SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

EastEnders

EastEnders is a British soap opera created by Julia Smith and Tony Holland, broadcast on BBC One since 1985. Set in Albert Square in the East End of London in the fictional Borough of Walford, the programme follows the stories of local residents and their families as they go about their daily lives. There were two 30-minute episodes per week increasing to three, but since 2001, episodes have been broadcast on every weekday except Wednesday. Within eight months of the show's launch, it reached the number one spot in BARB's TV ratings and has remained among the top rated series in Britain. In 2013, the average audience share for an episode was around 30 per cent. Today, EastEnders remains a significant programme in terms of the BBC's success and audience share, in the history of British television drama, tackling many dilemmas that are considered to be controversial and taboo issues in British culture and social life unseen on UK mainstream television; as of September 2019, EastEnders has won ten BAFTA Awards and the Inside Soap Award for Best Soap for 14 years running, as well as twelve National Television Awards for Most Popular Serial Drama and 11 awards for Best British Soap at the British Soap Awards.

It has won 13 TV Quick and TV Choice Awards for Best Soap, six TRIC Awards for Soap of The Year, four Royal Television Society Awards for Best Continuing Drama and has been inducted into the Rose d'Or Hall of Fame. In March 1983, under two years before EastEnders' first episode was broadcast, the show was a vague idea in the mind of a handful of BBC executives, who decided that what BBC1 needed was a popular bi-weekly drama series that would attract the kind of mass audiences that ITV was getting with Coronation Street; the first people to whom David Reid head of series and serials, turned were Julia Smith and Tony Holland, a well established producer/script editor team who had first worked together on Z-Cars. The outline that Reid presented was vague: two episodes a week, 52 weeks a year. After the concept was put to them on 14 March 1983, Smith and Holland went about putting their ideas down on paper. Granada Television gave Smith unrestricted access to the Coronation Street production for a month so that she could get a sense how a continuing drama was produced.

There was anxiety at first that the viewing public would not accept a new soap set in the south of England, though research commissioned by lead figures in the BBC revealed that southerners would accept a northern soap, northerners would accept a southern soap and those from the Midlands, as Julia Smith herself pointed out, did not mind where it was set as long as it was somewhere else. This was the beginning of a close and continuing association between EastEnders and audience research, though commonplace today, was something of a revolution in practice; the show's creators were both Londoners, but when they researched Victorian squares, they found massive changes in areas they thought they knew well. However, delving further into the East End of London, they found what they had been searching for: a real East End spirit—an inward-looking quality, a distrust of strangers and authority figures, a sense of territory and community that the creators summed up as "Hurt one of us and you hurt us all".

When developing EastEnders, both Smith and Holland looked at influential models like Coronation Street, but they found that it offered a rather outdated and nostalgic view of working-class life. Only after EastEnders began, featured the characters of Tony Carpenter and Kelvin Carpenter, did Coronation Street start to feature black characters, for example, they came to the conclusion that Coronation Street had grown old with its audience, that EastEnders would have to attract a younger, more extensive audience, ensuring that it had the longevity to retain it for many years thereafter. They looked at Brookside but found there was a lack of central meeting points for the characters, making it difficult for the writers to intertwine different storylines, so EastEnders was set in Albert Square. A previous UK soap set in an East End market was ATV's Market in Honey Lane between 1967 and 1969; however this show, which graduated from one showing a week to two in three separate series was different in style and approach to EastEnders.

The British Film Institute described Market In Honey Lane thus: "It was not an earth-shaking programme, not pioneering in any revolutionary ideas in technique and production, but proposed itself to the casual viewer as a mildly pleasant affair." EastEnders, while featuring an East End street market, would be different in its approach and impact. The target launch date was January 1985. Smith and Holland had eleven months in which to write and shoot the whole thing. However, in February 1984, they did not have a title or a place to film. Both Smith and Holland were unhappy about the January 1985 launch date, favouring November or September 1984 when seasonal audiences would be higher, but the BBC stayed firm, Smith and Holland had to concede that, with the massive task of getting the Elstree Studios operational, January was the most realistic date. However, this was to be changed to February; the project had a number of working titles—Square Dance, Round the Square, Round the Houses, London Pride and East 8.

It was the latter. However, the show was renamed after many casting agents mistakenly thought the show was to be called Estate, the fictional postcode E20 was c

Digital credential

Digital credentials are the digital equivalent of paper-based credentials. Just as a paper-based credential could be a passport, a driver's license, a membership certificate or some kind of ticket to obtain some service, such as a cinema ticket or a public transport ticket, a digital credential is a proof of qualification, competence, or clearance, attached to a person. Digital credentials prove something about their owner. Both types of credentials may contain personal information such as the person's name, birthdate, and/or biometric information such as a picture or a finger print; because of the still evolving, sometimes conflicting, terminologies used in the fields of computer science, computer security, cryptography, the term "digital credential" is used quite confusingly in these fields. Sometimes passwords or other means of authentication are referred to as credentials. In operating system design, credentials are the properties of a process, used for determining its access rights. On other occasions and associated key material such as those stored in PKCS#12 and PKCS#15 are referred to as credentials.

Digital badges are a form of digital credential that indicate an accomplishment, quality or interest. Digital badges can be earned in a variety of learning environments. Real world credentials are a diverse social phenomenon, as such are difficult to define; as with digital signatures it is misleading to assume a direct correspondence between the real-world and the digital concept. This holds if defining criteria for credentials in the digital world could be agreed on; the success of digital signatures as a replacement for paper based signatures has lagged behind expectations. On the other hand, many unexpected uses of digital signatures were discovered by recent cryptographic research. A related insight that can be learned from digital signatures is that the cryptographic mechanism need not be confused with overall process that turns a digital signature into something that has more or less the same properties as a paper based signature. Electronic signatures such as paper signatures sent by fax may have legal meaning, while secure cryptographic signatures may serve different purposes.

We need to distinguish the algorithm from the process. Money is not seen as a qualification, attached to a specific person as token money is taken to have a value on its own. Digital assets like digital cash are copied. Digital cash protocols have to make an extra effort to avoid the double spending of coins. Credentials are a proof of qualification, attached to a person. E-Coins are given to individuals, who cannot pass them on to others, but can only spend them with merchants; as long as they spend a coin only once, they are anonymous, but should they spend a coin twice, they become identifiable and appropriate actions can be taken by the bank. This commonality, the binding to an individual, is why digital cash and digital credentials share many commonalities. In fact most implementations of anonymous digital credential realize digital cash; the main idea behind anonymous digital credentials is that users are given cryptographic tokens which allow them to prove statements about themselves and their relationships with public and private organizations anonymously.

This is seen as a more privacy-friendly alternative to keeping and using large centralized and linkable user records. Anonymous digital credentials are thus related to anonymity. Paper world analogues of personalized, or non-anonymous credentials are: passports, driving licenses, credit cards, health insurance cards, club membership cards etc; these contain the name of the owner and have some authenticating information such as a signature, PIN or photograph, to stop them being used by anyone other than the rightful owner. Paper world analogues of anonymous credentials are: money and train tickets, game-arcade tokens; these don't have any identifying information and can be transferred between users without the issuers or relying parties being aware of this. Credentials are issued by organizations that ascertain the authenticity of the information which can be provided to verifying entities on demand. In order to investigate certain privacy specific properties of credentials, we take a more detailed look at two kind of'credentials', physical money and credit cards.

Without doubt both of them provide adequate information for doing payment transactions. However the amount and quality of the information disclosed varies. Money is protected from forgery by its physical properties. Beyond that, only little information is revealed: Coins feature an ingrained value and the year of coining. On the other hand, the use of a credit card, whose main purpose is similar to money, allows for the creation of detailed records about the card owner. Credit cards are therefore not privacy protecting; the main privacy advantage of money is. There are however other usability properties that make real world cash popular. Credentials used in a national identification system are especially privacy relevant; such an ID, be it a passport, a driver's license, or some other type of card contains essential personal information. In certain situations it may be advantageous to reveal only parts of the information contained on the ID, e.g. some lower limit for the person's age or the fact that the person is capable of driving a car.

The original anonymous credential system proposed by David Chaum is sometimes referred to as a pseudonym system. This stems from the fact that the cred

Robert Child (agriculturalist)

Robert Child was an English physician and alchemist. A recent view is; the son of John Child of Northfleet in Kent he was educated at Cambridge. He attended the universities of Leiden and Padua, taking a medical degree at Leiden in 1635, his M. D. at Padua in 1638. Child did not practise medicine as a new graduate. In 1638 he travelled to New England, where his first stay lasted to 1641. There he came to know John Winthrop the younger, a supporter of his ironworks project. Residing in Watertown, he joined the Nashaway Company. Moore writes that, during the period from 1641, Child worked in England using good contacts, trying to make New England self-sufficient in iron, he travelled in continental Europe, meeting the alchemist Pierre Jean Fabre. On Child's return to New England in 1645, he was active in running the Saugus ironworks, he took an interest in the fur trade. This second visit ended in his departure in 1647, forced out as a Presbyterian. Child had taken part in agitation against the dominant Independents in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, becoming the leader of the dissident Remonstrant group, who took their name from the "Remonstrance and Humble Petition" he wrote.

Scholars disagree on its aims, but they included extending the Long Parliament's control across the Atlantic. The group of seven signatories included Samuel Maverick. Pamphlets on the case, in the Massachusetts General Court, appeared in 1647. New-England's Jonas cast up in London was by Child's brother John, a major in the parliamentary army. New England's Salamander was by Edward Winslow, instructed to counter the arguments of the Remonstrants and Samuel Gorton, it has been suggested. Child shared with John Winthrop the younger, Richard Leader of the Saugus works, an interest in alchemy arising from the metallurgy of iron. In the 17th century, a number of writers stated that Child was Eirenaeus Philalethes, the pseudonymous alchemist; that view was circulated by Johann Ferdinand Hertodt, among others.– It was incorrect, since the pseudonym concealed in fact his associate George Starkey from Massachusetts Bay Colony. Child, along with Benjamin Worsley took an interest in the chemical work of Johann Glauber.

Among Child's chemical contacts was John French. He knew Robert Boyle well enough to introduce Starkey to him, in 1650. At that time he was setting up a group including Thomas Henshaw, Thomas Vaughan and William Webbe, to gather and translate alchemical and chemical texts. Child was an advocate of intensive cultivation over traditional agriculture, his views were expressed in The Defects and Remedies of English Husbandry and put him at odds with conventional wisdom, as represented by Walter Blith. He is now considered to have been ahead of his time; this work, known as Child's "Large Letter", formed part of Samuel Hartlib His Legacie of 1651. The farming use of marl provoked a comment by Child published in the Legacie, suggesting that "husbandmen" should take an interest in what could be dug out of the ground. Samuel Hartlib was an intelligencer whose wide-ranging group of correspondents is now identified as the Hartlib Circle, he was in agreement with other members of the Circle in approving of enclosures of land.

Gerard and Arnold Boate's Ireland's Naturall History was representative of the Circle's interests, took up Child's suggestion in a survey of "Metals, Minerals..." in Ireland. In 1651 Child was invited by Arthur Hill to his estate in Ulster, he remained there for the rest of his life, working on natural history and studying the agriculture of the area