Jackson Heights, Queens
Jackson Heights is a neighborhood in the northwestern portion of the borough of Queens in New York City. The neighborhood is part of Queens Community Board 3. Jackson Heights is neighbored by North Corona to the east, Elmhurst to the south, Woodside to the west, northern Astoria to the northwest, East Elmhurst to the northeast; the main ZIP code of Jackson Heights is 11372. According to the 2010 United States Census, the neighborhood has a population of 108,152. From colonial times to the early 1900s, the area now known as Jackson Heights was a vast marsh named Trains Meadow. In 1909, Edward A. MacDougall's Queensboro Corporation bought 325 acres of undeveloped land and farms and christened them Jackson Heights after John C. Jackson, a descendant of one of the original Queens families and a respected Queens County entrepreneur. Northern Boulevard, a major thoroughfare that bisects the neighborhood, was originally named Jackson Avenue; the addition of the term "Heights" echoed the prestige of the neighborhood of Brooklyn Heights and indicated that Jackson Heights was meant to be an exclusive neighborhood.
At first, the area could most be reached via a ferry from Manhattan or the Brooklyn bridges. Jackson Heights was conceived as a planned development for middle- to upper-middle income workers looking to escape an overcrowded Manhattan. Inspired by Sir Ebenezer Howard's garden city movement, it was laid out by Edward MacDougall's Queensboro Corporation in 1916 and began attracting residents after the arrival of the Flushing Line in 1917; the Queensboro Corporation coined the name "garden apartment" to convey the concept of apartments built around private parks. Although land for churches was provided, the apartments themselves were limited to white Anglo-Saxon Protestants, excluding Jews and Greeks and Italians. Several of the buildings in Jackson Heights were built by the Queensboro Corporation as part of a planned community located a few blocks off of the Flushing Line between Northern Boulevard and 37th Avenue. Targeted toward the middle class, these multi-story apartment buildings designed in the Colonial Revival and neo-Tudor styles were based on similar ones in Berlin.
They were to share garden spaces, have ornate exteriors and features such as fireplaces, parquet floors, sun rooms, built-in bathtubs with showers. In addition, the corporation divided the land into blocks and building lots, as well as installed streets and power, sewage lines; the Laurel apartment building on 82nd Street at Northern Boulevard was the first of the Queensboro Corporation buildings in Jackson Heights, completed in 1914 with a small courtyard. The Greystones on either side of 80th Street between 37th and 35th Avenues were completed in 1918 with a design by architect George H. Wells. There was leftover unused space, converted to parks and recreational areas, including a golf course; this was followed by the 1919 construction of the Andrew J. Thomas-designed Linden Court, a 10-building complex between 84th Street, 85th Streets, 37th Avenue, Roosevelt Avenue; the two sets of 5 buildings each, separated by a gated garden with linden trees and two pathways, included parking spaces with single-story garages accessed via narrow driveways, the first Jackson Heights development to do so.
The Hampton Gardens, the Château, the Towers followed in the 1920s. The Château and the Towers, both co-ops on 34th Avenue, had large, airy apartments and were served by elevators; the elegant Château cooperative apartment complex, with twelve buildings surrounding a shared garden, was built in the French Renaissance style and have slate mansard roofs pierced by dormer windows, diaperwork brick walls. At first purely decorative, the shared gardens in developments included paved spaces where people could meet or sit; the Queensboro Corporation started the Ivy Court, Cedar Court, Spanish Gardens projects, all designed by Thomas, in 1924. The Queensboro Corporation advertised their apartments from 1922 on. On August 28, 1922, the Queensboro Corporation paid $50 to the WEAF radio station to broadcast a ten-minute sales pitch for apartments in Jackson Heights, in what may have been the first "infomercial", opening with a few words about Nathaniel Hawthorne before promoting the corporation's Nathaniel Hawthorne apartments.
The ad wanted viewers to: seek the recreation and the daily comfort of the home removed from the congested part of the city, right at the boundaries of God's great outdoors, within a few minutes by subway from the business section of Manhattan... The cry of the heart is for more living room, more chance to unfold, more opportunity to get near Mother Earth, to play, to romp, to plant and to dig... Let me enjoin upon you as you value your health and your hopes and your home happiness, get away from the solid masses of brick... where your children grow up starved for a run over a patch of grass and the sight of a tree... Built in 1928, the English Gables line 82nd Street, the main shopping area of Jackson Heights' Hispanic community. There are two developments, called Engli
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
New York City Fire Department
The New York City Fire Department the Fire Department of the City of New York, is a department of the government of New York City that provides fire protection, technical rescue, primary response to biological and radioactive hazards, emergency medical services to the five boroughs of New York City. The New York City Fire Department is the largest municipal fire department in the United States and the second largest in the world after the Tokyo Fire Department; the FDNY employs 11,051 uniformed firefighters and 4,414 uniformed EMTs, fire inspectors. Its regulations are compiled in title 3 of the New York City Rules; the FDNY's motto is New York's Bravest for fire and New York's Best for EMS. The FDNY serves more than 8.5 million residents within a 302 square mile area. The FDNY headquarters is located at 9 MetroTech Center in Downtown Brooklyn, the FDNY Fire Academy is located on Randalls Island. Like most fire departments of major cities in the United States, the New York City Fire Department is organized in a paramilitary fashion, in many cases, echoes the structure of the police department.
The department's executive staff is divided into two areas that include a civilian Fire Commissioner who serves as the head of the department and a Chief of Department who serves as the operational leader. The current Fire Commissioner is Daniel A. Nigro, who succeeded Salvatore J. Cassano in June 2014; the executive staff includes several civilian deputy commissioners who are responsible for the many administrative bureaus within the department, along with the Chief of Department, Chief of Fire Operations, Chief of EMS, Chief Fire Marshal, Chief of Training and other staff chiefs. Staff chiefs include the seven citywide tour commanders, the Chief of Fire Prevention, the Chief of Safety. Operationally and geographically, the department is organized into five Borough Commands for each of the five Boroughs of New York City. Within those five Borough Commands exists nine firefighting Divisions, each headed by a Deputy Division Chief. Within each Division are four to seven Battalions, each led by a Battalion chief.
Each Battalion consists of three to eight firehouses and consists of 180–200 firefighters and officers. Each firehouse consists of one to three fire companies; each fire company is led by a Captain, who commands three lieutenants and nine to twenty firefighters. There are four shifts of firefighters in each company. Tours can be either night tours or day tours. Under a swapping system called “mutuals”, most firefighters combine tours and work a 24-hour shift, followed by three days off. In one tour or shift, each company is commanded by a Lieutenant or the Captain and is made up of three to five firefighters, depending on the type of fire company/unit: an engine company is staffed by an officer and three to four firefighters; the FDNY faces multifaceted firefighting challenges in many ways unique to New York. In addition to responding to building types that range from wood-frame single family homes to high-rise structures, there are many secluded bridges and tunnels, the New York City Subway system, as well as large parks and wooded areas that can give rise to brush fires.
The FDNY responds to many other incidents such as auto accidents, auto extrications, gas emergencies, construction accidents, high-angle rescues, trench rescues, confined space incidents, transit incidents, unstable buildings or collapses, hazardous material incidents and many more. Over the years, the FDNY has faced and has settled numerous discrimination lawsuits alleging that the FDNY engages in a culture where hiring discrimination towards racial minorities and discrimination towards racial minorities employed by the FDNY by passing them over for raises and promotions is encouraged. Most notably in 2014, the City of New York made a $98 million discrimination lawsuit settlement for a lawsuit brought by the Vulcan Society, an African-American firefighter fraternal organization. There have been investigations concerning FDNY firefighters engaging in bullying and harassing behavior of Muslim firefighters including behavior such as firefighters trying to slip pork products, which are prohibited under Islamic law, into the food of Muslim firefighters.
In another case, the son of a former FDNY commissioner was hired as a firefighter despite alledgedly making comments of anti-semitic nature The origins of the New York City Fire Department go back to 1648 when the first fire ordinance was adopted in what was the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam. Peter Stuyvesant, within one year of his arrival, appointed four fire wardens to wooden chimneys of thatched-roofed wooden houses, charging a penalty to owners whose chimneys were improperly swept; the first four fire wardens were Martin Krieger, Thomas Hall, Adrian Wyser, George Woolsey. Hooks and buckets were financed through the collection of fines for dirty chimneys, a fire watch was established, consisting of eight wardens which were drawn from the male population. An organization known as the prowlers but given the nickname the rattle watch patrolled the streets with buckets and hooks from nine in the evening until dawn looking for fires. Leather shoe buckets, 250 in all, were manufactured by local Dutch shoemakers in 1658, these bucket brigades are regarded as the beginning of the New York Fire Department.
In 1664 New Amsterdam was renamed New York. The first New York fire brigade entered service in 1731 equ
James Mercer Langston Hughes was an American poet, social activist, novelist and columnist from Joplin, Missouri. He moved to New York City as a young man. One of the earliest innovators of the then-new literary art form called jazz poetry, Hughes is best known as a leader of the Harlem Renaissance in New York City, he famously wrote about the period that "the negro was in vogue", paraphrased as "when Harlem was in vogue". Like many African Americans, Hughes had a complex ancestry. Both of Hughes' paternal great-grandmothers were enslaved African Americans and both of his paternal great-grandfathers were white slave owners in Kentucky. According to Hughes, one of these men was Sam Clay, a Scottish-American whiskey distiller of Henry County, said to be a relative of statesman Henry Clay; the other was a Jewish-American slave trader of Clark County. Hughes's maternal grandmother Mary Patterson was of African-American, French and Native American descent. One of the first women to attend Oberlin College, she married Lewis Sheridan Leary of mixed race, before her studies.
Lewis Leary subsequently joined John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry in West Virginia in 1859, where he was fatally wounded. Ten years in 1869, the widow Mary Patterson Leary married again, into the elite, politically active Langston family, her second husband was Charles Henry Langston, of African-American, Euro-American and Native American ancestry. He and his younger brother John Mercer Langston worked for the abolitionist cause and helped lead the Ohio Anti-Slavery Society in 1858. After their marriage, Charles Langston moved with his family to Kansas, where he was active as an educator and activist for voting and rights for African Americans, his and Mary's daughter Caroline became married James Nathaniel Hughes. They had two children. Langston Hughes grew up in a series of Midwestern small towns, his father left the family soon after the boy was born and divorced Carrie. The senior Hughes traveled to Cuba and Mexico, seeking to escape the enduring racism in the United States. After the separation, Hughes's mother traveled.
Langston was raised in Lawrence, Kansas, by his maternal grandmother, Mary Patterson Langston. Through the black American oral tradition and drawing from the activist experiences of her generation, Mary Langston instilled in her grandson a lasting sense of racial pride. Imbued by his grandmother with a duty to help his race, Hughes identified with neglected and downtrodden black people all his life, glorified them in his work, he lived most of his childhood in Lawrence. In his 1940 autobiography The Big Sea, he wrote: "I was unhappy for a long time, lonesome, living with my grandmother, it was that books began to happen to me, I began to believe in nothing but books and the wonderful world in books—where if people suffered, they suffered in beautiful language, not in monosyllables, as we did in Kansas."After the death of his grandmother, Hughes went to live with family friends and Auntie Mary Reed, for two years. Hughes lived again with his mother Carrie in Lincoln, Illinois, she had remarried.
The family moved to the Fairfax neighborhood of Cleveland, where he attended Central High School and was taught by Helen Maria Chesnutt, whom he found inspiring. His writing experiments began. While in grammar school in Lincoln, Hughes was elected class poet, he stated that in retrospect he thought it was because of the stereotype about African Americans having rhythm. I was a victim of a stereotype. There were only two of us Negro kids in the whole class and our English teacher was always stressing the importance of rhythm in poetry. Well, everyone knows, except us. During high school in Cleveland, Hughes wrote for the school newspaper, edited the yearbook, began to write his first short stories and dramatic plays, his first piece of jazz poetry, ``. Hughes had a poor relationship with his father, whom he saw when a child, he lived with his father in Mexico in 1919. Upon graduating from high school in June 1920, Hughes returned to Mexico to live with his father, hoping to convince him to support his plan to attend Columbia University.
Hughes said that, prior to arriving in Mexico, "I had been thinking about my father and his strange dislike of his own people. I didn't understand it, because I was a Negro, I liked Negroes much." His father had hoped Hughes would choose to study at a university abroad, train for a career in engineering. On these grounds, he was willing to provide financial assistance to his son, but did not support his desire to be a writer. Hughes and his father came to a compromise: Hughes would study engineering, so long as he could attend Columbia, his tuition provided, Hughes left his father after more than a year. While at Columbia in 1921, Hughes managed to maintain a B+ grade average, he left in 1922 because of racial prejudice among teachers. He was attracted more to the African-American people and neighborhood of Harlem than to his studies, but he continued writing poetry. Harlem was a center of vibrant cultural life. Hughes worked at various odd jobs, before serving a brief tenure as a crewman aboard the S.
S. Malone in 1923, spending six months traveling to West Europe. In Europe, Hughes left the S. S. Malone for a temporary stay in Paris. There he met and had a romance with Anne Marie Coussey
Corona is a neighborhood in the borough of Queens in New York City. It is bordered by Flushing and Flushing Meadows–Corona Park to the east, Jackson Heights to the west, Forest Hills and Rego Park to the south, Elmhurst to the southwest, East Elmhurst to the north. Corona's main thoroughfares include Corona Avenue, Roosevelt Avenue, Northern Boulevard, Junction Boulevard, 108th Street. Corona has a multicultural population with a Latino majority, is the site of historic African American and Italian American communities. After World War II, the majority of the neighborhood's residents were Italian, Irish and of other European ancestries. Corona has a significant Chinese population. Corona is part of Queens Community District 4; the section north of Roosevelt Avenue, called North Corona, is the northern section of Corona and is located in Community District 3. Corona's ZIP Code is 11368, Corona and East Elmhurst are referred to as one combined area, Corona–East Elmhurst. Corona is patrolled by the 110th Precinct of the New York City Police Department.
The area was known as West Flushing, but real estate developer Thomas Waite Howard, who became the first postmaster in 1872, petitioned to have the post office name changed to Corona in 1870, suggesting that it was the "crown of Queens County." Another theory is that the name Corona derives from the crown used as an emblem by the Crown Building Company, alleged to have developed the area. Either way, the name is a foreign translation of the word "crown." Corona was a late 19th-century residential development in the northeastern corner of the old Town of Newtown. Real estate speculators from New York started the community in 1854, the same year that the New York and Flushing Railroad began service to the area to serve a newly opened race course, it was at the Fashion Race Course in 1858 that the first games of baseball to charge admission took place. The games, which took place between the All Stars of Brooklyn and the All Stars of New York, are believed to be the first all star baseball games and in essence the birthplace of professional baseball.
A trophy baseball from this tournament sold for nearly $500,000. During the second half of the 1940s through the 1960s, many legendary African American musicians, civil rights leaders and athletes moved to the neighborhood. In the last half of the 20th century, Corona saw dramatic ethnic successions. In the 1950s, what was predominantly an Italian American and African American neighborhood began to give way to an influx of Dominicans. In the late 1990s, Corona saw a new wave of immigrants from Latin America; the area north of Roosevelt Avenue contained the heart of the historic African American community. The intersection of 108th Street and Corona Avenue is the historic center of the Italian American community, sometimes referred to as Corona Heights; the majority Hispanic community now consists of Dominicans, Ecuadorians, Guatemalans, Peruvians, Mexicans and Chileans. There are Asian Americans as well as Italian Americans and African Americans. Corona has several private schools including School of the Transfiguration.
Public schools include the High School for Arts and Business and P. S. 92. There are many churches representing diverse denominations. Antioch Baptist Church at 103rd Street and Northern Boulevard is a prominent African American congregation dating to 1936 with a membership of 700. Our Lady of Sorrows Roman Catholic Church at 104th Street and 37th Avenue was built in 1899 out of red brick with a nearby convent of the same period. Today it attracts large weekend crowds. In January 4, 2015, the church burned around 6:00 AM and rebuild in 2017 after it had a festival after the reconstruction The Congregation Tifereth Israel was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2002. Dorie Miller Residential Cooperative, built in 1952, comprises six buildings, containing 300 apartments, with 1,300 rooms in total; the cooperative is named after Doris "Dorie" Miller, a U. S. Naval hero at the first African American recipient of the Navy Cross. Among its original residents were jazz greats Nat Adderley & Jimmy Heath.
Corona was the childhood home of Marie Maynard Daly. A biochemist, Daly was the first African American woman to earn a Ph. D. in Chemistry. Daly studied the effects of cholesterol on the mechanics of the heart, the effects of sugars and other nutrients on the health of arteries, the breakdown of the circulatory system as a result of advanced age or hypertension; the Louis Armstrong House attracts visitors to the neighborhood and preserves the legacy of musician Louis Armstrong, one of Corona's most prominent historical residents. It was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1976. According to the 2010 Census, the total population of Corona was about 110,000. Corona is overwhelmingly Hispanic with all other demographics being definitively below the borough average. Corona is divided into two neighborhood tabulation areas and North Corona, which collectively comprise the population of the greater neigh
The Queens Public Library known as the Queens Borough Public Library and Queens Library, is the public library for the borough of Queens, one of three public library systems serving New York City. It is one of the largest library systems in the world by circulation, having loaned 13.5 million items in the 2015 fiscal year, one of the largest in the country in terms of the size of its collection. According to its website, the library holds about 7.5 million items, of which 1.4 million are at its central library in Jamaica, Queens. It was named "2009 Library of the Year" by Library Journal. Dating back to the foundation of the first Queens library in Flushing in 1858, Queens Public Library has become one of the largest public library systems in the United States, comprising 62 branches throughout the borough. Queens Public Library serves Queens' population of 2.3 million, including one of the largest immigrant populations in the country. A large percentage of the library's collections are in languages other than English Spanish, Chinese and Russian.
Queens Public Library is separate both from the New York Public Library, which serves Manhattan, the Bronx, Staten Island, from the Brooklyn Public Library, which serves only Brooklyn. The first library in Queens was founded in 1858 in Flushing as a subscription service, it became a free circulation library in 1869. In the late 19th century, several local libraries were founded in western Queens; the libraries in Astoria, Long Island City and Steinway formed the Long Island City Public Library in 1896, becoming Queens' first multi-branch library. In 1901, shortly after the consolidation of Queens into New York City, the city government proposed a new charter joining all libraries in Queens into the Queens Borough Public Library. All of the public libraries signed on, except for Flushing, which remained independent until 1903; the Queens Borough Public Library was incorporated in 1907. Due to the wide variation in population density in Queens, in 1906, the Queens Borough Public Library established small branches in store-fronts and shopping areas under the Traveling Library program.
With these branches, Queens Library grew swiftly opening major branches in every Queens neighborhood. The original Central Library on Parsons Boulevard in Jamaica was opened in 1930 and expanded with Works Progress Administration funds in 1941, it was a splendid four-story Renaissance Revival building. In spite of its elegance, it was too small for the demand and was replaced by a new, more spacious facility in 1966, through the persistent efforts of the Library Director, Harold W. Tucker. $240,000 donated by Andrew Carnegie was used for the construction of seven new Carnegie libraries between 1904 and 1924 in the most heavily—populated areas of the borough. Four of these buildings are still in use, they are characterized by their stately expensive decorative details. The Carnegie-era Flushing Branch was demolished for a more modern building in the 1950s, the Far Rockaway Branch was destroyed by fire in 1962. Library branches were added as the borough's population expanded. By 1946, Queens Borough Public Library had 44 branches plus the Central Library and a active bookmobile.
Many additional branches had been approved to be built between 1954–1965, but were not completed due to a New York City fiscal crisis. Additional funds were given to the library system by the federal Library Services and Construction Act to finish the Central Library and Far Rockaway branches. In the 1990s interest in completing the proposed branches was revived. In 1998, the new Queens Borough Public Library at Flushing was opened, 4 other branches were opened between 1999-2007; the Queens Borough Library has been allocated more than $269 million in capital funds between fiscal years 2005-2013. The Queens Borough Public Library was renamed the Queens Library sometime in the past. In April 2019, it was renamed again to Queens Public Library, with the new tagline "We speak your language". Queens Public Library is governed by a 19-member Board of Trustees, which are appointed by the Mayor of New York City and the Borough President of Queens; the Mayor, Speaker of the City Council, Borough President, the New York City Comptroller and the New York Public Advocate sit on the board as ex officio members.
The library is funded by the city, through state and federal grants, through private philanthropy. Dennis Walcott was appointed President and CEO in March 2016. Queens Public Library has 62 locations, seven Adult Learning Centers, two Family Literacy Centers, a Mobile Library. Central Library was the first major branch of an urban library to place all public services on one floor; the library contained 195,000 square feet of floor space. The library was renovated and expanded in 1989. Additional renovation and expansion was expected to be completed in 2013. A new Children's Library Discovery Center, adjacent to the main library, was designed by 1100 Architect and opened in 2011. Central Library includes resources that support research through the college level. A local history collection houses thousands of photographs and ephemera having to do with the history of Queens and the four counties of Long Island. Other special collections include job search/readiness information and training and consumer health information.
Queens Library at Flushing is home to the International Resource Center. It contains magazines, CDs and DVDs that represent cultures from all over the world. Queens LIbrary at Flushing has collections in many languages, including Bengali, French, Hindi, Italian, K
M60 (New York City bus)
The M60 Select Bus Service is a bus route in New York City, United States. It is part of MTA Regional Bus Operations, operated by the Manhattan and Bronx Surface Transit Operating Authority under the New York City Transit brand; the M60 provides service between the Upper West Side of Manhattan and LaGuardia Airport in East Elmhurst, traveling between boroughs via the RFK-Triborough Bridge. It is the only direct public transit option between LaGuardia Airport; the M60 was introduced in 1992 as an airport connector and is advertised as such. Much of the M60's passenger load, however, is from its crosstown service along 125th Street in Harlem. On May 25, 2014, the M60 was converted into a Select Bus Service route to improve service to-and-from the airport, service along 125th Street; the M60 begins in the Morningside Heights section of the Upper West Side in Manhattan at West 106th and Broadway. It turns east at 120th Street, north at Amsterdam Avenue, before turning east onto 125th Street in Manhattanville.
Along 125th Street in Harlem, the M60 provides limited-stop service, with the M100, M101 and Bx15 providing local service. At the east end of the street, it enters the Triborough Bridge, it travels along Astoria Boulevard and 23rd Avenue to 94th Street, providing limited-stop service in the neighborhoods of Astoria and East Elmhurst. The Q19 provides local service along Astoria Boulevard, the Q33 and Q48 along 23rd Avenue. At 94th Street, the M60 turns north and enters the airport, serving Terminals B, D, C, A before returning to Manhattan; the M60 connects with several subway lines in Manhattan–the IRT West Side Line, IND Eighth Avenue Line, IRT Lenox Avenue Line, IRT Lexington Avenue Line–as well as the Harlem–125th Street station of the Metro-North Railroad. It connects with the BMT Astoria Line in Astoria; the M60 operated out of the Mother Clara Hale Depot. The M60's fleet was transferred to the Manhattanville Depot, after that, to the 126th Street Depot. Since January 2015 the M60 has operated out of the Michael J. Quill Depot in Midtown.
In 1991, the Metropolitan Transportation Authority held a public hearing to discuss a bus route between Manhattan and LaGuardia Airport. The M60 was approved for implementation in mid-1992, began service on September 13, 1992 between Powell Boulevard and the airport. On May 1, 1994, it was extended to the 116th Street subway station; the M60 was extended west along 125th Street, south on Amsterdam Avenue west on 120th Street, south on Claremont Avenue to West 116th Street, north on Broadway to the terminal. The route was extended in response to requests from residents and groups from Morningside Heights and West Harlem. 20% of M60 riders surveyed said that they had used taxis, car services, personal cars or Carey Bus before its introduction and 25% said that they walked or did not make the trip. These 45% of riders surveyed were new NYC Transit riders. In June 1995, the route was extended 0.4 miles to West 106th Street and Broadway, was rerouted to Broadway from Claremont Avenue as residents on that street believed that the route had decreased their quality of life.
Three options had been considered to reroute or extend the M60: using Riverside Drive, extending the route to West 110th Street, extending the route to West 106th Street, decided upon. The M60 was extended south via Broadway and West End Avenue to West 106th Street, making limited stops, laying over at West 106th Street and Broadway; the extension provided direct service between the Upper West LaGuardia. Between 1997 and 2004, the bus route had an increase in ridership of 237%, leading to a decrease in trip headways from 20 minutes to 15 minutes in 1998, under 10 minutes by the 2000s. On October 12, 2009, the first luggage rack-equipped bus in the city debuted on the M60, as part of a ten-bus pilot program on airport bus services to improve passenger flow. In 2012, 60-foot articulated buses began replacing the standard 40-foot buses on the route. In 2009, the MTA and the New York City Department of Transportation identified the M60 as a potential corridor for Phase II of Select Bus Service, the city's bus rapid transit service.
The M60 was identified under studies to improve crosstown service on 125th Street, which like other crosstown bus corridors was noted for slow travel speeds. It was identified as a corridor for improvement by the LaGuardia Airport Access Alternatives Analysis, which conducted with the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey to improve bus service to LaGuardia Airport; the reason for the creation of the LaGuardia Access Alternatives study was the slow bus service on the M60, Q33, Q47, Q48, Q72, which all went to LaGuardia Airport. A separate outside study in 2011 by the Regional Plan Association proposed creating dedicated busways along the Grand Central Parkway to speed up M60 service; the M60 is one of three SBS routes. The Q70 Limited became an SBS route on September 25, 2016, the Bx41 SBS route had been planned to be extended to LaGuardia Airport under the LaGuardia Alternatives Analysis. However, the Bx41 extension has not been implemented yet due to a lack of funding. According to the city government, the three routes" would provide "shorter term, lower cost transit improvements" for LaGuardia Airport.
At the time, the airport was the New York area's only large airport without any rapid transit connections to Manhattan. Studies and community