To cities, towns, charter townships and boroughs. The term can be used to describe municipally owned corporations. Municipal incorporation occurs when such municipalities become self-governing entities under the laws of the state or province in which they are located; this event is marked by the award or declaration of a municipal charter. A city charter or town charter or municipal charter is a legal document establishing a municipality, such as a city or town. In Canada, charters are granted by provincial authorities; the Corporation of Chennai is the oldest Municipal Corporation in the world after UK. The title "corporation" was used in boroughs from soon after the Norman conquest until the Local Government Act 2001. Under the 2001 act, county boroughs were renamed "cities" and their corporations became "city councils". After the Partition of Ireland, the corporations in the Irish Free State were Dublin, Cork and Waterford and Drogheda, Sligo and Wexford. Dún Laoghaire gained borough status in 1930 as “The Corporation of Dun Laoghaire".
Galway's borough status, lost in 1840, was restored in 1937. The New Zealand Constitution Act 1852 allowed municipal corporations to be established within the new Provinces of New Zealand; the term fell out of favour following the abolition of the Provinces in 1876. In the United States, such municipal corporations are established by charters that are granted either directly by a state legislature by means of local legislation, or indirectly under a general municipal corporation law after the proposed charter has passed a referendum vote of the affected population. Under the enterprise meaning of the term, municipal corporations are "organisations with independent corporate status, managed by an executive board appointed by local government officials, with majority public ownership"; some MOCs rely on revenue from user fees, distinguishing them from agencies and special districts funded through taxation, although this is not always the case. Municipal corporation follows a process of externalization that requires new skills and orientations from the respective local governments, follow common changes in the institutional landscape of public services.
They are argued to be more efficient than bureaucracy but have higher failure rates because of their legal and managerial autonomy. Unincorporated area German town law Municipal incorporationA Brief Summary of Municipal Incorporation Procedures by State - University of Georgia Characteristics and State Requirements for Incorporated Places - United States CensusMunicipal disincorporation / dissolutionDissolving Cities - University of California, Berkeley Municipal Disincorporation in California - California City Finance
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Frederick Brant Rentschler was an American aircraft engine designer, aviation engineer and the founder of Pratt & Whitney Aircraft. Rentschler created and manufactured many revolutionary aircraft engines, including those used in the aircraft of Charles Lindbergh, Amelia Earhart and James Doolittle, he is a co-founder of United Aircraft and Transport Corporation, the predecessor of United Technologies Corporation. Rentschler was born on November 8, 1887 in Hamilton, Ohio, to German-Americans George A. Rentschler and Phoebe Schwab, whose family owned the Republic Motor Car Co. that built Republic cars from 1910 until 1916. They were principals in Hooven-Owens-Rentschler, his brother Gordon S. Rentschler would become Chairman of National City Bank; the family resided in the Rentschler House. He graduated from Princeton University in 1909 and worked in his family's businesses as a molder and machinist; when the U. S. entered World War I in 1917, he joined the United States Army. As a First Lieutenant and Captain, he was assigned to inspect Hispano-Suiza aircraft engines manufactured under French license at the Wright-Martin plant in New Brunswick, New Jersey The armistice of November 11, 1918, ended the contract and caused the reorganization of Wright-Martin.
Rentschler left the Army convinced that future aircraft would require lighter-weight engines with much greater power and higher reliability. His proposed design of an air-cooled engine flew in the face of conventional wisdom, which held that heavier liquid-cooled engines would power the future of aviation. Rentschler became president of the Wright Aeronautical Corporation and pressed for research into his idea. Unable to convince his board of directors composed of investment bankers with little aviation knowledge, he resigned in 1924, supported by old friend and Wright chief engineer George J. Mead, he developed a proposal for a high-powered air-cooled aircraft engine for the U. S. Navy. Admiral William A. Moffett promised to approve the purchase of such an engine. Rentschler approached the Pratt & Whitney Machine Tool Company of Hartford, Connecticut with his idea. On July 23, 1925, they agreed to fund its development, creating the Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Company in which Rentschler and Mead had a controlling position.
Pratt & Whitney Aircraft's first engine, completed on Christmas Eve 1925, was named the Wasp by Faye Belden Rentschler, whom Frederick had married July 25, 1921. The 425 horsepower Wasp passed its official qualification test in March 1926 and the Navy ordered 200 engines; the speed, climb performance, reliability that the engine offered revolutionized American aviation. Over the next twenty years, from the original Wasp design the Pratt & Whitney Wasp series developed, approaching ten times the power of the 1925 engine. In 1929, Rentschler ended his association with Pratt & Whitney Machine Tool Company, but was allowed to keep the name Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Company. Rentschler and William Boeing of The Boeing Company formed the United Aircraft and Transport Corporation. United Aircraft completed the first coast-to-coast passenger network in March of that year. In 1934, UATC was broken up, its manufacturing interests east of the Mississippi River became United Aircraft Corporation, headquartered in Hartford with Rentschler as president.
Rentschler turned to developing jet engines after World War II. Pratt & Whitney produced the J57 jet engine in 1953; the engine was used to power the first B-52 Stratofortress in 1954. Rentschler remained as president of United Aircraft until his death on April 25, 1956 in Boca Raton, Florida, he is buried at Fairview Cemetery in West Hartford. In 1951, Rentschler was made an Officer of the Légion d'honneur “for his contribution to the progress of aeronautical science". In 1958, the United States Air Force posthumously presented him with the Civilian Service Award for Exceptional Service as a pioneer in the development and manufacture of aircraft engines. Pratt & Whitney's former company airfield, located in East Hartford, was named Rentschler Field in his honor; the airfield was decommissioned in 1995, the land it was on was donated to the state of Connecticut in 1999. A stadium called Rentschler Field, was built on the site and opened in 2003 as the home field for the University of Connecticut football team.
Time, May 28, 1951 "Photo Galleries / Celebrities / Frederick Rentschler in front of his Vought 02U Corsair" "Chance Vought/LTV History", University of Texas, Dallas
An aerospace manufacturer is a company or individual involved in the various aspects of designing, testing and maintaining aircraft, aircraft parts, rockets, or spacecraft. Aerospace is a high technology industry; the aircraft industry is the industry supporting aviation by building aircraft and manufacturing aircraft parts for their maintenance. This includes parts used for civil aviation and military aviation. Most production is done pursuant to type certificates and Defense Standards issued by a government body; this term has been subsumed by the more encompassing term: "aerospace industry". In 2015 the Aircraft Production was worth $180.3 Billion: 61% airliners, 14% business and general aviation, 12% Military aircraft, 10% military rotary wing and 3% civil rotary wing. The global aerospace industry was worth $838 billion in 2017: Aircraft & Engine OEMs represented 28%, Civil & Military MRO & Upgrades 27%, Aircraft Systems & Component Manufacturing 26%, Satellites & Space 7%, Missiles & UAVs 5% and other activity, including flight simulators, defense electronics, public research accounted for 7%.
The countries with the largest industry were led by the United States with $408.4 Bn followed by France with $69 Bn China with $61.2 Bn, United Kingdom with $48.8 Bn, Germany with $46.2 Bn, Russia with $27.1 Bn, Canada with $24 Bn, Japan with $21 Bn, Spain with $14 Bn and India with: the top 10 countries represent $731 Bn or 87.2% of the whole industry. In 2018, the new commercial aircraft value is projected for $270.4 billion while business aircraft will amount for $18 billion and civil helicopters for $4 billion. In September 2018, PwC ranked aerospace manufacturing attractiveness: the most attractive country was the United States, with $240 billion in sales in 2017, due the sheer size of the industry and educated workforce, low geopolitical risk, strong transportation infrastructure, a healthy economy, but high costs and average tax policy. Following were Canada, Singapore and United Kingdom. Within the US, the most attractive was Washington state, due to the best Industry, leading Infrastructure and Economy, good labor, average tax policy but is costly.
Washington is tied to Boeing Commercial Airplanes, earning $10.3 billion, is home to 1,400 aerospace-related businesses, has the highest aerospace jobs concentration. Following are Texas, Georgia and Colorado. In the European Union, aerospace companies such as Airbus, BAE Systems, Dassault, Saab AB, Terma A/S, Patria Plc and Leonardo are participants in the global aerospace industry and research effort. In Russia, large aerospace companies like Oboronprom and the United Aircraft Corporation are among the major global players in this industry. In the US, the Department of Defense and NASA are the two biggest consumers of aerospace technology and products; the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the United States reported that the aerospace industry employed 444,000 wage and salary jobs in 2004, many of which were in Washington and California, this marked a steep decline from the peak years during the Reagan Administration when total employment exceeded 1,000,000 aerospace industry workers. During that period of recovery a special program to restore U.
S. competitiveness across all U. S. industries, Project Socrates, contributed to employment growth as the U. S. aerospace industry captured 72 percent of world aerospace market. By 1999 U. S. share of the world market fell to 52 percent. Important locations of the civil aerospace industry worldwide include Seattle, Kansas, Ohio and St. Louis in the United States and Toronto in Canada, Toulouse in France, Seville in Spain and Hamburg in Germany, the North-West of England and Bristol in Britain, Komsomolsk-on-Amur and Irkutsk in Russia and Kharkiv in Ukraine, Nagoya in Japan, as well as São José dos Campos in Brazil where Embraer is based. Several consolidations took place in the aerospace and defense industries over the last few decades. BAE Systems is the successor company to numerous British aircraft manufacturers which merged throughout the second half of the 20th century. Many of these mergers followed the 1957 Defence White Paper. Airbus prominently illustrated the European airliner manufacturing consolidation in the late 1960s.
Between 1988 and 2010, more than 5,452 mergers and acquisitions with a total known-value of US$579 billion were announced worldwide. In 1993 United States Secretary of Defense Les Aspin and his deputy William J. Perry held the "Last Supper" at the Pentagon with contractors executives who were told that there were twice as many military suppliers as he wanted to see: $55 billion in military-industry mergers took place from 1992 to 1997, leaving Boeing, Lockheed Martin and Raytheon. Boeing bought McDonnell Douglas for US$13.3 billion in 1996. Raytheon acquired Hughes Aircraft Company for $9.5 billion in 1997. Marconi Electronic Systems, a subsidiary of the General Electric Company plc, was acquired by British Aerospace for US$12.3 billion in 1999 merger, to form BAE Systems. In 2002, when Fairchild Dornier was bankrupt, Boeing or Bombardier declin
United Technologies Corporation is an American multinational conglomerate headquartered in Farmington, Connecticut. It researches and manufactures products in numerous areas, including aircraft engines, aerospace systems, HVAC, elevators and escalators and security, building systems, industrial products, among others. UTC is a large military contractor, getting about 10% of its revenue from the U. S. government. Gregory J. Hayes is the chairman. In 1974, Harry Gray left Litton Industries to become the CEO of United Aircraft, he pursued a strategy of growth and diversification, changing the parent corporation's name to United Technologies Corporation in 1975 to reflect the intent to diversify into numerous high tech fields beyond aerospace. The diversification was to balance civilian business against any overreliance on military business. UTC became a mergers and acquisitions –focused organization, with various forced takeovers of unwilling smaller corporations; the next year, UTC forcibly acquired Otis Elevator.
In 1979, Carrier Refrigeration and Mostek were acquired. At one point the military portion of UTC's business, whose sensitivity to "excess profits" and boom/bust demand drove UTC to diversify away from it carried the weight of losses incurred by the commercial M&A side of the business. Although M&A activity was not new to United Aircraft, the M&A activity of the 1970s and 1980s was higher-stakes and arguably unfocused. Rather than aviation being the central theme of UTC businesses, high tech was the new theme; some Wall Street watchers questioned the true value of M&A at any price for its own sake. Mostek was sold in 1985 to the French electronics company Thomson. UTC acquired Sundstrand Corporation in 1999, merged it into UTC's Hamilton Standard unit to form Hamilton Sundstrand. In 2003, UTC entered the security business by purchasing Chubb Security. In 2004, UTC acquired the Schweizer Aircraft Corporation which planned to operate as a wholly owned subsidiary under their Sikorsky Aircraft division.
In 2005, UTC further pursued its stake in the security business by purchasing Kidde. In 2005, UTC acquired Boeing's Rocketdyne division, merged into the Pratt & Whitney business unit. In 2007, UTC opened the Hawk Works, a Rapid Prototyping and Military Derivatives Completion Center located west of the Elmira-Corning Regional Airport in Big Flats, New York. In March 2008, UTC made a $2.63 billion bid to acquire Diebold, a Canton, Ohio based manufacturer of banking and voting machines. Diebold rejected the buyout bid as inadequate. In November 2008, UTC's Carrier Corporation acquired an energy service company. In December 2009, it was announced that UTC would acquire a 49.5% stake in Clipper Windpower for $206 million. In April 2010, UTC announced that it was investing €15 million to set up the United Technologies Research Centre Ireland in University College Cork which will carry out research on energy and security systems. In October 2010, UTC agreed with Clipper to acquire the rest of the company.
In September 2011, UTC acquired a $18.4 billion deal for aircraft components maker Goodrich Corporation. In June 2012, it was discovered. For pleading guilty to violating the Arms Export Control Act and making false statements, United Technologies and its subsidiaries were fined $75 million. In July 2012, United Technologies merged it with Hamilton Sundstrand. In February 2013, UTC Power was sold to ClearEdge Power. In October 2014, Toshiba and United Technologies made a deal to expand their joint venture outside Japan. In January 2015, UTC Building & Industrial Systems completed the acquisition of CIAT Group, a leading HVAC manufacturing company in France. In November, Lockheed Martin completed its $9.0 billion acquisition of Sikorsky Aircraft. In February 2016, UTC subsidiary Carrier Air Conditioner announced to employees at its Indianapolis plant that Carrier is moving manufacturing to Mexico: “The best way to stay competitive and protect the business for long-term is to move production from our facility in Indianapolis to Monterrey, Mexico.”
In December, Carrier agreed keeping 1,100 jobs in Indianapolis. On September 4, 2017, UTC proposed to acquire Rockwell Collins in cash and stock for $23 billion, $30 billion including Rockwell Collins' net debt, for $500+ million of synergies expected by year four. On November 26, 2018, the company announced the Rockwell Collins deal had closed, that it will split into three independent companies. Pratt and Whitney and the newly-formed Collins Aerospace will remain under United Technologies, while Otis Elevator and UTC Climate, Controls & Security will be spun off as two independent companies. For the fiscal year 2017, United Technologies reported earnings of US$4.552 billion, with an annual revenue of US$59.837 billion, an increase of 4.5% over the previous fiscal cycle. United Technologies shares traded at over $114 per share, its market capitalization was valued at US$98.6 billion in October 2018. UTC ranked No. 51 in the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue.
Otis Elevator Company: Manufacturer and servicer of elevators and moving walkways. Pratt & Whitney: Designs and builds aircraft engines and gas turbines. Pratt & Whitney Canada Collins Aerospace: Designs and manufactures aerospace systems for commercial, regio
Pratt & Whitney Stadium at Rentschler Field
Pratt & Whitney Stadium at Rentschler Field is a stadium in East Hartford, Connecticut. It is used for football and soccer, is the home field of the University of Connecticut Huskies. In the fall of 2010, it was home to the Hartford Colonials of the United Football League; the stadium, which opened in 2003, was the first stadium used by an NCAA Division I-A team to open in the 21st century. The permanent stadium capacity is 40,000, consisting of 38,066 permanent seats with a standing-room area in the scoreboard plaza that can accommodate up to 1,934 people, it has a game day capability to add 2,000 temporary seats as it did for UConn football vs. Michigan in 2013. Connecticut played on campus at Memorial Stadium in Storrs, before 2003. Rentschler Field was the name of the company airfield for Pratt & Whitney that occupied the site; the airfield, which began operations in 1931, was named after Frederick Rentschler, who founded Pratt & Whitney in 1925 and founded its parent company, United Technologies.
It was used for test flights and maintenance operations, for corporate aviation. The 75-acre site was decommissioned as an airport in the 1990s, donated to the state of Connecticut by United Technologies in 1999. A subsequent 65-acre donation by United Technologies in 2009 allowed for the construction of additional grass parking lots adjacent to the Stadium. Pursuant to a lease agreement with the State, UConn plays all its home football games at Rentschler Field; the New England Patriots considered moving to Connecticut and sharing a stadium with the UConn football team in the mid-1990s. The new stadium was supposed to be built on the Connecticut Convention Center site in downtown Hartford. However, when the Patriots completed the deal for Gillette Stadium in Foxboro, the Hartford stadium plan was scaled down and the location was moved to East Hartford; the current capacity of 40,000 can expand to 50,000 with limited rehabilitation and has the layout and design for expansion of up to 60,000 seats in the future.
The stadium is owned by the State of Connecticut, Office of Policy and Management, while operations are overseen by the quasi-public Capital Region Development Authority. Global Spectrum, L. P. has managed the building on behalf of CRDA since 2013. The Stadium was managed by Bushnell Management Services, Anschutz Entertainment Group and Madison Square Garden L. P.. On July 16, 2015, it was announced that the stadium had been named Pratt & Whitney Stadium in a deal between Pratt & Whitney and UConn; the playing surface is still named Rentschler Field. In return and Whitney donated additional land that will be used for game day parking; the Connecticut Huskies football team has an all time 60–43 record at Rentschler Field. On March 11, 2019, it was announced that the renovations at Dillon Stadium would not be completed on time for Hartford Athletic's home opener on May 4 against Charlotte Independence. Hartford Athletic will play five games at Whitney Stadium. On September 23, 2017, New York City FC played a home match at Pratt & Whitney Stadium, against the Houston Dynamo, in the stadium's first Major League Soccer game.
The game was relocated from Yankee Stadium in New York City due to a schedule conflict with the New York Yankees. Rentschler Field has hosted several United States men's national soccer team's home games, including Landon Donovan's last game for the National Team on October 10, 2014. Rentschler Field has hosted several United States women's national soccer team's home games; the Hartford Colonials were a United Football League team that played their home games at Rentschler Field. During their, the Colonials played all four home games at Rentschler, after having played one there the previous season while they were known as the New York Sentinels. Attendance at Colonials games averaged a consistent 15,000 people, third place in the five-team league behind Omaha and Sacramento; the UFL suspended the Colonials franchise in 2011 and the franchise was terminated when the team's former owner was named as the new owner of the Virginia Destroyers. On May 19, 2019, Rentschler Field will host the Quarterfinals for the 2019 NCAA Men's Lacrosse Championship.
In 2021 and 2022, Rentschler Field will host the NCAA Men's Lacrosse Championship for Divisions I, II, III. Rentschler Field hosted its first rugby union match on July 3, 2004, when the USA Rugby union hosted France in front of 6,000 people. France would win 39-31. On June 4, 2005, Rentschler Field hosted. S. Rugby Super League Championship game, between New York Athletic Club Rugby Football Club and Belmont Shore RFC in front of 8,027. Wales would defeat the US 77-3 and NYAC would defeat Belmont Shore 23 to 19. On August 24, 2010, a fan event, called Whalers Fan Fest, featuring many of the former players, draws were close to 5,000 people on a Saturday afternoon. From February 11 to the 20th, 2011, the stadium hosted the Whalers Hockey Fest 2011. A hockey rink was constructed on the field much like is done for the annual NHL Winter Classic. Events included a Hartford Whalers Alumni vs. Boston Bruins Alumni game, with an appearance from the Hanson Brothers, from the film Slap Shot, a double-header featuring both UConn men's and women's hockey teams, a Hockey Legends team faced off against the Mystery, Alaska Hollywood team, along with the Hanson Brothers from the movie Slap Shot, the second edition of the American Hockey League Outdoor Classic between the host Connecticut Whale and the Providence Bruins.
Over 15,000 fans came out to watch the so-called "Whale Bowl", while over 1,700 attended the
Connecticut Route 2
Route 2 is a state highway in Connecticut and is 58.03 miles in length. It is a primary state route, with a limited-access highway section connecting Hartford to Norwich and an access highway section extending to Stonington; the entire limited-access section of Route 2 is known as the Veterans of Foreign Wars Memorial Highway. Route 2 begins as a continuation of State Street near Interstate 91 in downtown Hartford, it starts out heading east toward East Hartford. Route 2 crosses the Connecticut River on the Founders Bridge and has a partial interchange with I-91 at the crossing. After crossing into East Hartford, there is a complex interchange with Interstate 84. After this interchange, Route 2 heads southeast in the direction of Glastonbury. There is a partial interchange with Route 15 about 0.75 miles further. After East Hartford, Route 2 enters Glastonbury. At the East Hartford-Glastonbury town line, there is a full trumpet interchange with Route 3. About 1 mile after this interchange, there is a partial interchange with Route 17.
From Glastonbury, Route 2 passes into Marlborough. It continues into Colchester. In Colchester, Route 2 has a partial interchange with Route 11. After this interchange, Route 2 heads east toward Norwich. Once Route 2 leaves Colchester, it passes through the towns of Bozrah. After Bozrah, Route 2 enters Norwich. Just after entering Norwich, Route 32 joins Route 2. About 1.5 miles down Route 2, there is a partial cloverleaf interchange with Interstate 395. About 1.75 miles further east from the I-395 interchange, the limited-access highway section of Route 2 ends at a four-way at-grade intersection with Town Street, Harland Road, Washington Street. Route 32 separates in downtown Norwich after overlapping with Route 2 for 3.9 miles, following the west bank of the Thames River. Route 2 continues southeast from Norwich into Preston, into Ledyard. Just after entering Ledyard, Route 2 passes by the Mashantucket Pequot Reservation and the Foxwoods Resort Casino. After passing through Ledyard, Route 2 continues into North Stonington.
There is a partial interchange with Interstate 95 here. After leaving North Stonington, Route 2 heads into Stonington. Here, Route 2 is reduced to a minor arterial road, it has an interchange with Route 78 and terminates about 1.5 miles at the junction with US 1 just west of the Rhode Island state line. Several Connecticut limited-access highways terminate at Route 2. Route 3 ends at Route 2 near the East Hartford-Glastonbury town line, Route 17 ends at Route 2 in Glastonbury, Route 11 ends at Route 2 in Colchester. Route 78 ends at Route 2, in Stonington, it is unusual. Two early toll roads, the Hartford and New London Turnpike and the Colchester and Norwich Turnpike, followed the alignment of current Route 2 in the 1800s. In 1922, The New England Interstate system incorporated the future Route 2 alignment as Route 17. Upon the discontinuation of the New England routes in the 1932 state highway renumbering, the eastern half of old New England Route 17 was renumbered to Route 2; the western half of old New England Route 17 formed part of U.
S. Route 44. Limited-access highway construction along the Route 2 alignment started in the 1950s and continued through the 1960s and early 1970s; the oldest limited-access highway segment, between exits 5A and 7, opened in 1952. The state still maintains some segments of the older, access highway alignment, but does not sign these segments as state routes; the state remanded the remaining access highway segments to town jurisdiction