Edward Gene Ed Rendell is an American lawyer and politician who served as the 45th Governor of Pennsylvania, from 2003 to 2011. Rendell, a member of the Democratic Party, served as mayor of Philadelphia from 1992 to 2000, Rendell was elected District Attorney of Philadelphia for two terms from 1978 through 1986. He developed a reputation for being tough on crime, fueling a run for Governor of Pennsylvania in 1986, the New York Times stated that Philadelphia under Rendell has made one of the most stunning turnarounds in recent urban history. Nicknamed Americas Mayor by Al Gore, Rendell served as Chairman of the Democratic National Committee during the 2000 presidential election, in 2002, Rendell was elected Governor of Pennsylvania. He was a member of the Democratic Governors Association Executive Committee and he was reelected in a landslide in 2006. He left office in 2011 due to term-limits, and released a book, A Nation of Wusses, a Philadelphia Eagles fan, Rendell is a football analyst on Comcast SportsNets Eagles Postgame Live, hosted by Michael Barkann.
Rendell currently co-chairs the Bipartisan Policy Centers Immigration Task Force, Ed Rendell was born on January 5,1944 in New York City, the son of Emma and Jesse T. Rendell. His parents were Jewish, and all four of his grandparents were immigrants from Russia and he served as a 2nd Lieutenant in the U. S. Army Reserve from 1968 to 1974. Rendell was elected District Attorney of Philadelphia in 1977 becoming the youngest DA in history, after defeating the incumbent Democratic DA, Emmett Fitzpatrick, Rendell ran a campaign that emphasized that he was new to the political scene and not tainted by corruption. While District Attorney, Rendell reportedly had a mean temper while doing his job, once he yelled in the Governors face for releasing a prisoner that he didnt agree with. It was has been said, that Rendell would even punch walls or throw furniture when became upset, in 1980, Rendell received 28 delegate votes for Vice President at the Democratic National Convention, although he was not a candidate.
He served two terms as DA before leaving in 1986 to run for Governor of Pennsylvania and he was defeated in the Democratic gubernatorial primary by Bob Casey, Sr. The 1985 police confrontation and bombing of MOVE, a black commune, according to the MOVE bombing which was caused by the Philadelphia police, left 11 died,5 of which were children, and many homeless. The trial of Mumia Abu-Jamal occurred during Rendells term as DA and it was in 1982, when Rendell lead the prosecution of Mumia Abu-Jamal which resulted in his original incarceration and sentencing. In 1987, Rendell ran for the Democratic nomination against the incumbent mayor, Wilson Goode, Rendell ran successfully four years later, in 1991. His opponent was to be Democrat-turned-Republican former Philadelphia Mayor, Frank Rizzo, however, died in the summer of 1991, in November 1991, Rendell won by more than a 2-1 margin against Joseph M. Egan, Jr. Rizzos replacement on the Republican ticket. As mayor, Rendell inherited massive fiscal problems, the state legislature established a fiscal oversight board to monitor the City of Philadelphias fiscal issues.
He was given the nickname of “Philadelphia’s Renaissance or Revival” because of how well he did with the Budget and he appointed Philadelphias first ever Latino deputy mayors, with the naming of Benjamin Ramos and Manuel Ortiz
Pennsylvania /ˌpɛnsᵻlˈveɪnjə/, officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle, Pennsylvania is the 33rd largest, the 5th most populous, and the 9th most densely populated of the 50 United States. The states five most populous cities are Philadelphia, Allentown, the state capital, and its ninth-largest city, is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of shoreline along Lake Erie and the Delaware Estuary. The state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States, it came into being in 1681 as a result of a land grant to William Penn. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden and it was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12,1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the states largest city of Philadelphia, during the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg, was fought in the south central region of the state.
Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washingtons headquarters during the winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west, of a total 46,055 square miles,44,817 square miles are land,490 square miles are inland waters, and 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie. It is the 33rd largest state in the United States, Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown, the northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining communities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre, Pittston City, and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest, the state has 5 regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the corner, has a humid continental climate. The largest city, has characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware.
Moving toward the interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increase. Western areas of the state, particularly locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, the Tuscarora Nation took up temporary residence in the central portion of Pennsylvania ca. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their lands in America
Pandan waffles or as referred to in Vietnamese, bánh kẹp lá dứa, are flavored with pandan and include coconut milk in the batter. They characterized by their green color and browning when cooked. In Vietnam, pandan waffles sell for around 2000 Vietnamese đồngs each so are popular among children, in Vietnam, they are a popular street food made in either cast iron molds heated with charcoal or in electric waffle irons. Egg waffle List of Vietnamese dishes
Grace Patricia Kelly was an American actress who became Princess of Monaco after marrying Prince Rainier III, in April 1956. In October 1953, she gained stardom from her performance in the film Mogambo, which won her a Golden Globe Award, she had leading roles in five films, including The Country Girl, for which her deglamorized performance earned her an Academy Award for Best Actress. Kelly retired from acting at the age of 26 to marry Rainier and they had three children, Albert II, and Stéphanie. Kelly retained her American roots, maintaining dual U. S. and she died on September 14,1982, a day after suffering a stroke while driving her car, which caused a crash. Kelly was born on November 12,1929, at Hahnemann University Hospital in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to an affluent and influential family. Her father, Irish-American John B. Kelly Sr. had won three Olympic gold medals for sculling and owned a successful brickwork contracting company that was well-known on the East Coast. A registered Democrat, he was nominated to be mayor of Philadelphia for the 1935 election, in years, he served on the Fairmount Park Commission and, during World War II, was appointed by President Roosevelt as National Director of Physical Fitness.
Kellys mother was Philadelphia native Margaret Katherine Majer, the daughter of German immigrants, Margaret had taught physical education at the University of Pennsylvania and had been the first woman to coach womens athletics at the institution. She was noted for her beauty and modeled for a time in her youth, after marrying John B. Kelly in 1924, Margaret focused on being a housewife until all her children were of school age, following which she began actively participating in various civic organizations. Kelly had two siblings and John Jr. and a younger sister, Elizabeth. The children were raised in the Roman Catholic faith, while attending Ravenhill Academy, a prestigious Catholic girls school, Kelly modeled fashions at local social events with her mother and sisters. In 1942, at the age of 12, she played the lead in Dont Feed the Animals, before graduating in May 1947 from Stevens School, a socially prominent private institution on Walnut Lane in the Northwest Philadelphia neighborhood of Germantown, she acted and danced.
Her graduation yearbook listed her favorite actress as Ingrid Bergman and her favorite actor as Joseph Cotten, written in the Stevens Prophecy section was, Miss Grace P. Kelly – a famous star of stage and screen. Owing to her low mathematics scores, Kelly was rejected by Bennington College in July 1947, despite her parents initial disapproval, Kelly decided to pursue her dreams of being an actress. John was particularly displeased with her decision, he viewed acting as a cut above streetwalker. To start her career, she auditioned for the American Academy of Dramatic Arts in New York, although the school had already met its semester quota, she obtained an interview with the admission officer, Emile Diestel, and was admitted through the influence of George. She began her first term the following October, while at school, she lived in Manhattans Barbizon Hotel for Women, a prestigious establishment which barred men from entering after 10 pm, and she worked as a model to support her studies. Kelly worked diligently and practiced her speech by using a tape recorder and her early acting pursuits led her to the stage, most notably a Broadway debut in Strindbergs The Father alongside Raymond Massey
Free Library of Philadelphia
The Free Library of Philadelphia is the public library system that serves Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It is the 13th-largest public library system in the United States, in fiscal year 2015, the Free Library hosted nearly six million patrons in person and ten million more online. However, several libraries claimed the bequest, and only after the courts decided the money was intended to found a new library did the Free Library finally open in March 1894. Its first location was three cramped rooms in City Hall, on February 11,1895, the library was moved to the old Concert Hall at 1217-1221 Chestnut Street. Library officials criticized their new home as an unsuitable building. In December 1,1910, the Library was moved again, to the northeast corner of 13th, on June 2,1927, the Parkway Central Library opened for service at its present location at 1901 Vine Street on Logan Square. The building had been in planning since 1911, various obstacles, including World War I, the grand Beaux-Arts building was designed by Julian Abele, chief designer in the office of prominent Philadelphia architect Horace Trumbauer, and first opened its doors in 1927.
In addition to being the library, the building serves as the systems administrative building. The mission of the Free Library of Philadelphia is to advance literacy, guide learning, the Library hosts a renowned Author Events Series, which brings more than 100 writers, scientists and musicians to the Free Library annually. In March 2011, the library launched Free Library Hot Spots, placing new computer labs, the initiative is funded by the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation and the Broadband Technology Opportunities Program. Each Hot Spot provides computers, internet access, printers, in April 2012, the Free Library added The Techmobile, a Hot Spot on Wheels, which brings service to neighborhoods throughout Philadelphia. The Techmobile has six public laptops, according to a study conducted by Penn’s Fels Institute of Government, in 2010 nearly 25,000 people learned to read or taught someone else to read solely because of the resources of the Free Library. Located at the Parkway Central Library, the Free Library’s Special Collections span genres and generations and curiosity seekers can find inspiration in the unique and rare items that chronicle the history of art, literature and more.
Works of secular literature are represented, Lewis illuminated manuscripts are complemented by nine manuscripts from the Widener Collection and manuscripts from various other sources. There is a collection of some 800 incunabula, of which 500 come from the P. A. B. The 153 oriental manuscripts provide examples of a variety of formats, among them books, accordion books. In addition, there are some 1,200 separate miniatures, the collection of over 2,800 clay tablets, dating from 3,000 B. C. to 300 B. C. was the gift of Mr. and Mrs. John Frederick Lewis, Sr. The Free Library’s music collections are outstanding, including the Edwin A. Fleisher Collection of Orchestral Music, the Theatre Collection contains research materials on the history of American theatre, early film, and popular entertainment
Catfish are a diverse group of ray-finned fish. There are armour-plated types and there are naked types, neither having scales, despite their name, not all catfish have prominent barbel. Members of the Siluriformes order are defined by features of the skull, Catfish are of considerable commercial importance, many of the larger species are farmed or fished for food. Many of the species, particularly the genus Corydoras, are important in the aquarium hobby. Many catfish are nocturnal, but others are crepuscular or diurnal, extant catfish species live inland or in coastal waters of every continent except Antarctica. Catfish have inhabited all continents at one time or another, Catfish are most diverse in tropical South America and Africa with one family native to North America and one family in Europe. More than half of all species live in the Americas. They are the only ostariophysans that have entered freshwater habitats in Madagascar and they are found in freshwater environments, though most inhabit shallow, running water.
Representatives of at least eight families are hypogean with three families that are troglobitic, one such species is Phreatobius cisternarum, known to live underground in phreatic habitats. Numerous species from the families Ariidae and Plotosidae, and a few species from among the Aspredinidae and Bagridae, are found in salt water. In the United States, catfish species may be known by a variety of names, such as mud cat, polliwogs. These nicknames are not standardized, so one area may call a bullhead catfish by the nickname chucklehead, while in state or region. Representatives of the genus Ictalurus have been introduced into European waters in the hope of obtaining a sporting, the European stock of American catfishes has not achieved the dimensions of these fish in their native waters, and have only increased the ecological pressure on native European fauna. Walking catfish have introduced in the freshwaters of Florida. Flathead catfish, Pylodictis olivaris, is a North American pest on Atlantic slope drainages, pterygoplichthys species, released by aquarium fishkeepers, have established feral populations in many warm waters around the world.
In general, they are buoyant, which means that they will usually sink rather than float due to a reduced gas bladder. Catfish have a variety of shapes, though most have a cylindrical body with a flattened ventrum to allow for benthic feeding. A flattened head allows for digging through the substrate as well as serving as a hydrofoil
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Oscar Gregory Stonorov, was a modernist architect and architectural writer and archivist who emigrated to the United States from Germany in 1929. His first name is often spelled Oskar, Stonorov was born in Frankfurt and studied at the University of Florence, Italy and at the University of Zurich and apprenticed with French sculptor Aristide Maillol. In 1928, he worked in the offices of André Lurçat in Paris, in 1940 Stonorov, along with George Howe, worked on the design of housing developments in Pennsylvania with Louis Kahn. A formal architectural office partnership between Stonorov and Louis Kahn began in February 1942 and ended in March 1947, produced fifty-four known projects, in 1943, Stonorov co-wrote with Kahn Why City Planning Is Your Responsibility and in 1944 again collaborated with Kahn to write You and Your Neighborhood. Between 1950 and 1954 Philadelphia architect and future Pritzker Prize winner Robert Venturi worked in the offices of Stonorov, in 1957 he established the partnership of Stonorov & Haws.
Because Stonorov was not registered as an architect in the United States at the time, Stonorov died with Walter P. Reuther, president of the United Automobile Workers, when Reuthers Gates Learjet 23 crashed on approach to Emmet County Airport in Pellston, Michigan. Also killed were Reuthers wife, his bodyguard, and the pilot and copilot. Reuther and Stonorov were to have performed the inspection of a union recreation and education facility Stonorov had designed at Black Lake. The center was to open three weeks after the crash, with his wife, Elizabeth Foster Miss Betty Stonorov, Stonorov had daughters Katrina Daly, Tasha Stonorov Churchill and Andrea Stonorov Foster as well as a son Derek Stonorov and nine grandchildren. They lived at Avon Lea Farm in Charlestown Township, outside Philadelphia, the Eclipse of the New Deal, Buckminster Fuller, Philip Johnson and Louis Kahn 1934-64. New York, NY, Thames and Hudson, Inc. pp. 149–151, the Design of Public Housing in the New Deal, Oskar Stonorov and Carl Mackley Houses.
Tucker & Howell and Oscar Stonorov, the Non-Environmentalists, the roots of international style architecture. West Cornwall, CT, Locust Hill Press, juniata Park Housing Corporation project in Philadelphia, Architectural Record,1958 Apr. v.77, p. 328-329 Preview, New York Worlds Fair 1964-1965, Architectural Record,1964 Feb. v.135, p. 137-144. 1964, Stonorov & Haws, architects Oscar Stonorov at the archINFORM database, Oscar Stonorov papers at the University of Wyoming - American Heritage Center The Walter & May Reuther UAW Family Education Center
School District of Philadelphia
The School District of Philadelphia is the school district that includes all public schools in Philadelphia. Established in 1818, it is the eighth largest school district in the nation, the School Board was created in 1850 to oversee the schools of Philadelphia. The Act of Assembly of April 5,1867, designated that the Controllers of the Public Schools of Philadelphia were to be appointed by the judges of the Court of Common Pleas, there was one Controller to be appointed from each ward. This was done to eliminate politics from the management of the schools, the management of the school district was given to a school board appointed by the mayor. This continued until 2001 when the district was taken over by the state, the School District of Philadelphia operates 214 of the citys 300 public schools, including 149 elementary schools,16 middle schools, and 49 high schools. The remaining 86 public schools are independently operated charter schools, charter schools are authorized by the School District of Philadelphia, and are accountable to it.
Enrollment in Philadelphias district schools was 131,362 students as of December 2013, as of the 2014-2015 school year, there were 107 languages other than English spoken at home by district students. Enrollment in the charter schools was 60,774 students. Wealthier blacks chose not to use private schools because their neighborhoods were assigned to quality public schools. Prior to August 2012, the district was organized into academic division offices, as a part of the Chief Academic Office Reorganization/Transition Proposal, the AD structure was abolished. The School District of Philadelphia is governed by the five-member School Reform Commission, the commission was established in December 2001, when oversight of the district was taken over by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The Governor of Pennsylvania appoints three of the members, and the Mayor of Philadelphia appoints two members of the commission, leadership The following is the current district leadership. Chief Executive Officer & Superintendent - William R.
Hite, Jr. Ed. D, the demonstrators were met with force by the Philadelphia Police Department, and the resulting riot left 22 injured and 57 arrested. In 1975, Pennsylvania provided 55 percent of school funding statewide, an analysis determined that increased district spending was limited by a state system which relies heavily on property taxes for local school funding. As a result, wealthier school districts with more property owners. The result is great disparities in school system expenditures per student, in 2000, the Philadelphia school district spent $6,969 a year per student. Seventy percent of Philadelphia’s students are at or near the poverty line and this contrasts with expenditures per student in wealthier suburban school districts, Jenkintown, $12,076, Radnor, $13,288, and Upper Merion, $13,139. In February 1998, then-superintendent David Hornbeck threatened to close the citys schools if the state did not provide the funds needed to balance his proposed budget
Fairmount Water Works
The Fairmount Water Works in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania was Philadelphias second municipal waterworks. Designed in 1812 by Frederick Graff and built between 1812 and 1872, it operated until 1909, winning praise for its design and becoming a popular tourist attraction and it now houses a restaurant and an interpretive center that explains the waterworks purpose and local watershed history. It was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1976 for its architecture and it was the nations first water supply to use paddle wheels to move water. Following a series of fever epidemics in the late 18th century city leaders appointed a Watering Committee. The initial water system was designed by Benjamin Latrobe and accepted by the committee in 1799 and his system utilized two steam engines to pump water from the Schuylkill River, into the city, into two wooden tanks that held a total of just 57,000 US gallons. From the wooden tanks, the water was gravity fed into a series of water mains. The system was plagued with problems, if either of the steam engines failed, the water supply to the city was cut off.
The Fairmount Water Works was initially constructed between 1812 and 1815 on the east bank of the Schuylkill River, the Water Works initially consisted of a 3 million US gallons earthen reservoir atop Faire Mount, and a pump house with two steam engines to pump water. Between 1819 and 1821, a 1, 600-foot-long dam was built across the Schuylkill to direct water to a Mill House with three wheels that replaced the steam engines in 1822. Later, Jonval turbines were used to lift the water in a New Mill House, the facility, the industrial nature of which was disguised by a Classical Revival exterior, became a tourist attraction for its beauty and its location on the riverside. Visitors included Charles Dickens, who praised it for its pleasant design, the Fairmount Water Works eventually closed in 1909, after years of service, when several newer and more technologically updated facilities were built. Completed in 1822, Fairmount Dam cut diagonally across the river, channeled water into the Waterworks, the Schuylkill is a tidal river, so it prevented brackish water in the Delaware River from mixing with the fresh water.
Above it, the dam created the Schuylkill Pond, several miles of water used for recreation. After the waterworks closed in 1909 the facility was used for several purposes, including the Philadelphia Aquarium, in more recent years attempts have been made to return the waterworks to its previous position as an engaging tourist attraction. Despite a severe fire which caused setbacks to the restoration, a center has now been added. Its position near Boathouse Row and the Philadelphia Museum of Art is hoped to aid in making it a regularly visited tourist site once more. The Fairmount Water Works buildings now house the Fairmount Water Works Interpretive Center, the FWWIC offers interactive exhibits, lectures and school programs. In December 2004, Michael Karloutsos won a 25-year, $120, after a highly publicized renovation, Karloutsos opened Water Works Restaurant and Lounge within the Water Works on July 20,2006
In 1682, William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia was one of the capitals in the Revolutionary War. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became an industrial center. It became a destination for African-Americans in the Great Migration. The areas many universities and colleges make Philadelphia a top international study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational, with a gross domestic product of $388 billion, Philadelphia ranks ninth among world cities and fourth in the nation. Philadelphia is the center of activity in Pennsylvania and is home to seven Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is growing, with a market of almost 81,900 commercial properties in 2016 including several prominent skyscrapers. The city is known for its arts and rich history, Philadelphia has more outdoor sculptures and murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States.
The 67 National Historic Landmarks in the city helped account for the $10 billion generated by tourism, Philadelphia is the only World Heritage City in the United States. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon, the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians and their territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases, mainly smallpox, and violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people occasionally fought the Lenape, surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin. The American Revolutionary War and United States independence pushed them further west, in the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy.
In the 21st century, most Lenape now reside in the US state of Oklahoma, with communities living in Wisconsin, Ontario. The Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony, in 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and quickly spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their defeat of the English colony of Maryland