Levett is an Anglo-Norman territorial surname deriving from the village of Livet-en-Ouche, now Jonquerets-de-Livet, in Eure, Normandy. Ancestors of the earliest Levett family in England, the de Livets were lords of the village of Livet, undertenants of the de Ferrers, among the most powerful of William the Conqueror's Norman lords. One branch of the de Livet family were prominent first in Leicestershire, in Derbyshire, Cheshire and Sussex, where they held many manors, including the lordship of Firle; the name Livet, of Gaulish etymology, may mean a "place where yew-trees grow". Like most Normans, the family's origins are partly Scandinavian; the year of the family's arrival in England is uncertain. But the family name appears during the reign of William the Conqueror; the first family member in England, Roger de Livet, appears in Domesday as a tenant of the Norman magnate Henry de Ferrers. de Livet held land in Leicestershire, was, along with Ferrers, a benefactor of Tutbury Priory. By about 1270, when the Dering Roll was crafted to display the coats of arms of 324 of England's most powerful lords, the coat of arms of Robert Livet, was among them.
Ancient English deeds subsequently refer to many lands across Sussex as'Levetts,' indicating family possession of broad swaths of Sussex countryside. Among the family's holdings was the manor of Catsfield Levett, today known as Catsfield. Like most medieval Norman families, the Levetts depended on the web of feudal hierarchy, they held their lands as overlords in return for knight's service. As their feudal overlords thrived, so did they; the Levetts and their descendants held land in Gloucestershire, Worcestershire, Warwickshire, Kent, Bedfordshire and in Staffordshire. The Anglicisation of this Norman French surname took many forms, including Levett, Lyvet, Livett, Levete, Leavitt and others. Levett family members were early knights and Crusaders — many members of both English and French branches of the family were Knights Hospitallers — and they occupied a place in the English landed gentry for centuries. Unlike the French branch of the family, no members of the English branch were ennobled, although they intermarried with nobility and served as courtiers.
The Levett name was joined with such well-known English clans as the Byrons, the Darwins, the Ashley-Coopers, the Hulses, the Bagots, the Prinseps, the Ansons, the Feildings, the Holdsworths, the Reresbys, the Breretons, the Suttons, the Kennedys, the Cullums, the Gargraves, the Gresleys, the Legges and others. But the most common choice of professions among Levett men down the ages was the Anglican clergy – although one combined the ministry with the secular in an unusual way. Rev. William Levett of Buxted, East Sussex, inherited the iron foundries built by his brother John in the 16th century. Rather than sell them, Parson Levett became the first to cast iron cannon in England, served as'Chief Gunstonemaker' to the King, laid the foundation for an English industry. A branch of the Levett family still occupies Milford Hall, a family home in Staffordshire, where Richard Byrd Levett Haszard, a Levett descendant served as High Sheriff of Staffordshire. Members of the family occupied Wychnor Park and Packington Hall, two country mansions in the same county, where English artist James Ward painted three Levett children playing in 1811.
The two distant branches of the Levett family of Sussex, living nearby each other in Staffordshire, intermarried. Another branch of the Milford Hall Levetts occupy the family residence The Hall, Pembrokeshire, although the name is now Mirehouse because of an inheritance; as with many families of Anglo-Norman extraction, some branches thrived, while others fell on hard times. The vicissitudes of character — and the collapsing feudal order — played havoc with the fortunes of some family members; the lordship of Firle, East Sussex, for instance, longtime seat of the family, passed from family control in 1440 on the indebtedness of then-lord Thomas Levett. The bankrupt Levett forfeited his inherited lordship of Catsfield, East Sussex. In 1620 John Levett of Sedlescombe, Gentleman, sold his half-interest in Bodiam Castle, as well as inherited family lands called Northlands, Parklands and Grovelands, as well as properties across Sussex and Kent, including in Bodiam, Salehurst, Wartling, Penhurst and Catsfield, Sussex, as well as Hawkhurst, Kent, to Sir Thomas Dyke for £1,000, from whom the properties subsequently passed to the Earl of Thanet.
The distress sale left Levett's descendants listed as simple yeomen, instead of the knights and gentlemen of previous generations. Other ancestral lands passed from the family with the marriage of Levett heiresses; those inheriting from the Levetts included the Eversfields, the Gildredges, the Chaloners, the Ashburnhams, the Hulses and other prominent Sussex and Yorkshire families. Other Levetts fell on hard times as the family's fortunes sometimes dwindled, or were carried into other clans. John Levett, a guard on the London to Brighton coach, was convicted of petty theft and transported to Australia in the nineteenth century. English records reveal Levetts relegated to poorhouses; as with Thomas Hardy's hapless d'Urbervilles, noble Norman lineage was no guarantor of rectitude, ability or fate. Some Levetts moved abroad in search of opportunity. A Levett relation, a British clerk in India, was friend to Rudyard Kipling and a minor Victorian novelist. Anoth
The Apalachicola River is a river 112 mi long in the state of Florida. The river's large watershed, known as the ACF River Basin, drains an area of 19,500 square miles into the Gulf of Mexico; the distance to its farthest head waters in northeast Georgia is 500 miles. Its name comes from the Apalachicola people; the river is formed on the state line between Florida and Georgia, near the town of Chattahoochee, Florida 60 miles northeast of Panama City, by the confluence of the Flint and Chattahoochee rivers. The actual confluence is contained within the Lake Seminole reservoir formed by the Jim Woodruff Dam, it flows south through the forests of the Florida Panhandle, past Bristol. In northern Gulf County, it receives the Chipola River from the west, it flows into an inlet of the Gulf of Mexico, at Apalachicola. The lower 30 mi of the river is surrounded except at the coast; the watershed contains nationally significant forests, with some of the highest biological diversity east of the Mississippi River and rivaling that of the Great Smoky Mountains.
It has significant areas of temperate deciduous forest as well as longleaf pine landscapes and flatwoods. Flooded areas have significant tracts of floodplain forest. All of these southeastern forest types were devastated by logging between 1880 and 1920, the Apalachiola contains some of the finest remaining examples of old growth forest in the southeast; the endangered tree species Florida Torreya is endemic to the region. The highest point within the watershed is Blood Mountain at 4,458 ft, near the headwaters of the Chattahoochee River. Where the river enters the Gulf of Mexico it creates a rich array of wetlands varying in salinity; these seagrass meadows. Over 200,000 acres of this diverse delta complex are included within the Apalachicola National Estuarine Research Reserve. There are dunes with coastal grasslands and interdunal swales; the basin of the Apalachicola River is noted for its tupelo honey, a high-quality monofloral honey, produced wherever the tupelo trees bloom in the southeastern United States.
In a good harvest year, the value of the tupelo honey crop produced by a group of specialized Florida beekeepers approaches $900,000 each spring. During Florida's British colonial period, the river formed the boundary between East Florida and West Florida. Geologically, the river links Gulf Coast with the Appalachian Mountains; some of the remaining important areas of natural habitat along the river include Apalachicola National Forest, Torreya State Park, The Nature Conservancy Apalachicola Bluffs and Ravines Preserve, Tates Hell State Forest, Apalachicola River Wildlife and Environmental Area, as well as the Apalachicola River Water Management Area. It has been suggested that this watershed should be nationally ranked and appreciated as being as significant as the Everglades or Great Smoky Mountains. To raise awareness about the importance of preserving the natural state of the river and its inhabitants, Florida film producer Elam Stoltzfus highlighted this system in a PBS documentary in 2006.
The river forms the boundary between the Eastern and Central time zones in Florida, until it reaches the Jackson River. Thereafter, the Jackson River, which flows to the Gulf of Mexico, is the time zone boundary. List of Florida rivers South Atlantic-Gulf Water Resource Region Voices of the Apalachicola White, P. S. S. P. Wilds, G. A. Thunhorst. 1998. Southeast. Pp. 255–314, In M. J. Mac, P. A. Opler, C. E. Puckett Haecker, P. D. Doran. "Status and Trends of the Nation’s Biological Resources". 2 vols. US Department of the Interior, US Geological Survey, Reston, VA. Boyce, S. G. and W. M. Martin. 1993. The future of the terrestrial communities of the southeastern United States. Pp. 339–366, In W. H. Martin, S. G. Boyce, A. C. Echternacht. Biodiversity of the Southeastern United States, Lowland Terrestrial Communities. Wiley, New York, NY. Light, H. M. M. R. Darst, J. W. Grubbs.. Aquatic habitats in relation to river flow in Florida. Washington, D. C.: U. S. Department of the Interior, U. S. Geological Survey. Florida State University: Apalachicola River Ecological Management Plan Apalachicola River Watershed – Florida DEP Apalachicola River Wildlife and Environmental Area Apalachicola Riverkeeper, an organization focused on the protection of the Apalachicola National Estuarine Research Reserve Apalachicola Bluffs and Ravines Preserve, a Nature Conservancy preserve Northwest Florida Water Management District U.
S. Army Corps of Engineers: Flint-Chatahoochee-Apalachicola basin U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Apalachicola River
Lord Mayor of London
The Lord Mayor of London is the City of London's mayor and leader of the City of London Corporation. Within the City, the Lord Mayor is accorded precedence over all individuals except the sovereign and retains various traditional powers and privileges, including the title and style The Right Honourable the Lord Mayor of London; this office differs from the much more powerful Mayor of London, a popularly elected position and covers the much larger Greater London area. In 2006 the Corporation of London changed its name to the City of London Corporation, when the title Lord Mayor of the City of London was reintroduced to avoid confusion with the Mayor of London. However, the legal and used title remains Lord Mayor of London; the Lord Mayor is elected at Common Hall each year on Michaelmas, takes office on the Friday before the second Saturday in November, at The Silent Ceremony. The Lord Mayor's Show is held on the day after taking office. One of the world's oldest continuously elected civic offices, the Lord Mayor's main role nowadays is to represent and promote the businesses and residents in the City of London.
Today, these businesses are in the financial sector and the Lord Mayor is regarded as the champion of the entire UK-based financial sector regardless of ownership or location throughout the country. As leader of the Corporation of the City of London, the Lord Mayor serves as the key spokesman for the local authority and has important ceremonial and social responsibilities. All Lord Mayors of London are apolitical; the Lord Mayor of London delivers many hundreds of speeches and addresses per year, attends many receptions and other events in London and beyond. Many incumbents of the office make overseas visits while Lord Mayor of London; the Lord Mayor ex-officio Rector of London's City, University of London and Admiral of the Port of London, is assisted in day-to-day administration by the Mansion House'Esquires' and whose titles include the City Marshal, Sword Bearer and Common Crier. Peter Estlin is serving as the 691st Lord Mayor, for the 2018–19 period. Of the 69 cities in the United Kingdom, the City of London is among the 30.
The Lord Mayor is entitled to the style The Right Honourable. The style, however, is used; the latter prefix applies only to Privy Counsellors. A woman who holds the office is known as a Lord Mayor; the wife of a male Lord Mayor is styled as Lady Mayoress, but no equivalent title exists for the husband of a female Lord Mayor. A female Lord Mayor or an unmarried male Lord Mayor may appoint a female consort a fellow member of the corporation, to the role of Lady Mayoress. In speech, a Lord Mayor is referred to as "My Lord Mayor", a Lady Mayoress as "My Lady Mayoress", it was once customary for Lord Mayors to be appointed knights upon taking office and baronets upon retirement, unless they held such a title. This custom was followed with a few inconsistencies from the 16th until the 19th centuries. However, from 1964 onwards, the regular creation of hereditary titles such as baronetcies was phased out, so subsequent Lord Mayors were offered knighthoods. Since 1993, Lord Mayors have not automatically received any national honour upon appointment.
Furthermore, foreign Heads of State visiting the City of London on a UK State Visit, diplomatically bestow upon the Lord Mayor one of their suitable national honours. For example, in 2001, Sir David Howard was created a Grand Cordon of the Order of Independence of Jordan by King Abdullah II. Lord Mayors have been appointed at the beginning of their term of office Knights or Dames of St John, as a mark of respect, by HM The Queen, Sovereign Head of the Order of St John; the office of Mayor was instituted in 1189, the first holder of the office being Henry Fitz-Ailwin de Londonestone. The Mayor of the City of London has been elected by the City, rather than appointed by the Sovereign since a Royal Charter providing for a Mayor was issued by King John in 1215; the title "Lord Mayor" came to be used after 1354, when it was granted to Thomas Legge by King Edward III. Lord Mayors are elected for one-year terms. Numerous individuals have served multiple terms in office, including: As Mayor: 24 terms: Henry Fitz-Ailwin de Londonestone 9 terms: Ralph de Sandwich 8 terms: Gregory de Rokesley 7 terms: Andrew Buckerel.
French and Indian War
The French and Indian War pitted the colonies of British America against those of New France, each side supported by military units from the parent country and by American Indian allies. At the start of the war, the French colonies had a population of 60,000 settlers, compared with 2 million in the British colonies; the outnumbered French depended on the Indians. The European nations declared a wider war upon one another overseas in 1756, two years into the French and Indian war, some view the French and Indian War as being the American theater of the worldwide Seven Years' War of 1756–63; the name French and Indian War is used in the United States, referring to the two enemies of the British colonists, while European historians use the term Seven Years' War, as do English-speaking Canadians. French Canadians call it the Fourth Intercolonial War; the British colonists were supported at various times by the Iroquois and Cherokee tribes, the French colonists were supported by Wabanaki Confederacy member tribes Abenaki and Mi'kmaq, the Algonquin, Ojibwa, Ottawa and Wyandot tribes.
Fighting took place along the frontiers between New France and the British colonies, from the Province of Virginia in the south to Newfoundland in the north. It began with a dispute over control of the confluence of the Allegheny River and Monongahela River called the Forks of the Ohio, the site of the French Fort Duquesne in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; the dispute erupted into violence in the Battle of Jumonville Glen in May 1754, during which Virginia militiamen under the command of 22-year-old George Washington ambushed a French patrol. In 1755, six colonial governors met with General Edward Braddock, the newly arrived British Army commander, planned a four-way attack on the French. None succeeded, the main effort by Braddock proved a disaster. British operations failed in the frontier areas of the Province of Pennsylvania and the Province of New York during 1755–57 due to a combination of poor management, internal divisions, effective Canadian scouts, French regular forces, Indian warrior allies.
In 1755, the British captured Fort Beauséjour on the border separating Nova Scotia from Acadia, they ordered the expulsion of the Acadians soon afterwards. Orders for the deportation were given by Commander-in-Chief William Shirley without direction from Great Britain; the Acadians were expelled, both those captured in arms and those who had sworn the loyalty oath to the King. Indians were driven off the land to make way for settlers from New England; the British colonial government fell in the region of Nova Scotia after several disastrous campaigns in 1757, including a failed expedition against Louisbourg and the Siege of Fort William Henry. William Pitt came to power and increased British military resources in the colonies at a time when France was unwilling to risk large convoys to aid the limited forces that they had in New France, preferring to concentrate their forces against Prussia and its allies who were now engaged in the Seven Years' War in Europe. Between 1758 and 1760, the British military launched a campaign to capture French Canada.
They succeeded in capturing territory in surrounding colonies and the city of Quebec. The British lost the Battle of Sainte-Foy west of Quebec, but the French ceded Canada in accordance with the Treaty of Paris. France ceded its territory east of the Mississippi to Great Britain, as well as French Louisiana west of the Mississippi River to its ally Spain in compensation for Spain's loss to Britain of Spanish Florida. France's colonial presence north of the Caribbean was reduced to the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, confirming Great Britain's position as the dominant colonial power in America. In British America, wars were named after the sitting British monarch, such as King William's War or Queen Anne's War. There had been a King George's War in the 1740s during the reign of King George II, so British colonists named this conflict after their opponents, it became known as the French and Indian War; this continues as the standard name for the war in the United States, although Indians fought on both sides of the conflict.
It led into the Seven Years' War overseas, a much larger conflict between France and Great Britain that did not involve the American colonies. Less used names for the war include the Fourth Intercolonial War and the Great War for the Empire. In Europe, the French and Indian War is conflated into the Seven Years' War and not given a separate name. "Seven Years" refers to events in Europe, from the official declaration of war in 1756—two years after the French and Indian War had started—to the signing of the peace treaty in 1763. The French and Indian War in America, by contrast, was concluded in six years from the Battle of Jumonville Glen in 1754 to the capture of Montreal in 1760. Canadians conflate both the American conflicts into the Seven Years' War. French Canadi
The Seminole Wars known as the Florida Wars, were three conflicts in Florida between the Seminole, a Native American tribe that formed in Florida in the early 18th century, the United States Army. Both in human and monetary terms, the Seminole Wars were the longest and most expensive of the Indian Wars in United States history; the First Seminole War began with General Andrew Jackson's excursions into West Florida and Spanish Florida against the Seminoles after the conclusion of the War of 1812. The governments of Great Britain and Spain both expressed outrage over the "invasion". However, Spain was unable to defend or control the territory, as several local uprisings and rebellions made clear; the Spanish Crown agreed to cede Florida to the United States per the Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819, the transfer took place in 1821. According to the Treaty of Moultrie Creek of 1823, the Seminoles were required to leave northern Florida and were confined to a large reservation in the center of the Florida peninsula.
The U. S. government enforced the treaty by building a series of forts and trading posts in the territory along the Gulf and Atlantic coasts. The Second Seminole War was the result of the United States government attempting to force the Seminoles to leave Florida altogether and move to Indian Territory per the Indian Removal Act of 1830. Fighting began with the Dade Massacre in December 1835, raids, a handful of larger battles raged throughout the Florida peninsula over the next few years. At first, the outgunned and outnumbered Seminoles used guerrilla warfare to frustrate the more numerous American military forces. In October 1836, General Thomas Sidney Jesup was sent to Florida to take command of the campaign. After futilely chasing bands of Seminole warriors through the wilderness, Jesup changed tactics and began seeking out and destroying Seminole farms and villages, a strategy which changed the course of the war. Jesup authorized the controversial captures of Seminole leaders Osceola and Micanopy under signs of truce.
By the early 1840s, most of the Seminole population in Florida had been killed in battle, ravaged by starvation and disease, or relocated to Indian Territory. Several hundred Seminoles were allowed to remain in an unofficial reservation in southwest Florida; the Third Seminole War was again the result of Seminoles responding to settlers and U. S. Army scouting parties encroaching on their lands deliberately to provoke a violent response that would result in the removal of the last of the Seminoles from Florida. After an army surveying crew found and destroyed a Seminole plantation west of the Everglades in December 1855, Chief Billy Bowlegs led a raid near Fort Myers, setting off a conflict which consisted of raids and reprisals, with no large battles fought. American forces again strove to destroy the Seminoles' food supply, by 1858, most of the remaining Seminoles, weary of war and facing starvation, agreed to be shipped to Oklahoma in exchange for promises of safe passage and cash payments.
An estimated 500 Seminoles still refused to leave and retreated deep into the Everglades and the Big Cypress Swamp to live on land, unwanted by white settlers. The original indigenous peoples of Florida declined in number after the arrival of European explorers in the early 1500s because the Native Americans had little resistance to diseases newly introduced from Europe. Spanish suppression of native revolts further reduced the population in northern Florida until the early 1600s, at which time the establishment of a series of Spanish missions improved relations and stabilized the population. Raids from the newly-established English Province of Carolina beginning in the mid-1600s began another steep decline in the indigenous population. By 1707, English soldiers and their Yamasee Indian allies had killed, carried off, or driven away most of the remaining native inhabitants during a series of raids across the Florida panhandle and down the full length of the peninsula. In the first decade of the 18th century.
10,000–12,000 Indians were taken as slaves according to the governor of La Florida and by 1710, observers noted that north Florida was depopulated. The Spanish missions all closed; the few remaining natives fled west to Pensacola and beyond or east to the vicinity of St. Augustine; when Spain ceded Florida to Great Britain as part of the Treaty of Paris in 1763, the majority of surviving Florida Indians took passage with the Spanish to Cuba or New Spain. During the mid-1700s, small bands from various Native American tribes from the southeastern United States began moving into the unoccupied lands of Florida. In 1715, the Yamasee moved into Florida as allies of the Spanish, after conflicts with the English colonies. Creek people, at first the Lower Creek but including Upper Creek started moving into Florida from the area of Georgia; the Mikasuki, Hitchiti-speakers, settled around. Another group of Hitchiti speakers, led by Cowkeeper, settled in what is now Alachua County, an area where the Spanish had maintained cattle ranches in the 17th century.
Because one of the best-known ranches was called El Rancho de la Chúa, the region became known as the "Alachua Prairie". The Spanish in Saint Augustine began calling the Alachua Creek Cimarrones, which meant "wild ones" or "runaways"; this was the probable origin of the term "Seminole". This name was applied to the other groups in Florida, although the Indians still regarded themselves as members of different tribes. Other Native Am
Pensacola is the westernmost city in the Florida Panhandle 13 miles from the border with Alabama, the county seat of Escambia County, in the U. S. state of Florida. As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 51,923, down from 56,255 at the 2000 census. Pensacola is the principal city of the Pensacola metropolitan area, which had an estimated 461,227 residents in 2012. Pensacola is a sea port on Pensacola Bay, protected by the barrier island of Santa Rosa and connects to the Gulf of Mexico. A large United States Naval Air Station, the first in the United States, is located southwest of Pensacola near Warrington; the main campus of the University of West Florida is situated north of the city center. The area was inhabited by Muskogean language peoples; the Pensacola people lived there at the time of European contact, Creek people visited and traded from present-day southern Alabama. Spanish explorer Tristán de Luna founded a short-lived settlement in 1559. In 1698 the Spanish established a presidio in the area, from which the modern city developed.
The area changed hands several times. During Florida's British rule, fortifications were strengthened, it is nicknamed "The City of Five Flags", due to the five governments that have ruled it during its history: the flags of Spain, Great Britain, the United States of America, the Confederate States of America. Other nicknames include "World's Whitest Beaches", "Cradle of Naval Aviation", "Western Gate to the Sunshine State", "America's First Settlement", "Emerald Coast", "Red Snapper Capital of the World", "P-Cola"; the original inhabitants of the Pensacola Bay area were Native American peoples. At the time of European contact, a Muskogean-speaking tribe known to the Spanish as the Pensacola lived in the region; this name was not recorded until 1677, but the tribe appears to be the source of the name "Pensacola" for the bay and thence the city. Creek people Muskogean-speaking, came from present-day southern Alabama to trade, so the peoples were part of a broader regional and continental network of relations.
The best-known Pensacola culture site in terms of archeology is the Bottle Creek site, a large site located 59 miles west of Pensacola north of Mobile, Alabama. This site has at least 18 large earthwork mounds, its main occupation was from 1250 AD to 1550. It was a gateway to their society; this site would have had easy access by a dugout canoe, the main mode of transportation used by the Pensacola. The area's written recorded history begins in the 16th century, with documentation by Spanish explorers who were the first Europeans to reach the area; the expeditions of Pánfilo de Narváez in 1528 and Hernando de Soto in 1539 both visited Pensacola Bay, the latter of which documented the name "Bay of Ochuse". In the age of sailing ships Pensacola was the busiest port on the Gulf of Mexico, having the deepest harbor on the Gulf. In 1559, Tristán de Luna y Arellano landed with some 1,500 people on 11 ships from Mexico; the expedition was to establish an outpost called Santa María de Ochuse by Luna, as a base for Spanish efforts to colonize Santa Elena But the colony was decimated by a hurricane on September 19, 1559, which killed an unknown number of sailors and colonists, sank six ships, grounded a seventh, ruined supplies.
The survivors struggled to survive, most moving inland to what is now central Alabama for several months in 1560 before returning to the coast. Some of the survivors sailed to Santa Elena, but another storm struck there. Survivors made their way to Cuba and returned to Pensacola, where the remaining fifty at Pensacola were taken back to Veracruz; the Viceroy's advisers concluded that northwest Florida was too dangerous to settle. They ignored it for 137 years. In the late 17th century, the French began exploring the lower Mississippi River with the intention of colonizing the region as part of La Louisiane or New France in North America. Fearful that Spanish territory would be threatened, the Spanish founded a new settlement in western Florida. In 1698 they established a fortified town near what is now Fort Barrancas, laying the foundation for permanent European-dominated settlement of the modern city of Pensacola; the Spanish built three presidios in Pensacola: Presidio Santa Maria de Galve: the presidio included fort San Carlos de Austria and a village with church.
The garrison was moved to the mainland. During the early years of settlement, a tri-racial creole society developed; as a fortified trading post, the Spanish had men stationed here. Some married or had unions with Pensacola, Creek or African women, both slave and free, their descendants created a mixed-race population of mestizos and mulattos; the Spanish encouraged slaves from the southern British colonies to come to Florida as a refuge, promising freedom in exchange for conversion to Catholicism. King Charles II of Spain issu