East Berlin was the capital city of the German Democratic Republic from 1949 to 1990. Formally, it was the Soviet sector of Berlin, established in 1945; the American and French sectors were known as West Berlin. From 13 August 1961 until 9 November 1989, East Berlin was separated from West Berlin by the Berlin Wall; the Western Allied powers did not recognise East Berlin as the GDR's capital, nor the GDR's authority to govern East Berlin. On 3 October 1990, the day Germany was reunified and West Berlin formally reunited as the city of Berlin. With the London Protocol of 1944 signed on September 12, 1944, the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union decided to divide Germany into three occupation zones and to establish a special area of Berlin, occupied by the three Allied Forces together. In May 1945, the Soviet Union installed a city government for the whole city, called "Magistrate of Greater Berlin", which existed until 1947. After the war, the Allied Forces administered the city together within the Allied Kommandatura, which served as the governing body of the city.
However, in 1948 the Soviet representative left the Kommandatura and the common administration broke apart during the following months. In the Soviet sector, a separate city government was established, which continued to call itself "Magistrate of Greater Berlin"; when the German Democratic Republic was established in 1949, it claimed East Berlin as its capital—a claim, recognised by all communist countries. Its representatives to the People's Chamber were not directly elected and did not have full voting rights until 1981. In June 1948, all railways and roads leading to West Berlin were blocked, East Berliners were not allowed to emigrate. More than 1,000 East Germans were escaping to West Berlin each day by 1960, caused by the strains on the East German economy from war reparations owed to the Soviet Union, massive destruction of industry, lack of assistance from the Marshall Plan. In August 1961, the East German Government tried to stop the population exodus by enclosing West Berlin within the Berlin Wall.
It was dangerous for fleeing residents to cross because armed soldiers were trained to shoot illegal migrants. East Germany was a socialist republic. Privileges such as prestigious apartments and good schooling were given to members of the ruling party and their family. Christian churches were allowed to operate without restraint after years of harassment by authorities. In the 1970s, wages of East Berliners rose and working hours fell; the Western Allies never formally acknowledged the authority of the East German government to govern East Berlin. The United States Command Berlin, for example, published detailed instructions for U. S. military and civilian personnel wishing to visit East Berlin. In fact, the three Western commandants protested against the presence of the East German National People's Army in East Berlin on the occasion of military parades; the three Western Allies established embassies in East Berlin in the 1970s, although they never recognised it as the capital of East Germany.
Treaties instead used terms such as "seat of government."On 3 October 1990, East and West Germany and East and West Berlin were reunited, thus formally ending the existence of East Berlin. City-wide elections in December 1990 resulted in the first “all Berlin” mayor being elected to take office in January 1991, with the separate offices of mayors in East and West Berlin expiring at the time, Eberhard Diepgen became the first elected mayor of a reunited Berlin. Since reunification, the German government has spent vast amounts of money on reintegrating the two halves of the city and bringing services and infrastructure in the former East Berlin up to the standard established in West Berlin. After reunification, the East German economy suffered significantly. Under the adopted policy of privatisation of state-owned firms under the auspices of the Treuhandanstalt, many East German factories were shut down—which lead to mass unemployment—due to gaps in productivity with and investment compared to West German companies, as well as an inability to comply with West German pollution and safety standards in a way, deemed cost effective.
Because of this, a massive amount of West German economic aid was poured into East Germany to revitalize it. This stimulus was part-funded through a 7.5% tax on income for individuals and companies known as the Solidaritätszuschlaggesetz or "solidarity surcharge", which though only in effect for 1991-1992 led to a great deal of resentment toward the East Germans. Despite the large sums of economic aid poured into East Berlin, there still remain obvious differences between the former East and West Berlins. East Berlin has a distinct visual style; the unique look of Stalinist architecture, used in East Berlin contrasts markedly with the urban development styles employed in the former West Berlin. Additionally, the former East Berlin retains a small number of its GDR-era street and place names commemorating German socialist heroes, such as Karl-Marx-Allee
The following are lists of recreational walks in East Sussex, England Abbots Wood near Hailsham has two walks, the Abbots Amble, 2.5 kilometres following yellow waymarks and Oak Walk, just over 1 kilometre following red waymarks. Beaneys Lane'A Walk For All Seasons' 1.5 kilometres on the outskirts of Hastings through the Maplehurst Woods SSSI, following wren marker posts between The Ridge and Stonestile Lane — flat and good surface, one incline near The Ridge. Butcher's Trudge, a 2 kilometre circular walk from Butchershole near the town of Friston in Friston Forest following white waymarks. Ditchling Common Country Park Trail, located between Haywards Heath and Lewes, 1.5 kilometres long following purple waymarks. Forest Way circular walks incorporating parts of the Forest Way — 5 kilometres following orange waymarks from Forest Row, 4.5 kilometres following green waymarks and 6 kilometres following red waymarks from Hartfield, 8 kilometres following purple waymarks from Groombridge The High Weald Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty has lots of different walks — see the link to their website below Marline Valley Nature Reserve on the outskirts of Hastings has various walks, but note they are steep and muddy.
No car park, access is from the B2092 Road, car drivers are asked to park in one of the roads opposite the site and cross over Queensway. A pdf map of the site is available here Park Wood in Hellingly has a number of signed circular walks. Seven Sisters Country Park has an easy to follow path from its Visitor Centre at Exceat, which goes alongside the River Cuckmere to the sea at Cuckmere Haven. Cuckoo Trail, 16 kilometres from Eridge to Polegate, there is an extension from there to Hampden Park in Eastbourne. Forest Way, 14.5 kilometres from Forest Row to Groombridge, plus a linking path between East Grinstead and Forest Row. 1066 Country Walk, 50 kilometres Pevensey Castle to Rye Downs Link — 59 kilometres from the North Downs Way at St. Martha's Hill near Guildford, Surrey to the South Downs Way at Steyning, on to Shoreham-by-Sea High Weald Landscape Trail, running 145 kilometres from Horsham to Rye Saxon Shore Way, Kent — Hastings 261 km South Downs Way National Trail Sussex Border Path, 256 kilometres from Thorney Island to Rye Sussex Ouse Valley Way, 67.5 kilometres Lower Beeding to Seaford Vanguard Way, 107 kilometres from Croydon in south London to Newhaven Wealdway, 129 kilometres from Gravesend, Kent to Eastbourne Long-distance footpaths in the UK East Sussex Council's Walks page The High Weald Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty website — describes a wide range of short walks across a large area of Kent, East Sussex and West Sussex CarFreeWalks.org - Free Database of Walks in the UK with many walks in East Sussex bestwalks.com page of books for sale describing walks in Sussex
Round Trip is the third studio album by power pop/new wave band The Knack, released by Capitol Records in 1981. It received unfavorable critical reviews, but it reached #93 in the Billboard 200 and contained single "Pay The Devil". "Boys Go Crazy" was issued as the single from the album in Australia. It was issued as a follow up single to "Pay the Devil" in the U. S. and was expected to be "chart bound" on the Hot 100, but it did not chart. The band broke up a few months after its release, with their label dropping them due to failed expectations, they remained disbanded until a 1986 reunion. Round Trip was their third album, it was produced by Jack Douglas; the album was critically panned at the time of its release, some critics have subsequently been more positive. Steve "Spaz" Schnee of Allmusic called it "brilliant" and stated that it was better than the previous two albums. Darren Robbins of the pop culture review website The Zeitgeisty Report has called the album a "masterpiece" and "possibly the most underrated album of all-time".
Critic David Fricke of Rolling Stone gave a positive review, commenting: Like Icarus in a skinny tie, the Knack flew too close to the sun and got burned real bad. Now they'd have us believe that they want to make amends. If the message of the first album was Get the Knack and the second LP insisted that the critics don't know...but the little girls understand the gist of Round Trip is, "We're sorry, give us another chance"... Given another chance with Round Trip, the Knack acquit themselves better than we had any reason to expect. If this were their first record, it'd be an impressive, entertaining debut; as their third, it's a somewhat remarkable comeback from beyond the grave of superhype. The New York Times was less generous; the Times, while calling the album "well-crafted" said that "with its careful harmonies, psychedelic sound effects and jazzy touches, tries to conceal the utter fatuity of its songs under studio cosmetics," and took the album as proof that The Knack was a "one-hit wonder."The song "Boys Go Crazy" was included in the 1992 EMI Music compilation album My Sharona.
The songs "Another Lousy Day in Paradise," "Africa," "Sweet Dreams," "Just Wait and See," and "Pay the Devil" were incorporated into The Retrospective: The Best of the Knack, released by Capitol Records on November 16, 1992. Songs "Another Lousy Day in Paradise," "Just Wait and See" and "Pay the Devil" were included in Very Best of the Knack, released by Rhino Records on May 19, 1998. "Boys Go Crazy" and "Pay the Devil" were included in Best of the Knack, released by Collectables Records on August 17, 1999. A live version of "Art War" was included on Havin’ a Rave-Up! Live In Los Angeles, 1978, a live album from the Knack's 1978 concerts in Los Angeles prior to the release of "Get the Knack." Instead of the conventional "side 1" and "side 2", the sides of the original vinyl issue were labeled as "there" and "back". All songs are by Berton Averre and Doug Fieger unless noted "Radiating Love" 4:42 "Soul Kissin'" 3:40 "Africa" 4:34 "She Likes the Beat" 3:04 "Just Wait and See" 3:04 "We Are Waiting" 4:25 "Boys Go Crazy" 2:48 "Lil' Cals Big Mistake" 3:45 "Sweet Dreams" 3:37 "Another Lousy Day in Paradise" 3:34 "Pay the Devil" 4:13 "Art War" 4:13 Doug Fieger – lead vocals, rhythm guitar Berton Averre – lead guitar, vocals Prescott Niles – bass Bruce Gary – drums and percussion 1981 in music The Knack website