The Croton Aqueduct or Old Croton Aqueduct was a large and complex water distribution system constructed for New York City between 1837 and 1842. The great aqueducts, which were among the first in the United States, carried water by gravity 41 miles from the Croton River in Westchester County to reservoirs in Manhattan, it was built because local water resources had become polluted and inadequate for the growing population of the city. Although the aqueduct was superseded by the New Croton Aqueduct, built in 1890, the Old Croton Aqueduct remained in service until 1955; the island of Manhattan, surrounded by brackish rivers, had a limited supply of fresh water available, which dwindled as the city grew after the American Revolutionary War, fresh water sources became polluted by effluent. Before the aqueduct was constructed, residents of New York obtained water from cisterns, natural springs, other bodies of water, but rapid population growth in the 19th century, encroachment on these areas as Manhattan moved further north of Wall Street, led to the pollution of many local fresh water sources.
Below Grand Street, a small number of well-off customers of the Manhattan Company had fresh water delivered to them, but that company was more focused on banking — it became Chase Manhattan — and only paid as much attention to its water activities as it needed to avoid losing the state charter that allowed it to bank. The poor and the rest of the city were forced to rely on well water made palatable by adding alcoholic spirits, prompting temperance campaigners to call for the municipal provision of water; the unsanitary conditions caused an increase in disease. Epidemics of yellow fever ravaged the city. A polluted aquifer, overcrowded housing, the lack of sewers, public ignorance of basic sanitary conditions, the existence of polluting industries near wells and residential areas contributed to an unprecedented mortality rate of 2.6% in 1830. In 1832 cholera first reached New York in the deadliest epidemic to that date; the need for a new supply of fresh water was crucial. In March 1833, Major David Bates Douglass, engineering professor at West Point Military Academy, was appointed to survey and estimate the proposed route.
In 1837, construction began on a massive engineering project, to divert water from sources upstate, following a route surveyed by Douglass and supervised by Douglass' successor, Chief Engineer John B. Jervis; the Croton River was dammed, aqueducts were built, tunnels dug, piping laid, reservoirs created. The gravity-fed aqueduct dropped 13 inches per mile, 1/4" per 100'. An elliptical tube, 8.5 feet high by 7.5 feet wide, of iron piping encased in brick masonry was laid, sometimes in cuts, with conical ventilating towers every mile or so, to relieve pressure and keep the water fresh. Hydraulic cement was added, it extended from the Old Croton Dam in northern Westchester County to the Harlem River, where it continued over the High Bridge at 173rd Street and down the West Side of Manhattan and into a Receiving Reservoir located between 79th and 86th streets and Sixth and Seventh Avenues. The Receiving Reservoir was a rectangular tank within fortress-like rusticated retaining walls, 1,826 feet long and 836 feet wide.
35,000,000 US gallons flowed into it daily from northern Westchester. The Full Flow, Design capacity, of the elliptical tube: 8201 CFM, or 88 MGD. From the Receiving Reservoir, water flowed down to the Croton Distributing Reservoir, better known as the Croton Reservoir, a similar fortified tank located on Fifth Avenue between 40th Street and 42nd Street, where the main branch of the New York Public Library and Bryant Park are located today; this reservoir was built to resemble ancient Egyptian architecture. New Yorkers came uptown for the fine view of the city obtained from atop its walls; the aqueduct opened to public use with great fanfare on October 14, 1842. The day-long celebration culminated in a fountain of water that spouted to a height of 50 feet from the beautifully decorated cast iron Croton Fountain in City Hall Park. Among those present was James Renwick, Jr. who went on to design Grace Church, New York, the Smithsonian Institution Building in Washington, D. C. and St. Patrick's Cathedral, New York, was involved in the architectural and engineering work on the aqueduct as an up-and-coming 18-year-old.
Water started flowing through the aqueduct on June 22, 1842, taking 22 hours for gravity to take the water the 41 miles to reach Manhattan. Though only 6,175 houses had been connected to the system by 1844, the Croton water had dramatically improved both domestic hygiene and interior design. Baths and running water were being built in the private homes of wealthy New Yorkers, public bathing facilities were constructed for the masses; the water system had another inadvertent consequence. The decline in the number of residents drawing water from the city's wells resulted in a rise in the water table, which flooded many cellars. To address this problem, the city built sewers in many residential streets. By 1852, 148 miles of sewers had been constructed. About this time the German cockroach attracted attention and was called the "Croton bug" on the mistaken belief that the aqueduct brought the insects into the homes being connected to the new water supply system. Despite its size, the capacity of the Old Croton Aqueduct could not keep up with the growth of New York City, construction on a New Croton Aqued
Putnam County, New York
Putnam County is a county located in the U. S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 99,710; the county seat is Carmel. Putnam County formed in 1812 from Dutchess County and is named for Israel Putnam, a hero in the French and Indian War and a general in the American Revolutionary War. Putnam County is included in the New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is located in the lower Hudson River Valley. Midtown Manhattan is around a one-hour drive, Grand Central Terminal is 1 hour, 20 minute train ride from the county, it is one of the most affluent counties in America, ranked 7th by median household income, 43rd by per-capita income, according to the 2012 American Community Survey and 2009-2013 American Community Survey, respectively. In 1609, a Native American people called the Wappinger inhabited the east bank of the Hudson River, they farmed and fished throughout their range encountering Dutch fur traders. They obtained metal goods such as alcohol and firearms in exchange for furs.
The colonial Province of New York and the Connecticut Colony negotiated an agreement on November 28, 1683, establishing their border as 20 miles east of the Hudson River, north to Massachusetts. Dutchess county was organized as one of New York's twelve counties, it included two towns in the present Columbia county. Until 1713, Dutchess was administered by Ulster county. In 1691, a group of Dutch traders purchased a tract of land from the Wappingers that spanned from the Hudson River to the Connecticut border. Six years they sold it to wealthy Dutch-American merchant Adolphus Philipse, who obtained a Royal sanction for a "Highland Patent" that encompassed most of today's Putnam County. Unknown at that time was a veer in the river's path to the northwest at the Hudson Highlands; this generated a dispute over a 2-mile-wide section of border between northern Westchester County and then-Dutchess counties and the Connecticut Colony. In 1737, the New York Colonial Assembly designated the Philipse Patent as the South Precinct of Dutchess County.
The Philipses began leasing farms to migrants from Massachusetts, Long Island, lower Westchester. After Adolph Philipse's death, the Patent was divided in 1754 into nine lots granted to three heirs: Mary Philipse, Philip Philipse, Susannah Philipse Robinson. During the French and Indian War, many of the Wappinger went to Massachusetts. Compared to other parts of the Hudson Valley, Putnam County had slow settlement, it was owned and settlement was limited to tenant farmers willing to pay the Philipse family for leases. Secondly, it was hilly and rocky, making it unappealing to men looking for tillable cropland, its use was limited to dairy farming and wood cutting. The first non-tenant settlers in the county were along its eastern edge; the ambiguous border with Connecticut attracted farmers from New England. They assumed. Among early settlers were the Hayt family, which built a farm called The Elm in 1720. Jacob Haviland settled in the Oblong in 1731 in; the first village in the county was Fredericksburg, now the hamlet of Patterson.
During the Revolution, the Philipses stayed loyal to the Crown. As a consequence, their lands were confiscated by the New York government, it sold the Philipse Patent along with the rest of their holdings. The dispute over The Oblong was resolved in the aftermath of the war, with the settled tract being incorporated as the first of two versions of the Town of Southeast. Resolved were two "Gores", the Beekman Gore and the Rombout Gore, which being geographically similar to the Livingston and Beekman patents they abutted, were ceded by the Philipses to Dutchess County in 1758 and 1771 respectively. Due to the increasing population of the Southern Precinct of Dutchess County and the great distance of these communities from the county seat, Putnam was split from Dutchess in 1812, it was organized as an independent county. It encompassed all of the Philipse Patent and the Oblong abutting it, less a triangular area in the farthest northwest reach of the Patent. There, a lowland near Fishkill Creek isolated from the rest of Putnam County and its adjacent upland drainage leading into the Hudson Highlands to the south, were ceded to Dutchess.
Putnam travelers used boats and ships along the Hudson River. Boats transporting goods traveled up the Hudson to ports at Peekskill, New York, they were transported by road into Putnam County, or goods were unloaded in Putnam County at Cold Spring, New York. Such transport suffered in winter. At that time, little food or goods could be shipped to the county; the Philipstown Turnpike was created in 1815 as a toll road from Cold Spring to Connecticut. The wagons that traveled the road would transport produce from eastern Putnam County and iron ore from the mines; the route of the turnpike can be traced today: Rt 301 from Cold Spring to Farmers Mills Road, to White Pond Road to Pecksville Holmes Rd to Patterson Quaker Hill Rd to Connecticut. Transportation improved with the advent of the railroad, namely the Harlem Line, built in the 1840s, connecting Putnam by rail to New York City. There were four stations on the Harlem line in Putnam County: Brewster, Dykemans and Patterson. Today only the Patterson stops remain.
Putnam County played an important role in the Civil War. One third of the county's men between the ages of 15 and 55 served in the military during the wa
Neversink Reservoir is a reservoirs in the New York City water supply system. It is located in the Catskill Mountain town of Neversink in Sullivan County, New York, 75 miles northwest of the City, it is fed by the longest tributary of the Delaware River. Water collected in the reservoir in turn goes through the Neversink Tunnel a short distance east to Rondout Reservoir to be pooled with that from Pepacton and Cannonsville reservoirs which form the west-of-the-Hudson River components of the Delaware Aqueduct. Together, they provide nearly half of the city's daily consumption. Construction began in 1941, as the city realized that after World War II, it would need to increase its supply aggressively to meet explosive growth. Neversink was chosen after opposition from the region's trout fishermen and the geologic unfeasibility of the site scotched plans for smaller reservoirs along Willowemoc Creek. Two local hamlets with long histories and Bittersweet, were condemned and flooded to make the reservoir a reality.
The reservoir was finished in 1953 and began sending water the following year, although only in 1955 did it reach its planned capacity. In 2006, after residents raised concerns regarding the soundness of both Merriman and Neversink dams, a local newspaper obtained copies of inspection reports for both and found that the handwriting and information relating to the structural soundness of the dams on many of them over a three-year period was identical, suggesting they had been photocopied. Only variable information, such as weather and water elevation, changed in each report. City and state officials promised to investigate the matter and discipline any employees involved in wrongdoing. Several were suspended indefinitely without pay. At full capacity, Neversink holds 34.9 billion US gallons. The upper Neversink drains a 92-square mile area reaching all the way to Slide Mountain, the Catskills' highest peak, through six towns and two counties, it reaches a maximum depth of 175 feet. Neversink Dam is an earthen structure 195 feet high.
NY 55 travels across it. The spillway elevation is 1,440 feet above sea level. Neversink is not as reached as some of the city's other Catskill reservoirs. NY 55 runs along its southern end, but, the only road within proximity of any section. Access to the actual reservoir is restricted and has been more so since the September 11, 2001 attacks forced an increase in security. Fishing is permitted in season with a DEP-issued permit in addition to the appropriate New York state license, the reservoir is known, as with most Catskill fishing areas, for its trout; however boats are not allowed to leave the reservoir for environmental reasons and must be stored near it year round. Fish species present in the lake include landlocked salmon, brown trout, yellow perch, smallmouth bass, chain pickerel, black bullhead, rock bass and pumpkinseed sunfish. Hunters with valid city and state permits may use the lands around the reservoir where hunting is permitted during the season. Beyond those, however, no recreational use of the reservoir is permitted.
While the land is not fenced off, the area is patrolled by uniformed DEP police. Official NYCDEP Neversink Reservoir page Table of Reservoir Facts at the Catskill Center for Conservation and Development website. U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Neversink Reservoir
The Schoharie Reservoir is a reservoir in the Catskill Mountains of New York State, created to be one of 19 reservoirs that supplies New York City with water. It was created by impounding Schoharie Creek. Portions of it lie in the towns of Conesville and Gilboa in Schoharie County, Roxbury in Delaware County, Prattsville in Greene County. After the Ashokan Reservoir was created as New York City's thirteenth reservoir and the Kensico Reservoir was completed soon after to store its water, the water supply was still insufficient for the city's high population. A search for a new location led to the village of Gilboa, New York, purchased and its residents evacuated through condemnation. Site preparation destroyed most of the area's buildings up to the water line; the dam was built during the early 1920s out of stone bricks. Flooding was completed in 1924 and the reservoir put into service; the village of Gilboa was relocated to the west. The resulting reservoir, the northernmost of the New York City system, is located 36 miles southwest of Albany and 110 miles northwest of New York City.
It lies at the southern end of Schoharie County, the northeastern end of Delaware County, at the northwestern end of Greene County. It neighbors such towns as Gilboa and Conesville, it is an impounded portion of the Schoharie Creek, a tributary of the Mohawk River, itself a tributary of the Hudson River. The resulting reservoir consists of a single 6-mile basin, holds 17.6 billion US gallons of water at full capacity, making it one of the smaller New York City reservoirs. Put into service in 1926, the Schoharie Reservoir provides nine million people with 15-16 percent of their annual water supply needs, it is the smaller of the two reservoirs which, along with the Ashokan Reservoir, in Olive, New York, make up the New York City Catskill Water System. Overflow from the Schoharie Reservoir tops the Gilboa Dam and runs back into Schoharie Creek flowing into the Hudson River. Water from the Schoharie Reservoir flows to New York City through the 16-mile -long Shandaken Tunnel, empties into the Esopus Creek at Shandaken.
Another 11 miles down the Esopus it empties into the Ashokan Reservoir. From there water enters the 92-mile Catskill Aqueduct to the Kensico Reservoir, thence to New York City; the 120-foot high concrete and stone brick Gilboa Dam 42°23′30″N 74°26′59″W in Schoharie County was completed in 1926. Over time the dam eroded to. In December 2005, the New York City Department of Environmental Protection began a $24 million project to bring the dam up to New York State safety standards. Beginning in December 2006 eighty post-tensioned anchoring cables were installed through holes drilled in the dam into bedrock below, bringing it up to New York State safety standards. During this overhaul, residents nearby complained that their tap water had turned a brownish color due to the intense drilling into the earth to anchor the dam. Schoharie County planned and authorized the Gilboa Dam Failure Outdoor Warning System, installed by Mid-State Communications. New York City paid for the system consisting of twenty sirens stretching from the Town of Gilboa to the Town of Esperance, ending at the Montgomery County line.
A larger, full-scale overhaul of the Gilboa Dam began in the summer of 2011 after five years of planning. Estimated to cost $350 million, the project will add significant mass to the dam, install floodgates, include a large tunnel bypass allowing water to be released safely from the reservoir into Schoharie Creek. A citizens advocacy group, called Dam Concerned Citizens, Inc. was formed to monitor structural vulnerabilities in order to ensure the safety of those living downstream. On August 28, 2011, after receiving as much as 12 inches of rainfall from Hurricane Irene, the Gilboa Dam was placed in a level B situation. Though the dam was intact, the heavy upstream rainfall from the hurricane prompted officials to issue an evacuation order for downstream residents, including a mandatory evacuation of the towns of Middleburgh and Schoharie; the evacuation order was due to the heavy rainfall and not due to a dam failure. After a minor earthquake on August 27, 2011 was recorded in the region and in response to the 2011 Virginia earthquake which occurred on August 23, 2011 and was felt as far north as Canada, New York Governor Andrew Cuomo ordered an infrastructure inspection which included the Gilboa Dam.
Governor Cuomo visited the dam on the morning of August 28, 2011 to report that officials had discovered no impacts to the dam from recent seismic activity. List of reservoirs and dams in New York
Rondout Creek is a 63.3-mile-long tributary of the Hudson River in Ulster and Sullivan counties, New York, United States. It rises on Rocky Mountain in the eastern Catskills, flows south into Rondout Reservoir, part of New York City's water supply network into the valley between the Catskills and the Shawangunk Ridge, where it goes over High Falls and out to the Hudson at Kingston, receiving along the way the Wallkill River; the name of Rondout Creek comes from the fort, or redoubt, erected near its mouth. The Dutch equivalent of the English word redoubt is reduyt. In the Dutch records of Wildwyck, the spelling used to designate this same fort is invariably Ronduyt during the earliest period, with the present form rondout appearing as early as November 22, 1666; the Roundout Creek became economically important in the 19th century when the Delaware and Hudson Canal followed alongside it from Napanoch to the village of Rondout, now part of Kingston, which grew as the canal's northern port. Today it is important not only for the reservoir, but for the fishing and other recreational opportunities it provides.
Due to the Wallkill, it drains a vast area stretching over 1,100 square miles all the way down to Sussex County, New Jersey. The high mountains around its upper course and the reservoir, which collects water from three others add to its flow; the Rondout goes through several different stages because of the changes in surrounding geography and past development, such as the canal and reservoir, that has drawn on its waters. Its headwaters, above the reservoir, are a typical mountain stream. Below the reservoir it remains rocky but widens into the floor of a narrow valley. At Napanoch, where it turns northeast and receives its first significant tributary, the Ver Nooy Kill, it becomes wider, as does the valley it drains, deeper. North of the Shawangunks, where the Wallkill trickles down from Sturgeon Pool, it is wide enough to be referred to as the Rondout River at some points. At Creeklocks, the former northern outlet of the canal, it becomes wide and deep enough to be navigable, several marinas line the banks of the stream, now more than 100 feet wide, at Kingston just above its mouth.
Rising below the col between Rocky Mountain and Balsam Cap, the Rondout Creek flows southerly down the slopes of Rocky Mountain into a narrow valley, receiving tributary Picket Brook on the left and three unnamed streams from the slopes of Peekamoose Mountain to the right. A mile or two from its source, it reaches its first road, Peekamoose Road, it has dropped 1,440 feet in its first two miles. It turns to the southwest to follow a wider valley, known informally as Peekamoose Gorge. Most of the land surrounding the creek is part of New York's Forest Preserve, "forever wild" and thus undeveloped; the rocky stream boasts several popular swimming holes, one of, known as Blue Hole for the greenish tone of the deep water within. South of the small outlet stream from Peekamoose Lake, it is crossed and followed by Peekamoose Road, which at first runs high above the creek but close by it. Along here it receives several tributaries from the right — Buttermilk Falls Brook, with its eponymous waterfall near its mouth, High Falls Brook and Bear Hole Brook — most of them rising, like the Rondout itself, in the Slide Mountain Wilderness Area to the west.
To the east is another Forest Preserve management unit, the Sundown Wild Forest. Some unnamed tributaries come from here; because of the protected areas on both sides of the creek and the ease of public access, this area has become one of the Catskills' popular trout streams, fly-fishermen can be seen here during the season. It crosses under Peekamoose Road, here carrying the Long Path hiking trail, again just north of a popular camping area in the small Peekamoose Wild Forest, passes the hamlet of Sundown and widens as a floodplain develops alongside; the land along the creek is now in private hands, there is little public access to it as it crosses into Sullivan County. After crossing under NY 55A, it widens into the reservoir just below Grahamsville and begins flowing more to the east-southeast. Routes 55 and 55A bracket the reservoir to the south and north respectively. One-third of the way along the reservoir's 9-mile length, it crosses back into Ulster County. Now at an elevation of 840 feet, the creek resumes at the site of the former hamlet of Lackawack, leaving the Catskill Park, now headed eastwards, in a rocky, wider streambed through some more development.
It follows alongside Route 55, deviating from it only when it turns north to Honk Lake, another impoundment. Past here it comes into Napanoch. After crossing under US 209 and receiving the Ver Nooy Kill it bends northeast, paralleling the Shawangunk Ridge and the edge of the Catskill Plateau; the creek, here wider and deeper, forms the bed of a widening valley as it continues northeast past Eastern Correctional Facility, where the first remnant of the canal, an empty ditch next to an old railroad station, can be found alongside. The creek continues towards Kerhonkson, where US 44 cross over. US 209 continues paralleling the Rondout towards High Falls, as it begins to curve to the east around the northern end of the ridge. Here, it goes over the spectacular waterfall that gives the community its name, just below NY 213; these were the subject of controversy in recent years, since they were considered both a popular swimming hole and an attractive nuisance. The local fire department, which owned the land, had to sell it to keep its liability insurance premiums affordable, the
The Muscoot Reservoir is a reservoir in the New York City water supply system in northern Westchester County, New York, located directly north of the village of Katonah. Part of the system's Croton Watershed, it is 25 miles north of the City, it was constructed at the beginning of the 19th century by impounding the Muscoot River, a tributary of the Croton River, in turn a tributary of the Hudson River. The reservoir was once much smaller, but the other side of the original dam was intentionally flooded to make the reservoir bigger, when a new dam was built downstream; the original dam is still standing, divides the reservoir in two. During construction, the New York Central Railroad moved Bridge L-158 from the Rondout Creek near Kingston to carry its Mahopac Branch across a section of the reservoir near Goldens Bridge, it remains today though service on the branch ended in 1960. In 1978 it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places as the only remaining double-intersection Whipple truss railroad bridge in the state.
The reservoir was completed in 1905 and serves as the main collecting point for all the reservoirs in the Croton Watershed. It is 8 miles long, can hold up to 4.9 billion US gallons of water at full capacity, has a 76 square mile drainage basin. Water from the Muscoot Reservoir flows down the balance of the Muscoot River enters the Croton River to flow into the New Croton Reservoir. From there it enters the New Croton Aqueduct and flows south into the Jerome Park Reservoir in The Bronx, it continues on to Manhattan, where it mixes with water from the Catskill Aqueduct, into Brooklyn ends in Staten Island at the aqueduct's termination. Fish found in the river include. List of reservoirs and dams in New York Photos of the Muscoot Reservoir and historic Bridge L-158
Cross River Reservoir
The Cross River Reservoir is a reservoir in the New York City water supply system located directly east and north of the northern Westchester County, New York, village of Katonah. Part of the system's Croton Watershed, it lies within the towns of Bedford and Pound Ridge, about 1 mile east of the village of Katonah, over 25 mi north of New York City, it was constructed around the start of the 20th century by impounding the Cross River, a tributary of the Croton River, which flows into the Hudson River. The reservoir was put into service in 1908; the resulting body of water is one of 16 in the Croton Watershed, the southernmost of New York City's watersheds. The reservoir is 3.2 mi long, has a drainage basin of 30 square miles, can hold 10.3 billion US gallons of water at full capacity, making it one of the city's smaller reservoirs. To reach the city, water flows through Cross River into the Muscoot Reservoir down that one into the New Croton Reservoir, where it enters the New Croton Aqueduct in Yorktown.
Via the aqueduct, it flows into The Bronx. In Manhattan, it meets the Catskill Aqueduct, it flows through Brooklyn and Staten Island, stopping near the end of the island. List of reservoirs and dams in New York Media related to Cross River Reservoir at Wikimedia Commons