A commuter town is a town whose residents normally work elsewhere, although they live and sleep in these neighborhoods. The name suggests that these communities have little commercial or industrial activity beyond a small amount of retail, oriented toward locals. A commuter town may be known as an exurb, or a community, bedroom town or bedroom suburb. The phrase bedroom town has adopted into the Japanese wasei-eigo word bed town. Suburbs and commuter towns often coincide, but not always, similar to college town, resort town, and mill town, the term commuter town describes the municipalitys predominant economic function. A suburb, in contrast, is a community of size, political power. A towns economic function may change, for example when improved transport brings commuters to industrial suburbs or railway towns in search of suburban living, commuter towns may be in rural or semi-rural areas, with a ring of green space separating them from the larger city or town. Where urban sprawl and conurbation have erased clear lines among towns and cities in large metropolitan areas, commuter towns can arise for a number of different reasons.
Sometimes, as in Sleepy Hollow, New York or Tiburon, California, in other cases, a pleasant small town, such as Warwick, New York, over time attracts more residents but not large businesses to employ them, requiring denizens to commute to employment centers. Another cause, particularly relevant in the American South and West, is the growth of once-small cities. Owing largely to the creation of the Interstate Highway System. As a result, many cities were absorbed into the suburbs of these larger cities. Often, commuter towns form when workers in a region cannot afford to live where they work, the late 20th century dot-com bubble and United States housing bubble drove housing costs in Californian metropolitan areas to historic highs, spawning exurban growth in adjacent counties. For example, most cities in western Riverside County, California can be considered exurbs of Orange County and Los Angeles County, as of 2003, over 80% of the workforce of Tracy, California was employed in the San Francisco Bay Area.
A related phenomenon is common in the towns of the American West that require large workforces, yet emphasize building larger single-family residences. In certain major European cites, such as Berlin and London, around London, several towns – such as Basildon, Crawley and Stevenage – were built for this purpose by the Commission for New Towns. In some cases, commuter towns can result from negative economic conditions, Ohio, for instance, had its own regional identity along with neighboring Weirton, West Virginia until the collapse of the steel industry in the 1980s. In 2013, Jefferson County, Ohio was added to the Pittsburgh metropolitan area as part of its larger Combined Statistical Area, long-time residents may be displaced by new commuter residents due to rising house prices
A tumulus is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves. Tumuli are known as barrows, burial mounds or kurgans, a cairn, which is a mound of stones built for various purposes, may originally have been a tumulus. Tumuli are often categorised according to their external apparent shape, in this respect, a long barrow is a long tumulus, usually constructed on top of several burials, such as passage graves. A round barrow is a tumulus, commonly constructed on top of burials. The internal structure and architecture of both long and round barrows has a range, the categorization only refers to the external apparent shape. The method of inhumation may involve a dolmen, a cist, a mortuary enclosure, examples of barrows include Duggleby Howe and Maeshowe. The funeral of Patroclus is described in book 23 of the Iliad, Patroclus is burned on a pyre, and his bones are collected into a golden urn in two layers of fat. The barrow is built on the location of the pyre, achilles sponsors funeral games, consisting of a chariot race, wrestling, running, a duel between two champions to the first blood, discus throwing and spear throwing.
Beowulfs body is taken to Hronesness, where it is burned on a funeral pyre, during cremation, the Geats lament the death of their lord, a widows lament being mentioned in particular, singing dirges as they circumambulate the barrow. Afterwards, a mound is built on top of a hill, overlooking the sea, a band of twelve of the best warriors ride around the barrow, singing dirges in praise of their lord. Parallels have drawn to the account of Attilas burial in Jordanes Getica. Jordanes tells that as Attilas body was lying in state, the best horsemen of the Huns circled it, as in circus games. An Old Irish Life of Columcille reports that every funeral procession halted at a mound called Eala, whereupon the corpse was laid, archaeologists often classify tumuli according to their location and date of construction. Some British types are listed below, Bank barrow Bell barrow Bowl barrow D-shaped barrow - round barrow with a flat edge at one side often defined by stone slabs. Disc barrow Fancy barrow - generic term for any Bronze Age barrows more elaborate than a hemispherical shape.
Long barrow Oval barrow - a Neolithic long barrow consisting of an elliptical, platform barrow - The least common of the recognised types of round barrow, consisting of a flat, wide circular mound that may be surrounded by a ditch. They occur widely across southern England with a concentration in East and West Sussex. Pond barrow - a barrow consisting of a circular depression, surrounded by a bank running around the rim of the depression
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
The Strowger switch was the first commercially successful electromechanical stepping switch telephone exchange system. It was invented by Almon Brown Strowger, and first patented in 1891, because of its operational characteristics it is known as a step-by-step switch. Strowger, an undertaker, was motivated to invent an automatic telephone exchange after having difficulties with the telephone operators. He was said to be convinced that she, as one of the telephone exchange operators, was sending calls to the undertaker to her husband. He first conceived his invention in 1888, and patented the telephone exchange in 1891. It is reported that the model was made from a round collar box. The Strowger Automatic Telephone Exchange Company was founded in 1891, the company installed and opened the first commercial exchange in his then-home town of La Porte, Indiana on November 3,1892, with about 75 subscribers and capacity for 99. Early advertising called the new invention the girl-less, cuss-less, out-of-order-less, wait-less telephone, the Strowger patents were exclusively licensed to the Automatic Electric Company.
Strowger sold his patents in 1896 for US$1,800 and sold his share in Automatic Electric in 1898 for US$10,000 and his patents subsequently sold for US$2.5 million in 1916. Company engineers continued development of the Strowger designs and submitted several patents in the names of its employees, the Strowger system was widely used until the development of the more reliable crossbar switch, an electromechanical switch with a matrix of vertical and horizontal bars and simpler motions. Strowgers patent specifies dialing equipment at the location and the switching equipment at the central office. The customer device creates trains of on-off current pulses corresponding to the digits 1-9 and this equipment originally consisted of two telegraph keys engaged by knife switches, and evolved into the rotary dial telephone. The central office switching equipment had a two-motion stepping switch, a contact arm could be moved up and down to select one of ten rows of contacts, and rotated to select one of ten contacts in that row, a total of 100 choices.
The stepping motion was controlled by the current pulses coming from the originating customers telegraph keys, the Strowger switch had three banks of contacts, what appear to be continuous arcs of metal might be shields, individual contacts are hidden. Toward the upper end of each shaft are two copper-colored ratchets, the upper one has ten grooves, and raises the shaft. The lower one has long vertical teeth, the Strowger switch used two telegraph type keys on a telephone set for dialing. Each key required a wire to the exchange. The keys were tapped to step the switch in two stages, the first set of incoming pulses raises the armature of an electromagnet to move a shaft which selects the desired level of contacts, by engaging a pawl with the upper ratchet
Districts of England
The districts of England are a level of subnational division of England used for the purposes of local government. As the structure of government in England is not uniform. Some districts are styled as boroughs, cities, or royal boroughs, these are purely honorific titles, prior to the establishment of districts in the 1890s, the basic unit of local government in England was the parish overseen by the parish church vestry committee. Vestries dealt with the administraction of both parochial and secular governmental matters, parishes were the successors of the manorial system and historically had been grouped into hundreds. Hundreds once exercised some supervising administrative function, these powers ebbed away as more and more civic and judicial powers were centred on county towns. From 1834 these parishes were grouped into Poor Law Unions, creating areas for administration of the Poor Law and these areas were used for census registration and as the basis for sanitary provision. In 1894, based on these earlier subdivisions, the Local Government Act 1894 created urban districts and rural districts as sub-divisions of administrative counties, another reform in 1900 created 28 metropolitan boroughs as sub-divisions of the County of London.
Meanwhile, from this date parish-level local government administration was transferred to civil parishes, the setting-down of the current structure of districts in England began in 1965, when Greater London and its 32 London boroughs were created. They are the oldest type of still in use. In 1974, metropolitan counties and non-metropolitan counties were created across the rest of England and were split into metropolitan districts, in London power is now shared again, albeit on a different basis, with the Greater London Authority. During the 1990s a further kind of district was created, the unitary authority, metropolitan boroughs are a subdivision of a metropolitan county. These are similar to unitary authorities, as the county councils were abolished in 1986. Most of the powers of the county councils were devolved to the districts but some services are run by joint boards, the districts typically have populations of 174,000 to 1.1 million. Non-metropolitan districts are second-tier authorities, which share power with county councils and they are subdivisions of shire counties and the most common type of district.
These districts typically have populations of 25,000 to 200,000, the number of non-metropolitan districts has varied over time. Initially there were 296, after the creation of unitary authorities in the 1990s and late 2000s and these are single-tier districts which are responsible for running all local services in their areas, combining both county and district functions. They were created in the out of non-metropolitan districts, and often cover large towns. In addition, some of the smaller such as Rutland, Herefordshire
Fire services in the United Kingdom
The fire services in the United Kingdom operate under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, and Scotland. Emergency cover is provided by over fifty fire and rescue services, many FRS were previously known as brigades or county fire services, but almost all now use the standard terminology. They are distinct from and governed by an authority, which is the legislative and administrative body. Fire authorities in England and Wales, and therefore fire and rescue services and Northern Ireland have centralised fire and rescue services, and so their authorities are effectively committees of the devolved parliaments. The total budget for services in 2014-15 was £2.9 billion. The devolved government in Scotland has an agency, HMFSI Scotland. This Act provided for centralised co-ordination of fire brigades in Great Britain,1947, Fire Services Act 1947 This Act transferred the functions of the National Fire Service to local authorities. Now repealed entirely in England and Wales by Schedule 2 of the Fire,1959, Fire Services Act 1959 This Act amended the 1947 Act, it dealt with pensions, staffing arrangements and provision of services by other authorities.
It was repealed in England and Wales along with the 1947 Act,1999, Greater London Authority Act 1999 This act was necessary to allow for the formation of the Greater London Authority and in turn the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2002, there was a series of fire strikes. In December 2002, the Independent Review of the Fire Service was published with the action still ongoing. Bains report ultimately led to a change in the relating to firefighting. 2002, Independent Review of the Fire Service published 2004, Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004, generally only applying to England and it came into force on 1 October 2006. The DfCLG has published a set of guides for non-domestic premises,2006, The Government of Wales Act 2006 gave the National Assembly for Wales powers to pass laws on Fire, promotion of fire safety otherwise than by prohibition or regulation. But does not prevent future legislation being passed by the UK government which applies to two or more constituent countries, There are further plans to modernise the fire service according to the Local Government Association.
The fire service in England and Wales is scrutinised by a House of Commons select committee, in June 2006, the fire and rescue service select committee, under the auspices of the Communities and Local Government Committee, published its latest report. For example, where FRSs were historically inspected by HMFSI, much of this work is now carried out by the National Audit Office, Fire Control On 8 February 2010 the House of Commons Communities and Local Government Select Committee heard evidence on the Fire Control project. Called to give evidence were Cllr Brian Coleman and Cllr James Pearson from the Local Government Association, giving evidence Matt Wrack from the Fire Brigades Union and John Bonney Chief Fire Officers Association
Napalm for example, is petroleum especially thickened with certain chemicals into a gel to slow, but not stop, releasing energy over a longer time frame than an explosive device. In the case of napalm, the gel adheres to surfaces, the first incendiary devices to be dropped during World War I fell on coastal towns in the south west of England on the night of 18–19 January 1915. The small number of German bombs, known as firebombs, were finned containers filled with kerosene and oil and they were dropped from Zeppelin airships. On 8 September 1915, Zeppelin L-13 dropped a number of firebombs. They did, have an effect on the morale of the civilian population of the United Kingdom. After further experiments with 5-litre barrels of benzol, in 1918, a further advantage of the alloy casing was its lightness, being a quarter of the density of steel, which meant that each bomber could carry a considerable number. The hope was that the two capitals would be engulfed in a blaze, causing the Allies to sue for peace.
The Royal Air Force had already used their own Baby Incendiary Bomb which contained a thermite charge, Incendiary bombs were used extensively in World War II as an effective bombing weapon, often in a conjunction with high-explosive bombs. Probably the most famous incendiary attacks are the bombing of Dresden, different methods of delivery, e. g. small bombs, bomblet clusters and large bombs, were tested and implemented. For example, a bomb casing was filled with small sticks of incendiary. An explosive charge would ignite the material, often starting a raging fire. The fire would burn at temperatures that could destroy most buildings made of wood or other combustible materials. Less successful was the Flammenbombe, a 250 kg or 500 kg high explosive bomb case filled with an inflammable oil mixture, the civilian destruction caused by such weapons quickly earned them a reputation as terror weapons with the targeted populations. The Nazi regime began the campaign of incendiary bombings at the start of World War II with the bombing of Warsaw, and continued with the London Blitz and the bombing of Moscow, among other cities.
Later, an extensive reprisal was exacted by the Allies in the bombing campaign that lead to the annihilation of many German cities. Sixty-seven Japanese cities lost significant areas to incendiary attacks, the most deadly single bombing raid in all history was Operation Meetinghouse, an incendiary attack that killed some 100,000 Tokyo residents in one night. The 4 lb incendiary bomb, developed by ICI, was the standard light incendiary bomb used by RAF Bomber Command in very large numbers and it was the weapon of choice for the British dehousing plan. The bomb consisted of a body made from aluminium-magnesium alloy with a cast iron/steel nose
A tithe is a one-tenth part of something, paid as a contribution to a religious organization or compulsory tax to government. Today, tithes are normally voluntary and paid in cash, cheques, or stocks, whereas historically tithes were required and paid in kind, several European countries operate a formal process linked to the tax system allowing some churches to assess tithes. Traditional Jewish law and practice has included various forms of tithing since ancient times, orthodox Jews commonly practice maaser kesafim. In modern Israel, Jews continue to follow the laws of agricultural tithing, e. g. maaser rishon, terumat maaser, and maaser sheni. Instead, the New Testament scriptures are seen as teaching the concept of offerings as a means of supporting the church,1 Corinthians 16,2,2 Corinthians 9,7. Also, some of the earliest groups sold everything they had and held the proceeds in common to be used for the furtherance of the Gospel, Acts 2, 44-47, Acts 4, 34-35. Further, Acts 5, 1-20 contains the account of a man, tithes were mentioned at the Council of Tours in 567 and the Synod of Mâcon in 585.
They were formally recognized under Pope Adrian I in 787, none of the extant laws of the Ancient Near East deal with tithing, although other secondary documents show that it was a widespread practice in the Ancient Near East. Who is in charge of the tithe, hebrew is a Semitic language, related to Akkadian, the lingua franca of that time. In Genesis 14, 18-20, after rescuing Lot, after Melchizedeks blessing, Abraham gave him a tenth of everything he has obtained from battle, Then Melchizedek king of Salem brought out bread and wine. He was priest of God Most High, and he blessed Abram, saying, “Blessed be Abram by God Most High, Creator of heaven and earth. And praise be to God Most High, who delivered your enemies into your hand. ”Then Abram gave him a tenth of everything. ”And he was afraid and said, “How awesome is this place. This is none other than the house of God, and this is the gate of heaven. ”So early in the morning Jacob took the stone that he had put under his head and set it up for a pillar and poured oil on the top of it.
He called the name of that place Bethel, but the name of the city was Luz at the first, and of all that you give me I will give a full tenth to you. ”The tithe is specifically mentioned in the Books of Leviticus and Deuteronomy. The tithe system was organized in a cycle, corresponding to the Shemittah-cycle. These tithes were in reality more like taxes for the people of Israel and were mandatory and this tithe was distributed locally within thy gates to support the Levites and assist the poor. Every year, Terumah, Maaser Rishon and Terumat Maaser were separated from the grain, the first tithe is giving of one tenth of agricultural produce to the Levite. Historically, during the First Temple period, the first tithe was given to the Levites, approximately at the beginning of the Second Temple construction and his Beth din implemented its giving to the kohanim
Avon Fire and Rescue Service
Avon Fire & Rescue Service is the fire and rescue service covering the unitary authorities of Bath and North East Somerset, North Somerset, and South Gloucestershire in South West England. Avon Fire Brigade was created in 1974, when Avon county was created, in 1996, the county was abolished and four separate unitary authorities were created. Administration of the service was taken over by a joint fire authority made up of councillors from the four unitary authorities, in 2004, the Fire And Rescue Services Act was passed. To better reflect the roles and responsibilities of the fire service. Fleur Lombard QGM was the first female firefighter to die on duty in peacetime Britain, while Avon Fire, the Fleur Lombard Bursary Fund provides travel grants so that a junior UK firefighter may visit the fire service of another country. The role of a fire and rescue service has increased from fighting fires to cover the core functions of Protecting and Responding. The fire service aims to cut the risk of developing in the first place by promoting safety messages to local residents.
Avon Fire & Rescue Service runs community safety campaigns, the summer 2009 campaign, Be BBQ Safe, included a hard hitting interview with a BBQ fire burns victim who spent the previous summer in intensive care after using nitro to light his BBQ. The Car Clear scheme was launched in 2001, with the intention of promptly removing abandoned vehicles from streets and this eliminates the possibility of arson attacks. In meeting their Mission and Values Avon Fire & Rescue Service utilizes a large cadre of emergency equipment and these include 81 appliances,51 pumping appliances, four turntable ladders and 16 special appliances. Adding to the emergency response can be their boats, fork lift trucks, a Control Emergency Evacuation Vehicle. In 2009 &2011 Avon Fire & Rescue added 2 - Polybilt bodied Combined Aerial Rescue Platforms, the first began service at the Patchway fire station and was subsequently moved to the Speedwell fire station. The second was assigned to the Bedminster fire station, however both of these appliances have been withdrawn from service by July 2016 and the bodywork has been removed from the chassis to allow for the chassis to be used for new specialist appliances.
Also in 2009 to better serve the public the Yate Fire Station was upgraded to “whole-time/retained status”, firefighters would now be ready to respond from the fire station 24/7. This was an upgrade from the previously “crewed” status of 0800 –1700 hours daily and firefighters responding from their homes. As part of the “Investing for the Future” programme which began in 2014 Kingswood Fire Station was closed for refurbishment, the Kingswood Fire Station project was completed and subsequently the Speedwell Fire Station closed permanently all in 2015. The Chair of Avon Fire Authority assured the public that response standards will remain unchanged, along with the Speedwell Fire Station the Keynsham Fire Station was closed November 1,2015. According to the Chairman of Avon Fire Authority, Councillor Peter Abraham The regeneration of Keynsham town centre meant we needed to move the existing Keynsham Fire Station
A telephone exchange is a telecommunications system used in the public switched telephone network or in large enterprises. In historical perspective, telecommunication terms have been used with different semantics over time, the term telephone exchange is often used synonymously with central office, a Bell System term. Often, an office is defined as a building used to house the inside plant equipment of potentially several telephone exchanges. Such an area has referred to as the exchange. Central office locations may be identified in North America as wire centers, All central offices within a larger region, typically aggregated by state, were assigned a common numbering plan area code. For corporate or enterprise use, a telephone exchange is often referred to as a private branch exchange. Smaller installations might deploy a PBX or key telephone system in the office of a receptionist and this made it possible for subscribers to call each other at homes, businesses, or public spaces. These made telephony an available and comfortable communication tool for everyday use, one of the first to propose a telephone exchange was Hungarian Tivadar Puskás in 1877 while he was working for Thomas Edison.
The first experimental telephone exchange was based on the ideas of Puskás, the worlds first commercial telephone exchange opened on November 12,1877 in Friedrichsberg close to Berlin. George W. Coy designed and built the first commercial US telephone exchange opened in New Haven. The switchboard was built from carriage bolts, handles from teapot lids and bustle wire, Charles Glidden is credited with establishing an exchange in Lowell, MA. with 50 subscribers in 1878. In Europe other early telephone exchanges were based in London and Manchester, Belgium had its first International Bell exchange a year later. In 1887 Puskás introduced the multiplex switchboard, exchanges consisted of one to several hundred plug boards staffed by switchboard operators. Each operator sat in front of a panel containing banks of ¼-inch tip-ring-sleeve jacks. In front of the jack panel lay a horizontal panel containing two rows of patch cords, each connected to a cord circuit. When a calling party lifted the receiver, the loop current lit a signal lamp near the jack.
The operator responded by inserting the rear cord into the jack and switched her headset into the circuit to ask, Number. For a local call, the operator inserted the front cord of the pair into the partys local jack
Lawrence Ogilvie was a Scottish plant pathologist. Ogilvie was a UK expert on the diseases of commercially grown vegetables, in the 1920s — when agriculture, rather than tourism, was Bermudas major industry — he identified the virus that had devastated for 30 years the islands lily-bulb crop. He re-established the vital export trade to the USA and increased it to seven-fold the volume of ten years earlier, in total he wrote over 130 articles about plant diseases in journals of learned societies. Ogilvie was born in Rosehearty in the north of Aberdeenshire and his father, the Reverend William Paton Ogilvie was the minister of the Presbyterian church there. He attended Aberdeen Grammar School and took his BSc and MA at the University of Aberdeen in 1921 as the Fullerton Research Scholar with special distinction in Botany and he was awarded the Collie Prize for the most distinguished student in Botany. In Aberdeen, he lectured on the Alpine flora of China, at Emmanuel College, Cambridge University, he was awarded an MSc in 1923 for his work on tree slime fluxes, particularly willow, horse chestnut, and apple trees.
From September 1923 to April 1928 he was the Bermuda governments first plant pathologist, Aphid damage had previously been thought to be the cause of the crop failures. He identified the virus as transmitted by an aphid, Aphis lilii Takahashi, following establishing strong government inspection in the fields and packing stations, he reported the marked improvements found during his 1927 inspections of 204 bulb fields of these lilies. Exports of Bermuda Easter lilies increased from 823 cases in 1918 to 6043 cases in 1927, due to this success being published in the renowned Nature magazine, and while still in his 20s, Ogilvie was made a vice-president of the British Lily Society. Ogilvie wrote The Insects of Bermuda, published in 1928 by the Department of Agriculture and he identified and described 395 insects, in particular the Aphid ogilviei discovered by him on Lilium Harrisii in Bermuda. Bermuda had three crops of vegetables each year for export to New York, this gave him the experience to pioneer the European study of vegetable diseases, in the winter of 1928 he was appointed Advisory Mycologist at Long Ashton Research Station near Bristol, England.
The Vale of Evesham and other West Country areas grew and he pioneered the European study of commercial fruit and particularly vegetable diseases with 44 scientific papers between 1929 and 1946 at Long Ashton Research Station. He wrote the official national Diseases of Vegetables practical guide for trade growers. Ogilvie was influential in the World War II and post-war challenge of feeding Britain, he was the leading British expert on the diseases of cereal crops and vegetables. By the 1940s, wheat varieties had not been bred to resist the rust. The 1940s varieties of wheat were still unable to resist disease, Ogilvie was the international authority on the diseases of wheat that flourished in these damp, warm conditions, particularly Black Stem Rust and Take All. Ogilvie and his team of scientists advised growers and farmers in the south-west of England through the war years, Ogilvie was elected a vice president of the British Mycological Society in December 1956. On 10 January 1931, he married landscape architect Doris Katherine Raikes Turnbull, during World War II he was a member of the Home Guard in the hamlet of East Dundry where he lived with his wife and son
A hydraulic ram, or hydram, is a cyclic water pump powered by hydropower. It takes in water at one hydraulic head and flow rate, the device uses the water hammer effect to develop pressure that allows a portion of the input water that powers the pump to be lifted to a point higher than where the water originally started. The hydraulic ram is sometimes used in areas, where there is both a source of low-head hydropower and a need for pumping water to a destination higher in elevation than the source. In this situation, the ram is often useful, since it requires no outside source of other than the kinetic energy of flowing water.9 metres. In 1783, he installed another in Ireland and he did not patent it, and details are obscure, but it is known to have had an air vessel. The first self-acting ram pump was invented by the Frenchman Joseph Michel Montgolfier in 1796 for raising water in his mill at Voiron. His friend Matthew Boulton took out a British patent on his behalf in 1797, eastons firm, inherited by his son James, grew during the nineteenth century to become one of the more important engineering manufacturers in the United Kingdom, with a large works at Erith, Kent.
They specialised in water supply and sewerage systems worldwide, as well as land drainage projects, eastons had a good business supplying rams for water supply purposes to large country houses and village communities. Some of their installations still survived as of 2004, one example being at the hamlet of Toller Whelme. The firm closed in 1909, but the ram business was continued by James R Easton, in 1929, it was acquired by Green & Carter of Winchester, who were engaged in the manufacturing and installation of Vulcan and Vacher Rams. The first US patent was issued to Joseph Cerneau and Stephen S. Hallet in 1809, US interest in hydraulic rams picked up around 1840, as further patents were issued and domestic companies started offering rams for sale. Toward the end of the 19th century, interest waned as electricity, by the end of the twentieth century interest in hydraulic rams has revived, due to the needs of sustainable technology in developing countries, and energy conservation in developed ones.
A good example is AID Foundation International in the Philippines, who won an Ashden Award for their work developing ram pumps that could be maintained for use in remote villages. The hydraulic ram principle has been used in proposals for exploiting wave power. The venturi valve is configured as a ring section positioned around the inlet of the pump with the delivery outlet of the pump being directly in line. The elastomeric material and operation of these valves allows them to self-return without weight or spring assistance, a pressure vessel installed on a tee connected to the delivery port of the pump provides the pulsed flow accumulation means. This unique technology and design dramatically reduced the weight, manufacturing cost, systems have been developed and utilised for rainwater harvesting, water treatment and other water utility applications. The Papa hydraulic ram pump has two moving parts