on local CBS TV affiliate WIAT channel 42. Barker hosts "The Opening Drive" on WJOX 94.5 in Birmingham with Tony Kurre and former NFL kicker Al Del Greco. DiNardo returned to his college football coaching roots in 2002 as the head coach of the Indiana Hoosiers football team; the team was sometimes jokingly nicknamed "The Fighting DiNardos" in his honor. He was fired at the end of the 2004 season, he is a studio analyst for the Big Ten Network. Rushing yards: 539, James Bostic Receiving yards: 827, Stepfret Williams Passing yards: 1238, Casey Weldon
Basic Academy of International Studies is a magnet high school, part of the Clark County School District. It was the first high school in Henderson, United States. During the World War II era, numerous factories located themselves in the Las Vegas Valley; the newly founded Basic, Nevada needed a school for business workers' children to attend, Basic High School received the name of its city. The original name, was Railroad Pass High School; the name was changed to Basic High School in 1945. Basic High School opened in 1942; the school located where the Henderson City Hall now stands, graduated its first class of ten students in 1943. In 1954 it moved to a site near Van Wagenen Pacific Avenue. Since 1973 Basic High School has been located at 400 N. Palo Verde Drive; until the opening of Green Valley High School, Basic was the only high school in Henderson. A long-standing rivalry existed between the two. A large white "B" is painted on a local mountain during the week of Homecoming, which stands for "Basic".
The original "B" was painted near the old Basic High School on Black Mountain, now known as Lyal Burkholder Middle School, maintained for many years long after Basic relocated to its current campus. A three-story building is noticeable on the Basic High School campus. An International Baccalaureate Program is offered at Basic High School. Basic is one of the few schools in Henderson; the school offers many clubs, including a chess club, Bible club, Super Smash Bros. club, Polynesian club, Key Club, Spanish Club. It is one of the few high schools in the county to have a robotics club, which builds and designs high-tech robots and enters them at annual competitions at UNLV. Led by coaches Mark Reed and Paul Guerrero, the Robotics Club was home to the most successful teams in Nevada robotics history, including teams 9922Z, 9922X, 9922A, 9922C. Basic's El Lobo yearbook is set to high standards, has won national praise for many years; the 2005 El Lobo Volume LXIII yearbook was named the Silver Medalist by the CSPA and was named All-American with four marks of distinction for the 16th consecutive year.
The yearbook is published by Herff Jones publishing company. The Lone Wolf Newspaper of Basic High School is the oldest newspaper in Henderson; the 2008–2009 school year was its 66th year of publication. It has been published longer than the prominent Las Vegas Sun newspaper, owned by Greenspun Media and founded in 1950. In 2009 the Lone Wolf won second Place in the 33rd annual Las Vegas Review-Journal High School Journalism awards in the "Reduced" format for best high school newspaper. Representatives from their thespian troop competed at the State Thespian Conference in 2010 and won first place in their category of "Group Musical," with their performance of "Your Fault/Last Midnight" from Sondheim's Into the Woods; the following year, representatives from their troop again placed first at the conference in the "Duet Musical" category with "Serious" from Legally Blonde the Musical. Basic High School offers a Marine Corps Junior Reserve Officers Training Corps, which has competed nationally in armed and unarmed drill, physical fitness, marksmanship.
The team won the National Championships at the United States Air Force Academy Invitational in Colorado Springs, Colorado from 1994 to 2003. Basic's MCJROTC Unarmed and Armed Drill Teams competed in the 2012 National Championships held in Torrance, California, they went on to place in the Nationals held in 2013 in Torrance, California with the help of First Sergeant Samuel Rael USMC. Basic Academy offers courses in performing arts such as band, orchestra and theatre. Basic Academy's athletics programs are known as the Wolves and compete in the Southeast Division of the Sunrise 4A Region; the school's baseball and basketball programs won state championships in 1955, 1956 and in 1959. In 1959 Paul Hornyak, senior point guard, was the first High School All-American in basketball for the state of Nevada; the school's football program has won two state championships, the first in 1953 in Class 3A and the second in 1960 in Class 2A. A 3A championship was won by the girls' volleyball squad in 1975; the Basic Academy wrestling team placed second in State in 1971, 1972, 1973 and 1974 winning their first 3A Championship in 1976.
The 2007 Basic men's varsity soccer team had its best season going to the Regional tournament for the first time in over 29 years. The affiliate team the Southern Nevada Blue Sox won the American Legion World Series in 2017. Baseball – 1955, 1956, 1959, 1982, 1987, 2016, 2017 Basketball – 1956, 1959, 1960 Bowling – 2011, 2018 Cross country – 1987, 1988, 1992, 1996, 1998 Football – 1953, 1960 Volleyball – 1998, 2002 Volleyball – 1978 Wrestling – 1976, 1979, 1984 Robotics - 2017, 2018, 2019 The school's cheerleading squad was featured on a 2010 episode of Penn & Teller. Scott Baker – former professional baseball pitcher Glen and Les Charles – television writers and producers, notably of Taxi and Cheers Chris Latham – former MLB player Harry Reid – U. S. Senator as well as Senate Majority Leader Henry Rolling – former NFL player Don Smerek – former NFL player L