North Cape (New Zealand)
North Cape is located at the northern end of the Northland Peninsula in the North Island of New Zealand. It is the northeastern tip of the Aupouri Peninsula and lies 30 kilometres east and 3 kilometres north of Cape Reinga; the name is sometimes used to refer just to the cape, known in Māori as Otou and which overlooks Murimotu Island, sometimes just to the eastern point of Murimotu Island. It is used to refer to the whole larger headland stretching about five km from Murimotu Island westwards to Kerr Point and including the Surville Cliffs; this wider North Cape, the Surville Cliffs, is the northernmost point of mainland New Zealand, being about three km further north than Cape Reinga. This article covers the wider North Cape. North Cape is one of the four New Zealand Cardinal Capes, it was named by Commander of the Endeavour in the 1769-70 voyage. The other Cardinal Capes being named at the time Cape East, West Cape & Cape South. North Cape was once an island formed by a marine volcano. Sand deposited by ocean currents formed a tombolo known as Waikuku Flat which joined the island to the rest of the Aupouri Peninsula.
The headland and flat combined now form the North Cape Peninsula. A large part of North Cape is enclosed in the North Cape Scientific Reserve; the reserve’s purpose is to protect the unique flora and fauna of the area, some of it endemic to a small area on Surville Cliffs. An electrified fence was erected in 2000 to create a mainland island by excluding the possums, feral pigs and semi-wild horses of the area; the reserve is managed by the Department of Conservation. Much of Waikuku Flat is in another DoC reserve, the Mokaikai Scenic Reserve which stretches south to Parengarenga Harbour; this reserve is open to the public but land access is via an area in Māori tribal ownership and a permit is required from the controlling Māori body to cross the land. Another strip of Māori land lies between the North Cape reserve; this strip includes the northern edge of Waikuku Flat. It stretches from Kerr Point and the north end of Tom Bowling Bay on the north coast across to Tokatoka Point on the west coast.
The Surville Cliffs are the northernmost point of the mainland of New Zealand, located at the tip of North Cape. In the past the cliffs have sometimes been referred to as Kerr Point but true Kerr Point lies a short distance away at the western end of North Cape; the first European discovery of the cliffs was made by Jean-François-Marie de Surville in December 1769, when he sailed his ship'St Jean Baptiste' to New Zealand to find a safe anchorage to care for sick crew. He found them; the cliffs expose 1.2 square kilometres of serpentinised peridotite mafic rocks. They form a unique environment that supports a number of threatened and endangered plants endemic to the area, including: Pittosporum ellipticum subsp. Serpentinum Hebe brevifolia Hebe ligustrifolia Helichrysum aggregatum Leucopogon xerampelinus Pimelea tomentosa Phyllocladus trichomanoides Pseudopanax lessonii Uncinia perplexa
West Cape is the westernmost point in the main chain of islands of New Zealand. It is located in the far southwest of the South Island, within Fiordland National Park, between Dusky Sound and Chalky Inlet. West Cape is one of the 4 New Zealand Cardinal Capes named by James Cook, Commander of the Endeavour in the 1769-70 voyage; the other Cardinal Capes being named at the time North Cape, Cape East & Cape South. West Cape is on a rocky shore and low forest-covered sloping land, just North of the Newton River Mouth
A Bailey bridge is a type of portable, pre-fabricated, truss bridge. It was developed in 1940-1941 by the British for military use during World War II and saw extensive use by British, Canadian and US military engineering units. A Bailey bridge has the advantages of requiring no special tools or heavy equipment to assemble; the wood and steel bridge elements were small and light enough to be carried in trucks and lifted into place by hand, without requiring the use of a crane. The bridges were strong enough to carry tanks. Bailey bridges continue to be used extensively in civil engineering construction projects and to provide temporary crossings for foot and vehicle traffic; the success of the Bailey bridge was due to the simplicity of the fabrication and assembly of its modular components, combined with the ability to erect and deploy sections with a minimum of assistance from heavy equipment. Many previous designs for military bridges required cranes to lift the pre-assembled bridge and lower it into place.
The Bailey parts were made of standard steel alloys, were simple enough that parts made at a number of different factories could be interchangeable. Each individual part could be carried by a small number of men, enabling army engineers to move more and more than before, in preparing the way for troops and matériel advancing behind them; the modular design allowed engineers to build each bridge to be as long and as strong as needed, doubling or tripling up on the supportive side panels, or on the roadbed sections. The basic bridge consists of three main parts; the bridge's strength is provided by the panels on the sides. The panels are 10-foot-long, 5-foot-high, cross-braced rectangles that each weigh 570 pounds, can be lifted by six men; the panel was constructed of welded steel. The top and bottom chord of each panel had interlocking male and female lugs into which engineers could inset panel connecting pins; the floor of the bridge consists of a number of 19-foot-wide transoms that run across the bridge, with 10-foot-long stringers running between them on the bottom, forming a square.
Transoms rest on the lower chord of the panels, clamps hold them together. Stringers are placed on top of the completed structural frame, wood planking is placed on top of the stringers to provide a roadbed. Ribands bolt the planking to the stringers. In the war, the wooden planking was covered by steel plates, which were more resistant to the damage caused by tank tracks; each unit constructed in this fashion creates a single 10-foot-long section of bridge, with a 12-foot-wide roadbed. After one section is complete it is pushed forward over rollers on the bridgehead, another section built behind it; the two are connected together with pins pounded into holes in the corners of the panels. For added strength several panels can be bolted on either side of the bridge, up to three. Another solution is to stack the panels vertically. With three panels across and two high, the Bailey Bridge can support tanks over a 200-foot span. Footways can be installed on the outside of the side-panels. A useful feature of the Bailey bridge is its ability to be launched from one side of a gap.
In this system the front-most portion of the bridge is angled up with wedges into a "launching nose" and most of the bridge is left without the roadbed and ribands. The bridge is placed on rollers and pushed across the gap, using manpower or a truck or tracked vehicle, at which point the roller is removed and the ribands and roadbed installed, along with any additional panels and transoms that might be needed. During World War II, Bailey bridge parts were made by companies with little experience of this kind of engineering. Although the parts were simple, they had to be manufactured if they were fit each other so they were assembled into a test bridge at the factory to make sure of this. To do this efficiently, newly manufactured parts would be continuously added to the test bridge, while at the same time the far end of the test bridge was continuously dismantled and the parts dispatched to the end-users. Donald Bailey was a civil servant in the British War Office who tinkered with model bridges as a hobby.
He had proposed an early prototype for a Bailey bridge before World War II in 1936, but the idea was not acted upon. Bailey drew an original proposal for the bridge on the back of an envelope in 1940. On 14 February 1941, the Ministry of Supply requested that Bailey have a full-scale prototype completed by 1 May. Work on the bridge was completed with particular support from Ralph Freeman; the design was tested at the Experimental Bridging Establishment, in Christchurch, with several parts from Braithwaite & Co. beginning in December 1940 and ending in 1941. The first prototype was tested in 1941. For early tests, the bridge was laid across a field, about 2 feet above the ground, several Mark V tanks were filled with pig iron and stacked upon each other; the prototype of this was used to span Mother Siller's Channel, which cuts through the nearby Stanpit Marshes, an area of marshland at the confluence of the River Avon and the River Stour. It remains there as a functioning bridge. Full production began in July 1941.
Thousands of workers and over 650 firms, including Littlewoods, were engaged in making the bridge, with production rising to 25,000 bridge panels a month. The first Bailey bridges were in military service by December 1941, Bridges in the other formats were built, temporarily, to cross the Avon and Stour in the meadows nearby. Afte
Captain James Cook was a British explorer, navigator and captain in the Royal Navy. He made detailed maps of Newfoundland prior to making three voyages to the Pacific Ocean, during which he achieved the first recorded European contact with the eastern coastline of Australia and the Hawaiian Islands, the first recorded circumnavigation of New Zealand. Cook joined the British merchant navy as a teenager and joined the Royal Navy in 1755, he saw action in the Seven Years' War and subsequently surveyed and mapped much of the entrance to the Saint Lawrence River during the siege of Quebec, which brought him to the attention of the Admiralty and Royal Society. This acclaim came at a crucial moment in his career and the direction of British overseas exploration, led to his commission in 1766 as commander of HM Bark Endeavour for the first of three Pacific voyages. In three voyages, Cook sailed thousands of miles across uncharted areas of the globe, he mapped lands from New Zealand to Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean in greater detail and scale not charted by Western explorers.
As he progressed in his voyages of discovery, he surveyed and named features, recorded islands and coastlines on European maps for the first time. He displayed a combination of seamanship, superior surveying and cartographic skills, physical courage, an ability to lead men in adverse conditions. Cook was attacked and killed in 1779 during his third exploratory voyage in the Pacific while attempting to kidnap Hawaiian chief Kalaniʻōpuʻu in order to reclaim a cutter stolen from one of his ships, he left a legacy of scientific and geographical knowledge which influenced his successors well into the 20th century, numerous memorials worldwide have been dedicated to him. James Cook was born on 7 November 1728 in the village of Marton in Yorkshire and baptised on 14 November in the parish church of St Cuthbert, where his name can be seen in the church register, he was the second of eight children of James Cook, a Scottish farm labourer from Ednam in Roxburghshire, his locally born wife, Grace Pace, from Thornaby-on-Tees.
In 1736, his family moved to Airey Holme farm at Great Ayton, where his father's employer, Thomas Skottowe, paid for him to attend the local school. In 1741, after five years' schooling, he began work for his father, promoted to farm manager. Despite not being formally educated he became capable in mathematics and charting by the time of his Endeavour voyage. For leisure, he would climb Roseberry Topping, enjoying the opportunity for solitude. Cooks' Cottage, his parents' last home, which he is to have visited, is now in Melbourne, having been moved from England and reassembled, brick by brick, in 1934. In 1745, when he was 16, Cook moved 20 miles to the fishing village of Staithes, to be apprenticed as a shop boy to grocer and haberdasher William Sanderson. Historians have speculated that this is where Cook first felt the lure of the sea while gazing out of the shop window. After 18 months, not proving suited for shop work, Cook travelled to the nearby port town of Whitby to be introduced to friends of Sanderson's, John and Henry Walker.
The Walkers, who were Quakers, were prominent local ship-owners in the coal trade. Their house is now the Captain Cook Memorial Museum. Cook was taken on as a merchant navy apprentice in their small fleet of vessels, plying coal along the English coast, his first assignment was aboard the collier Freelove, he spent several years on this and various other coasters, sailing between the Tyne and London. As part of his apprenticeship, Cook applied himself to the study of algebra, trigonometry and astronomy—all skills he would need one day to command his own ship, his three-year apprenticeship completed, Cook began working on trading ships in the Baltic Sea. After passing his examinations in 1752, he soon progressed through the merchant navy ranks, starting with his promotion in that year to mate aboard the collier brig Friendship. In 1755, within a month of being offered command of this vessel, he volunteered for service in the Royal Navy, when Britain was re-arming for what was to become the Seven Years' War.
Despite the need to start back at the bottom of the naval hierarchy, Cook realised his career would advance more in military service and entered the Navy at Wapping on 17 June 1755. Cook married Elizabeth Batts, the daughter of Samuel Batts, keeper of the Bell Inn in Wapping and one of his mentors, on 21 December 1762 at St Margaret's Church, Essex; the couple had six children: James, Elizabeth, Joseph and Hugh. When not at sea, Cook lived in the East End of London, he attended St Paul's Church, where his son James was baptised. Cook has no direct descendants—all of his children died before having children of their own. Cook's first posting was with HMS Eagle, serving as able seaman and master's mate under Captain Joseph Hamar for his first year aboard, Captain Hugh Palliser thereafter. In October and November 1755, he took part in Eagle's capture of one French warship and the sinking of another, following which he was promoted to boatswain in addition to his other duties, his first temporary command was in March 1756 when he was master of Cruizer, a small cutter attached to Eagle while on patrol.
In June 1757 Cook formally passed his master's examinations at Trinity House, qualifying him to navigate and handle a ship of the King's fleet. He joined the frigate
The North Island officially named Te Ika-a-Māui, is one of the two main islands of New Zealand, separated from the larger but much less populous South Island by Cook Strait. The island's area is 113,729 square kilometres, it has a population of 3,749,200. Twelve main urban areas are in the North Island. From north to south, they are Whangarei, Hamilton, Rotorua, New Plymouth, Hastings, Palmerston North, Wellington, the capital, located at the south-west extremity of the island. About 77% of New Zealand's population lives in the North Island. Although the island has been known as the North Island for many years, in 2009 the New Zealand Geographic Board found that, along with the South Island, the North Island had no official name. After a public consultation, the board named the island North Island or Te Ika-a-Maui in October 2013. In prose, the two main islands of New Zealand are called the North Island and the South Island, with the definite articles, it is normal to use the preposition in rather than on, for example "Hamilton is in the North Island", "my mother lives in the North Island".
Maps, headings and adjectival expressions use North Island without the. According to Māori mythology, the North and South Islands of New Zealand arose through the actions of the demigod Māui. Māui and his brothers were fishing from their canoe when he caught a great fish and pulled it from the sea. While he was not looking his brothers fought over the fish and chopped it up; this great fish became the North Island and thus a Māori name for the North Island is Te Ika-a-Māui. The mountains and valleys are believed to have been formed as a result of Māui's brothers' hacking at the fish; until the early 20th Century, an alternative Māori name for the North Island was Aotearoa. In present usage, Aotearoa is a collective Māori name for New Zealand as a whole; the sub-national GDP of the North Island was estimated at US$102.863 billion in 2003, 79% of New Zealand's national GDP. The North Island is divided into two ecoregions within the temperate broadleaf and mixed forests biome, the northern part being the Northland temperate kauri forest, the southern part being the North Island temperate forests.
The island has an extensive flora and bird population, with numerous National Parks and other protected areas. Nine local government regions cover the North Island and all its adjacent islands and territorial waters. Northland Auckland Waikato Bay of Plenty Gisborne Taranaki Manawatu-Wanganui Hawkes Bay Wellington The North Island has a larger population than the South Island, with the country's largest city and the capital, accounting for nearly half of it. There are 28 urban areas in the North Island with a population of 10,000 or more: Healthcare in the North Island is provided by fifteen District Health Boards. Organised around geographical areas of varying population sizes, they are not coterminous with the Local Government Regions. Bay of Islands Bay of Plenty Hauraki Gulf Hawke Bay Ninety Mile Beach North Taranaki Bight South Taranaki Bight Lake Taupo Waikato River Whanganui River Coromandel Peninsula Northland Peninsula Cape Palliser Cape Reinga East Cape North Cape Egmont National Park Tongariro National Park Waipoua Kauri Forest Whanganui National Park and many forest parks of New Zealand Mount Ruapehu Mount Taranaki Volcanic Plateau Waitomo Caves Taumatawhakatangihangakoauauotamateapokaiwhenuakitanatahu List of islands of New Zealand Media related to North Island, New Zealand at Wikimedia Commons North Island travel guide from Wikivoyage
New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia and Tonga; because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal and plant life; the country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington. Sometime between 1250 and 1300, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire and in 1907 it became a dominion. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.9 million is of European descent. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration; the official languages are English, Māori, NZ Sign Language, with English being dominant. A developed country, New Zealand ranks in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic freedom. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy; the service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, agriculture. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister Jacinda Ardern.
Queen Elizabeth II is the country's monarch and is represented by a governor-general Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes; the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ASEAN Plus Six, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and named it Staten Land "in honour of the States General", he wrote, "it is possible that this land joins to the Staten Land but it is uncertain", referring to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America, discovered by Jacob Le Maire in 1616. In 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand. Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand.
It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa referring to just the North Island. Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South. In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm; the New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, South Island or Te Waipounamu. For each island, either its English or Māori name can be used. New Zealand was one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populations suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern Polynesians between 1250 and 1300, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands.
Over the centuries that followed, these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi and hapū who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight against each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu, now known as the Chatham Islands, where they developed their distinct Moriori culture; the Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862 because of Taranaki Māori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases contributed. In 1862 only 101 survived, the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933; the first Europeans known to have reached New Zeala
East Island / Whangaokeno
East Island / Whangaokeno is a small island 2 km east of East Cape in the North Island of New Zealand. Reaching an elevation of 129 m, it was the original location for the East Cape Lighthouse, built in 1900. However, the island is prone to its steep cliffs cause numerous landslides. By 1920, the danger to the lighthouse was considered great enough to trigger a decision to move the lighthouse to the mainland. In 1922, the lighthouse was relocated to its current position. List of islands of New Zealand New Zealand outlying islands