East End of London

The East End of London referred to within the London area as the East End, is the historic core of wider East London, east of the Roman and medieval walls of the City of London, north of the River Thames. It does not have universally accepted boundaries to the north and east, though the River Lea is sometimes seen as the eastern boundary. Parts of it may be regarded as lying within Central London; the term "East of Aldgate Pump" is sometimes used as a synonym for the area. The East End began to emerge in the Middle Ages with slow urban growth outside the eastern walls, which accelerated in the 19th century, to absorb pre-existing settlements; the first known written record of the East End as a distinct entity, as opposed its component parts, comes from John Strype's 1720 Survey of London, which describes London as consisting of four parts: the City of London, Southwark, "That Part beyond the Tower". The relevance of Strype's reference to the Tower was more than geographical; the East End was the urbanised part of an administrative area called the Tower Division, which had owed military service to the Tower of London since time immemorial.

As London grew further, the urbanised Tower Division became a byword for wider East London, before East London grew further still, east of the River Lea and into Essex. The area was notorious for its deep poverty and associated social problems; this led to the East End's history of intense political activism and association with some of the country's most influential social reformers. Another major theme of East End history has been migration, both outward; the area had a strong pull on the rural poor from other parts of England, attracted waves of migration from further afield, notably Huguenot refugees, who created a new extramural suburb in Spitalfields in the 17th century, Irish weavers, Ashkenazi Jews, and, in the 20th century, Sylheti Bangladeshis. The closure of the last of the East End docks in the Port of London in 1980 created further challenges and led to attempts at regeneration and the formation of the London Docklands Development Corporation; the Canary Wharf development improved infrastructure, the Olympic Park mean that the East End is undergoing further change, but some parts continue to contain some of the worst poverty in Britain.

The East End lies east of the Roman and medieval walls of the City of London and north of the River Thames. Aldgate Pump, on the edge of the City, is regarded as the symbolic start of the East End. On the river, Tower Bridge is sometimes described in these terms. Beyond these reference points, the East End has no official or accepted boundaries. In extending from the line of the former walls, the area is taken to include the small ancient extramural City wards of Portsoken and Bishopsgate Without; the various channels of the River Lea are sometimes viewed as the eastern boundary. Beyond the small eastern extramural wards, the narrowest definition restricts the East End to the modern London Borough of Tower Hamlets. A more common preference is to add to Tower Hamlets the former borough of Shoreditch. Other commentators prefer a definition broader still, encompassing districts east of the Lea, such as West Ham, East Ham, Leyton and Ilford; the East End began with the medieval growth of London beyond its walls, along the Roman roads leading from Bishopsgate and Aldgate and alongside the Thames.

Growth was much slower in the east, the modest extensions on this side were separated from the much larger extensions in the west by the marshy open area of Moorfields adjacent to the wall on the north side, which discouraged development in that direction. Building accelerated in the 16th century, the area that would become known as the East End began to take shape. In 1720 John Strype gives us our first record of the East End as a distinct entity when he describes London as consisting of four parts: the City of London, Southwark, "That Part beyond the Tower"; the relevance of Strype's reference to the Tower was more than geographical. The East End was the urbanised part of an administrative area called the Tower Division, which had owed military service to the Tower of London since time immemorial, having its roots in the Bishop of London's historic Manor of Stepney; as London grew further, the urbanised Tower Division became a byword for wider East London, before East London grew further still, east of the River Lea and into Essex.

For a long time the East End was physically separated from London's western growth by the open space known as Moorfields. Shoreditch's boundary with the parish of St Luke's ran through the Moorfields, which became, on urbanisation, the boundary of east and north London; that line, with slight modifications became part of the boundary between the modern London Boroughs of Hackney and Islington. Moorfields remained open until 1812, the longstanding presence of that open space separating the emerging East End from the western urban expansion of London must have helped shape the different economic character of the two parts and perceptions of their distinct identity; the East End has always contained some of London's poorest areas. The main reasons for this include: The medieval system of copyhold, which prevailed throughout the East End into the 19th c

Lillian Lorraine

Not to be confused with silent film actress Louise Lorraine. Lillian Lorraine was an American stage and screen actress of the 1910s and 1920s, best known for her beauty and for being the most famous Ziegfeld Girl in the Broadway revues Ziegfeld Follies during the 1910s. Born in San Francisco, Lorraine began her career on stage in 1906 at the age of 14. In 1907, she appeared as a minor performer in The Tourists, it was in that show. He spent the next several years promoting her career, rocketing her into an ascendance, which made her one of the most popular attractions in his Follies. In 1909, Ziegfeld pulled the 17-year-old Lorraine from the chorus line in that year's production of Miss Innocence, spotlighting her as a solo performer who became celebrated for introducing the song, "By the Light of the Silvery Moon". In his book Scandals and Follies, author Lee Davis writes that, "By 1911, was insanely in love with Lillian Lorraine and would remain so, to one degree or another, for the rest of his life, despite her erratic, irresponsible senseless behavior, her multiple marriages to other men, his own two marriages and his need for all his adult life to sleep with the best of the beauties he hired."The relationship, both professional and romantic, between Ziegfeld and Lorraine, led to the demise of his marriage to actress Anna Held.

Lorraine and Ziegfeld's relationship was turbulent and complex, but their passion was such that Ziegfeld's second wife, actress Billie Burke, confessed that Lorraine was the only one of Ziegfeld's past sexual entanglements that aroused her jealousy. Lorraine starred in many annual productions of The Ziegfeld Follies as well as the 1912 Broadway musical Over the River, she ventured into motion pictures with limited success, appearing in about ten films between 1912 and 1922, including the serial Neal of the Navy with William Courtleigh, Jr. Lorraine's personal life earned her more notoriety than either her talent or her beauty, she was a staple in newspapers of the day with accounts of her latest turbulent romance or feuds with rival stars such as Fanny Brice and Sophie Tucker, her personality and private life was a large influence on Anita Loos in the creation of the character of Lorelei for the novel Gentlemen Prefer Blondes. Although her affair with Ziegfeld was over by the end of the 1910s, her box office drawing power kept her in a number of his productions of the period.

Lorraine's fame waned in the 1920s, she worked for a period in vaudeville. Lorraine's first marriage was to Frederick M. Gresheimer, they married on March 1912 after meeting on a beach. Ten days Lorraine announced that the marriage had been a mistake and that the couple was "incompatible" due to her career; the marriage was found to be invalid because Gresheimer had not divorced his first wife. Lorraine and Gresheimer remarried in May 1913. Three months Lorraine filed to have the marriage annulled after claiming that Gresheimer misrepresented himself. Around 1946, she married an accountant, taking his name. According to Lorraine's biographer, Nils Hanson, no records of a marriage exist, the marriage was a common-law marriage. Lorraine disappeared from public view in 1941, sometimes going by her mother's maiden name, Mary Ann Brennan, she died on April 1955 at age 63 in New York City. Her funeral, held at Holy Name of Jesus Catholic Church, was attended by her husband, her accountant and two friends.

Lorraine was buried in a pauper's grave in Calvary Cemetery in Queens, New York. Her body was exhumed and moved to a friend's family plot in Saint Raymond's Cemetery, Bronx; the first biography of Lorraine, Lillian Lorraine: The Life and Times of a Ziegfeld Diva by Nils Hanson, was published in October 2011 by McFarland Press. Lorraine was portrayed by Valerie Perrine in the 1978 film Ziegfeld: His Women. Lorraine is mentioned as an acquaintance of characters in Jennifer Egan's 2017 novel Manhattan Beach. Hanson, Lillian Lorraine, The Life and Times of a Ziegfeld Diva, MacFarland & Company, ISBN 0786464070 Lillian Lorraine at the Internet Broadway Database Lillian Lorraine on IMDb Lillian Lorraine at Find a Grave Frederick Gresheimer Mugshot, NYC Department of Records

Acton Lane Power Station

Acton Lane Power Station was a power station in London NW10. The station was located to the south of the Euston to Birmingham railway on a site bounded by Acton Lane, the Grand Union Canal and the Dudding Hill railway line. In years the site was extended to the south side of the canal; the entire site is now occupied by Willesden Grid Supply Point buildings. The first station was built by the Metropolitan Electric Supply Company Limited and commissioned in 1899, it was taken over by the London Power Company Limited in 1925. It was one of four stations which continued following the formation of the London and Home Counties Joint Electricity Authority in 1925, which resulted in closure of many smaller stations in central London; the Acton Lane'B' station had three concrete cooling towers and dominated the eastern end of North Acton trading estate at Park Royal. Work on this began in 1950 for 56 MW. Coal was supplied by rail to sidings from the adjacent railway to the north. Other power stations nearby included Taylors Lane.

The station closed on 31 October 1983 with a generating capacity of 150 MW. The A station had a low pressure plant; the HP plant had an installed capacity of 30 MW comprising a single 30 MW machine. In 1954 it generated 112.862 GWh. The HP boilers had an output capacity of 440,000 lb/h, in 1954 burned 71,700 tons of coal; the LP plant had an installed capacity of 127.9 MW. In 1954 it generated 130.34 GWh. The LP boilers in 1954 burned 133,300 tons of coal; the thermal efficiency of the LP plant was 14.24 percent, compared to 22.91 percent for the HP plant. The LP side was decommissioned in the late 1950s. By its final year of operation in 1963-64 the A station had 1 × 30 MW generator, it produced 28 GWh of electricity in that year. The steam capacity of the boilers was 440,000 lb/hr; the steam conditions at the turbine stop valve was 600 psi. In 1963-64 the overall thermal efficiency of the A station was 13.06 per cent. By 1963-64 the B station had 5 × 30 MW generators. There were seven 240,000 lb/hr boilers with a total steam capacity of 1,680,000 lb/hr.

Steam conditions at the turbine stop valves was 600 psi and 454°C. The boilers were chain grate in 1954 burned 27,100 tons of coal. In 1963-64 the overall thermal efficiency of the B station was 24.48 per cent, by the time of its closure the thermal efficiency had fallen to 14.47 per cent. Electricity output from Acton Lane B power station during its final years of operation was as follows. Acton Lane annual electricity output GWh. Willesden Feeder station on the site comprises systems operating at 400 kV to/from Kensal Green substation; the disused power station was used as a film set in Aliens and as the'Axis Chemical Works' in Batman. Photo on Flickr Black-and-white Photo taken in April 1984 showing the cooling towers Colour photo of the cooling towers 9 July 1939 aerial photograph Photo taken in December 1969