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East African campaign (World War II)

The East African campaign was fought in East Africa during the Second World War by Allies of World War II from the British Empire, against Italy and its colony of Italian East Africa, between June 1940 and November 1941. The Britsh Middle East Command with troops from the United Kingdom, South Africa, British India, Somaliland, West Africa and Southern Rhodesia and Nyasaland participated in the campaign; these were joined by the Allied Force Publique of Belgian Congo, Imperial Ethiopian Arbegnoch and a small unit of Free French. Italian East Africa was defended by the Comando Forze Armate dell'Africa Orientale Italiana, with units from the Regio Esercito, Regia Marina; the Italian forces included about 250,000 soldiers of the, led by Italian NCOs. With Britain in control of the Suez canal, the Italian forces were cut off from supplies and reinforcement one hostilities began. On 13 June 1940 an Italian air raid took place on the base of 237 Squadron RAF at Wajir in Kenya and continued until Italian forces had been pushed back from Kenya and Sudan, through Somaliland and Ethiopia in 1940 and early 1941.

The remnants of the Italian forces in the region surrendered after the Battle of Gondar in November 1941, except for small groups that fought a guerrilla war in Ethiopia against the British until the Armistice of Cassibile in September 1943, which ended the war between Italy and the Allies. The East African campaign was the first Allied strategic victory in the war. Most of the Commonwealth forces were transferred to North Africa to participate in the Western Desert Campaign. On 9 May 1936, the Italian dictator, Benito Mussolini, proclaimed the formation of Italian East Africa, from Ethiopia after the Second Italo-Abyssinian War and the colonies of Italian Eritrea and Italian Somaliland. On 10 June 1940, Mussolini declared war on Britain and France, which made Italian military forces in Libya a threat to Egypt and those in the AOI a danger to the British and French colonies in East Africa. Italian belligerence closed the Mediterranean to Allied merchant ships and endangered British sea lanes along the coast of East Africa, the Gulf of Aden, the Red Sea and the Suez Canal.

Egypt, the Suez Canal, French Somaliland and British Somaliland were vulnerable to invasion but Comando Supremo had planned for a war after 1942. Amedeo, Duke of Aosta, was appointed Viceroy and Governor-General of the AOI in November 1937, with a headquarters in Addis Ababa, the Ethiopian capital. On 1 June 1940, as the commander in chief of Comando Forze Armate dell'Africa Orientale Italiana and Generale d'Armata Aerea, Aosta had about 290,476 local and metropolitan troops. By 1 August, mobilisation had increased the number to 371,053 troops. On 10 June, the Italian army was organised in four commands: Northern Sector, vicinity of Asmara Eritrea, Lieutenant-General Luigi Frusci Southern Sector, around Jimma Ethiopia, General Pietro Gazzera Eastern Sector, General Guglielmo Nasi Giuba Sector, Lieutenant-General Carlo De Simone, southern Somalia near Kismayo, Italian Somaliland Aosta had two metropolitan divisions, the 40th Infantry Division Cacciatori d'Africa and the 65th Infantry Division Granatieri di Savoia, a battalion of Alpini, a Bersaglieri battalion of motorised infantry, several "Blackshirt" Milizia Coloniale battalions and smaller units.

About 70 percent of Italian troops were locally recruited Askari. The regular Eritrean battalions and the Regio Corpo Truppe Coloniali were among the best Italian units in the AOI and included Eritrean cavalry Penne di Falco. Most colonial troops were recruited and equipped for colonial repression, although the Somali Dubats from the borderlands were useful light infantry and skirmishers. Irregular bandes were hardy and mobile, knew the country and were effective scouts and saboteurs, although sometimes confused with Shifta, undisciplined marauders who plundered and murdered at will. Once Italy entered the war, a 100-strong company formed out of German residents of East Africa and German sailors unable to leave East African ports. Italian forces in East Africa were equipped with about 3,313 heavy machine-guns, 5,313 machine-guns, 24 M11/39 medium tanks, 39 L3/35 tankettes, 126 armoured cars and 824 guns, twenty-four 20 mm anti-aircraft guns, seventy-one 81 mm mortars and 672,800 rifles. Due to the isolation of the AOI from the Mediterranean, the Italians had little opportunity for reinforcements or supply, leading to severe shortages of ammunition.

On occasion, foreign merchant vessels captured by German merchant raiders in the Indian Ocean were brought to Somali ports but their cargoes were not always of much use to the Italian war effort. (For example, the Yugoslav steamer Dur

Paladar

Paladar is a term that in Spanish translates to "palate" and used with that meaning in the Spanish speaking world, however in Cuba is used to refer to restaurants run by self-employers. Family-run businesses, paladares are fundamentally directed to serve as a counterpart to state-run restaurants for tourists seeking a more vivid interaction with Cuban reality, looking for homemade Cuban food; the term in popular usage has its origin in the Brazilian soap opera Vale Tudo, shown in Cuba in the early 1990s. Paladar was the name of the chain of restaurants run by Rachel Accioli, the protagonist, played by Regina Duarte; the broadcast of that soap opera coincided in time with the first issue of licenses for self-employers’ work in Cuba, so Cuban popular culture designated the then-new type establishments by this name. Owned small restaurants have always existed in Cuba; until the 1990s they were illegal, but the fall of the USSR and consequent economic crisis in Cuba forced the government to make the economic reforms of 1993.

One of the items in those reforms was the legalization of owned small businesses as restaurants. Since its inception in the late 1990s, the paladares were subjected to limitations by the Cuban government concerning the amount and type of products they could offer, the hiring of labor force and the number of seats they could have; the process of renewal of the economic model started in 2010 led to a review of these measures, resulting in a substantial increase in the number of paladares and the diversification of their proposals. The models that emerge are quite diverse, ranging from the typical business set up in a family home, up to more elaborated variations including different types of cuisine in rooms specially designed or modified for the activity. While most retailers offer Cuban food, Italian food, popular in Cuba, others have produced more ambitious projects combining local cuisine with Mediterranean and international elements; the composition of the staff has changed, moving from a model in which they were composed of people united by family ties with a low level of professional training to teams that integrate professional chefs with long experience in gastronomy with other specialties such as marketing, public relations, legal advice and more.

The Academy Award nominated Cuban film Strawberry and Chocolate, based on Cuban writer Senel Paz's short story "The Wolf, the Forest and the New Man", used a house en Havana's neighborhood Centro Habana as a stage for La Guarida del Diego, home of one of the main characters. A few years after filming, this place became "La Guarida", one of the most reputed paladares in the city. Cuban reggaeton group Gente de Zona, used Vedado's paladar La Pachanga to film a video clip for their popular song "Salte del sartén". Underground restaurant, similar places in other countries. Directory of Restaurants in Cuba. Forum of Paladares in Los Viajeros Famous Casa Particular and well-known paladar in Cuba

Lufti Al-Arabi Al-Gharisi

Lutfi al-Arabi al-Gharisi is a citizen of Tunisia held in extrajudicial detention by the United States. On January 15, 2010, the Department of Defense complied with a court order and published a redacted list of Captives held in the Bagram Theater Internment Facility. There were 645 names on the list, dated September 22, 2009. One of the names was Lutfi al-Arabi al-Gharisi. Historian Andy Worthington, author of The Guantanamo Files, speculated that Lutfi al-Arabi al-Gharisi may have been a Tunisian, identified by human rights groups as a ghost prisoner. If so he was captured in late 2002 in Peshawar, Pakistan. Worthington reported this individual was held in the CIA's "dark prison", several other CIA black sites. Worthington speculated that he might have been a Tunisian captive identified by Marwan Jabour, named "Hudeifa". On December 9, 2014, the United States Senate Intelligence Committee published the 600 page unclassified summary of a 6,000 page report on the CIA's use of torture. While some of the CIA's captives were identified as only been subjected to torture, authorized from Washington, other captives, like Al-Gharisi, were identified as having been tortured by CIA officials who did not have authorization.

According to the Intelligence Committee, Al-Gharisi was "Underwent at least two 48-hour sessions of sleep deprivation in October 2002." On October 4, 2016, the Washington Post reported that Al-Gharisa and another CIA captive asserted that they were subjected to unknown techniques. In particular, they asserted that their captors had built what they described as an "electric chair", they were shown the chair, threatened that it would be used on them, they reported that they too had been subjected to a form of water-boarding, although the CIA claimed waterboarding had only been used on three high-value detainees

Mikko Innanen (musician)

Mikko Innanen, is a saxophonist and composer. Innanen graduated in 2003 from the jazz department of Sibelius Academy, the only university level music academy in Finland. Innanen spent one year of his studies in Denmark, at the Rhythmic Music Conservatory. Over the last few years, he has played with a number of groups, including several groups with other Finnish jazz musicians such as Nuijamiehet, Gourmet, Mr Fonebone and Mikko Innanen & Innkvisitio as well as Delirium, Triot, as a featured guest of the French trio Triade, The European Jazz Youth Orchestra, drummer Teppo Mäkynen's Teddy Rok 7, Ulf Krokors - Iro Haarla Loco Motife, Ibrahim Electric, Espoo Big Band and the UMO Jazz Orchestra, he has performed with Han Bennink, Jaak Sooäär, John Tchicai, Ingrid Jensen, Anders Bergcrantz, Marc Ducret, Tim Hagans, Chris Speed, Barry Guy, Juhani Aaltonen, Liudas Mockunas, Hiroshi Minami, Lelo Nika, Billy Cobham, Andre Sumelius, Marcus Shelby, Dayna Stephens and many others, including all of the musicians active on the Finnish jazz scene and a growing number of international artists.

Innanen was awarded a one-year artist's grant by the Finnish State's Arts Council in 2003, the best soloist's prize at the International Competition for Jazz Groups in Getxo, Spain, in 2000 and the first prize at the first Jukka Perko saxophone competition in 2001. In 2004 Finnish jazz journalists voted Innanen as the runner-up alto and baritone saxophone player of the year 2003 and 2004. Delirium: Eclexistence Gourmet: Six Acres of Broken Hearts Triot with John Tchicai: Sudden Happiness Delirium Gourmet: Glamour & Decadence Mr. Fonebone: Live featuring Ingrid Jensen Nuijamiehet Mr. Fonebone Profile at Fiasko Records

DJ Fuze

David Elliott, professionally known as DJ Fuze, is an American Hip-Hop DJ and Record producer, most known for his work in the 1990s with the multi-platinum, P-Funk inspired rap group, Digital Underground. Fuze co-produced several songs on Digital Underground’s grammy nominated and multi-platinum debut album Sex Packets. Most notable of these songs is the bay area classic "Freaks of the Industry", he toured with D. U. internationally in 1990, supporting the group's singles "Doowutchyalike" and "The Humpty Dance", toured the U. S. on the 1991 Budweiser Superfest tour supporting their follow up effort This Is An EP Release featuring the single "Same Song" on which a young Tupac Shakur debuted. The following year D. U. released Sons of the P, which featured the hit singles "Kiss You Back" and "No Nose Job", the latter of which showcased a unique scratching technique that Fuze playfully coined "the bumble-bee scratch", inspired by DJ QBert, featured prominently in the song's intro. He demonstrated this scratch live at the Apollo Theater in 1992 during a televised performance with Digital Underground.

DJ FUZE collaborated with the late rap superstar Tupac Shakur on his debut album 2PACALYPSE NOW. In addition to naming the album, FUZE produced the song “Violent,”, a partial remake of Shabba Ranks' and Cocoa Tea's dance-hall hit Pirate Anthem. DJ FUZE was one half of the group Raw Fusion along with fellow DU member Money-B. In 1991, the two scored a minor bay area radio hit “Throw Your Hands In The Air,”, the first single from their debut album Live From The Styleetron; the video, which featured cameo appearances by rappers Tupac and Saafir, was the first major video production by directors The Hughes Brothers, who directed Menace To Society, Dead Presidents, American Pimp, From Hell. In 1994, DJ FUZE began working with the Oakland duo The Luniz, produced three songs on their debut multi-platinum release Operation Stackola. Fuze toured internationally with The Luniz during their platinum period, supporting their hit I Got Five On It. DJ FUZE produced a minor Bay Area hit “Can You Feel Me” for Oakland rapper Dru Down in 1996.

FUZE appeared with Digital Underground in the Hollywood cult film flop “Nothing But Trouble,” which starred Dan Akroyd, John Candy, Chevy Chase, Demi Moore. He is featured in digital undergrounds videos for The Humpty Dance, Same Song, Kiss You Back, No Nose Job. FUZE appeared with Tupac in the oscar nominated documentary film Tupac Resurrection, as well as in Tupac's first two music videos, “Trapped” and “Brenda’s Got A Baby." DJ FUZE returned to college in 2003 and received a B. A. in International Development from the University of California, Berkeley in 2007. He began touring again with digital underground upon graduating college, has been sitting in with Dave Chappelle since 2008, at the comedian's exclusive Bay Area improv performances, he can now be found working with the youth of Oakland, California hosting Dj classes through the non profit organization Youth Radio. Sex Packets Tommy Boy Music 1990 This Is An E. P. Release Nuttin' Dis Funky Tommy Boy Music, Tommy Boy Music 1990 Sons of the P title track + "No Nose Job" Tommy Boy Music 1991 Raw Fusion Live From The Styleetron Hollywood Basic Records 1992 The "Body-Hat" Syndrome Tommy Boy Music 1993 "Freaky Note" / "Glockadoodayoo" Glockadoodayoo, Glocka...

Hollywood BASIC 1994 Freaks of The Industry Tommy Boy Music 1990 2Pacalypse Now Interscope Records 1991 Live From The Styleetron Hollywood Basic Records 1992 Operation Stackola Noo Trybe Records 1995 Can You Feel Me Relativity 1996 The Humpty Dance Tommy Boy Records 1989 Sex Packets Tommy Boy Records 1990 Same Song Nuttin' Nis Funky Tommy Boy Records 1991 2Pacalypse Now Interscope Records 1991 Live From The Styleetron Hollywood BASIC 1991 Sons Of The P Tommy Boy Records 1991 Operation Stackola Virgin Records 1995 Can You Feel Me Priority Records 1996

ADAM28

Disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 28 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ADAM28 gene. This gene encodes a member of the ADAM family. Members of this family are membrane-anchored proteins structurally related to snake venom disintegrins, have been implicated in a variety of biological processes involving cell–cell and cell–matrix interactions, including fertilization, muscle development, neurogenesis; the protein encoded by this gene is a lymphocyte-expressed ADAM protein. Alternative splicing results in two transcript variants; the shorter version encodes a secreted isoform, while the longer version encodes a transmembrane isoform. The MEROPS online database for peptidases and their inhibitors: M12.224 Human ADAM28 genome location and ADAM28 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser