Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
Cedars-Sinai Medical Center is a non-profit, tertiary 958-bed hospital and multi-specialty academic health science center located in the Beverly Grove neighborhood of Los Angeles, California. Part of the Cedars-Sinai Health System, the hospital employs a staff of over 2,000 physicians and 10,000 employees. A team of 2,000 volunteers and more than 40 community groups support. Cedars-Sinai focuses on biomedical research and technologically advanced medical education—based on an interdisciplinary collaboration between physicians and clinical researchers; the facility has research centers covering cardiovascular, gene therapy, neuroscience, surgery, organ transplantation, stem cells, biomedical imaging and cancer—with more than 800 research projects underway. Certified as a level I trauma center for adults and pediatrics, Cedars-Sinai trauma-related services range from prevention to rehabilitation and are provided in concert with the hospital's Department of Surgery. Cedars-Sinai is affiliated with the California Heart Center, University of Southern California and David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles.
As of 2017, U. S. News & World Report ranked Cedars-Sinai #4 in the western United States, with number one being the UCSF Medical Center. Cedars-Sinai earned national rankings in 12 adult specialties including #5 for gastroenterology, #9 in cardiology and heart surgery, #9 in orthopedics, #10 in urology, #12 in gynecology, #14 in diabetes and endocrinology, #14 in neurology and neurosurgery. Located in the Harvey Morse Auditorium, Cedars-Sinai's patient care is depicted in the Jewish Contributions to Medicine mural; the heart transplantation program at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center has experienced unprecedented growth since 2010. Statistically, Cedars-Sinai performs more annual heart transplants than any other medical center in the world, having performed 95 heart transplants in 2012 and 87 in 2011. Founded and financed by businessman Kaspare Cohn, Cedars-Sinai was established as the Kaspare Cohn Hospital in 1902. At the time, Cohn donated a two-story Victorian home at 1441 Carroll Avenue in the Angeleno Heights neighborhood of Los Angeles to the Hebrew Benevolent Society to create the hospital as a memorial to his brother Samuel.
The hospital had just 12 beds when it opened on September 21, 1902, its services were free. From 1906 to 1910, Dr. Sarah Vasen, the first female doctor in Los Angeles, acted as superintendent. In 1910, the hospital relocated and expanded to Stephenson Avenue, where it had 50 beds and a backhouse containing a 10-cot tubercular ward, it transformed from a charity-based hospital to a general hospital and began to charge patients. The hospital relocated again in 1930 to 4833 Fountain Avenue, where it was renamed Cedars of Lebanon after the religiously significant Lebanon Cedars, which were used to build King Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem in the Bible. Cedars of Lebanon could accommodate 279 patients. In 1918, the Bikur Cholim Society opened a second Jewish hospital, the Bikur Cholim Hospice, when the Great Influenza Pandemic hit America. In 1921, the hospice relocated to an eight-bed facility in Boyle Heights and was renamed Bikur Cholim Hospital. In 1923 the Bikur Cholim Hospital became Mount Sinai Home for the Incurables.
On November 7, 1926, a newly named Mount Sinai Hospital moved to a 50-bed facility on Bonnie Beach Place. In 1950, Emma and Hyman Levine donated their property adjacent to Beverly Hills, by 1955 the construction completed and Mount Sinai Hospital opened at 8700 Beverly Boulevard. Cedars of Lebanon and Mount Sinai Hospitals merged in 1961 to form Cedars-Sinai Medical Center. Donations from the Max Factor Family Foundation allowed the construction of the current main hospital building, which broke ground on November 5, 1972, opened on April 3, 1976. In 1994, the Cedars-Sinai Health System was established, comprising the Cedars-Sinai Medical Care Foundation, the Burns and Allen Research Institute and Cedars-Sinai Medical Center; the Burns and Allen Research Institute, named for George Burns and his wife, Gracie Allen, is located inside the Barbara and Marvin Davis Research Building. Opened in 1996, it houses biomedical research aimed at discovering genetic and immunological factors that trigger disease.
In 1994, the original building was demolished. In 2006, Cedars-Sinai added the Saperstein Critical Care Tower with 150 ICU beds. In 2008, Cedars-Sinai served 54,947 inpatients and 350,405 outpatients, there were 77,964 visits to the emergency room. Cedars-Sinai received high rankings in 11 of the 16 specialties, ranking in the top 10 for digestive disorders and in the top 25 for five other specialties as listed below. In 2013, Cedars-Sinai opened its 800,000-square-foot Advanced Health Sciences Pavilion, which consists of eight stories of program space located over a six-story parking structure, on the eastern edge of its campus at the corner of San Vicente Boulevard and Gracie Allen Drive. Designed by architectural firm HOK, the Pavilion brings patient care and translational research together in one site; the Advanced Health Sciences Pavilion houses the Cedars-Sinai's neurosciences programs, the Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute and Regenerative Medicine Institute laboratories, as well as outpatient surgery suites, an imaging area and an education center.
In 2018, famous Marvel-creator Stan Lee dies at the Cedars-Sinai Medical Center Cedars-Sinai ranked as follows in the nationwide U. S. News Best Hospitals 2013–14 report: Cedars-Sinai ranked as follows in the 2009 Los Angeles area residents' "Most Preferred Hospital for All Health Needs" ranking: In 2013, Cedars-Sinai Hospital was ranked
Andrew Carnegie was a Scottish-American industrialist, business magnate, philanthropist. Carnegie led the expansion of the American steel industry in the late 19th century and is identified as one of the richest people in history, he became a leading philanthropist in the British Empire. During the last 18 years of his life, he gave away about $350 million to charities and universities – 90 percent of his fortune, his 1889 article proclaiming "The Gospel of Wealth" called on the rich to use their wealth to improve society, stimulated a wave of philanthropy. Carnegie was born in Dunfermline and immigrated to the United States with his parents in 1848. Carnegie started work as a telegrapher, by the 1860s had investments in railroads, railroad sleeping cars and oil derricks, he accumulated further wealth as a bond salesman. He built Pittsburgh's Carnegie Steel Company, which he sold to J. P. Morgan in 1901 for $303,450,000, it became the U. S. Steel Corporation. After selling Carnegie Steel, he surpassed John D. Rockefeller as the richest American for the next couple of years.
Carnegie devoted the remainder of his life to large-scale philanthropy, with special emphasis on local libraries, world peace and scientific research. With the fortune he made from business, he built Carnegie Hall in New York, NY, the Peace Palace and founded the Carnegie Corporation of New York, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Carnegie Institution for Science, Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland, Carnegie Hero Fund, Carnegie Mellon University, the Carnegie Museums of Pittsburgh, among others. Andrew Carnegie was born to Margaret Morrison Carnegie and William Carnegie in Dunfermline, Scotland in 1835, in a typical weaver's cottage with only one main room, consisting of half the ground floor, shared with the neighboring weaver's family; the main room served as a living room, dining bedroom. He was named after his legal grandfather. In 1836, the family moved to a larger house in Edgar Street, following the demand for more heavy damask, from which his father benefited, he was educated at the Free School in Dunfermline, a gift to the town by the philanthropist Adam Rolland of Gask.
Carnegie's uncle, George Lauder, Sr. a Scottish political leader influenced him as a boy by introducing him to the writings of Robert Burns and historical Scottish heroes such as Robert the Bruce, William Wallace, Rob Roy. Lauder's son named George Lauder, grew up with Carnegie and would become his business partner; when Carnegie was thirteen, his father had fallen on hard times as a handloom weaver. His mother helped support the family by assisting her brother, by selling potted meats at her "sweetie shop", leaving her as the primary breadwinner. Struggling to make ends meet, the Carnegies decided to borrow money from George Lauder, Sr. and move to Allegheny, Pennsylvania, in the United States in 1848 for the prospect of a better life. Carnegie's migration to America would be his second journey outside Dunfermline – the first being an outing to Edinburgh to see Queen Victoria. In September 1848, Carnegie arrived with his family at their new prosperous home. Allegheny was populating in the 1840s, growing from around 10,000 to 21,262 residents.
The city was industrial and produced many products including wool and cotton cloth. The "Made in Allegheny" label used on these and other diversified products was becoming more and more popular. For his father, the promising circumstances still did not provide him any good fortune. Dealers were not interested in selling his product, he himself struggled to sell it on his own; the father and son both received job offers at the same Scottish-owned cotton mill, Anchor Cotton Mills. Carnegie's first job in 1848 was as a bobbin boy, changing spools of thread in a cotton mill 12 hours a day, 6 days a week in a Pittsburgh cotton factory, his starting wage was $1.20 per week. His father quit his position at the cotton mill soon after, returning to his loom and removing him as breadwinner once again, but Carnegie attracted the attention of John Hay, a Scottish manufacturer of bobbins, who offered him a job for $2.00 per week. In his autobiography, Carnegie speaks of his past hardships. Soon after this Mr. John Hay, a fellow Scotch manufacturer of bobbins in Allegheny City, needed a boy, asked whether I would not go into his service.
I went, received two dollars per week. I had to fire the boiler in the cellar of the bobbin factory, it was too much for me. I found myself night after night, sitting up in bed trying the steam gauges, fearing at one time that the steam was too low and that the workers above would complain that they had not power enough, at another time that the steam was too high and that the boiler might burst. In 1849, Carnegie became a telegraph messenger boy in the Pittsburgh Office of the Ohio Telegraph Company, at $2.50 per week following the recommendation of his uncle. He was a hard worker and would memorize all of the locations of Pittsburgh's businesses and the faces of important men, he made many connections this way. He paid close attention to his work, learned to distinguish the differing sounds the incoming telegraph signals produced, he developed the ability to translate signals by ear, withou
Little Armenia, Los Angeles
Little Armenia is a community, part of the Hollywood district of Los Angeles, California. It falls within the area referred to as East Hollywood; the area is served by the Metro Red Line at the Hollywood/Western, Vermont/Sunset and Vermont/Santa Monica stations. Little Armenia is defined by the Los Angeles City Council as "the area bounded on the north by Hollywood Boulevard between the 101 Freeway and Vermont Avenue, on the east by Vermont Avenue from Hollywood Boulevard to Santa Monica Boulevard, on the south by Santa Monica Boulevard between Vermont Avenue and U. S. Route 101 and on the west by Route 101 from Santa Monica Boulevard to Hollywood Boulevard", it overlaps with Thai Town. The name comes from the large number of Armenian-Americans who live in the area and from the large number of Armenian stores and businesses that had opened in the neighborhood by the early 1970s. St. Garabed Armenian Apostolic Church is an Armenian church, located inside Little Armenia. St. Garabed church is the place of worship for the vast majority of Armenians living in Hollywood.
It is located on Alexandria Avenue and it was built in 1978. The church is located in front of the Alex Pilibos Armenian School; the main Los Angeles Branch of the Church of Scientology has been located in Little Armenia on Sunset Bl. between N. Catalina St. and L. Ron Hubbard Way since 1977. In 1996 a small section of what was N. Berendo St. was renamed L. Ron Hubbard way. Little Armenia's only public park is Barnsdall Art Park, which includes the Frank Lloyd Wright designed Hollyhock House and a city-run arts center built in 1919-1921; the park, located on small but scenic Olive Hill, was donated to the city of Los Angeles by oil heiress Aline Barnsdall. Many of the novels, short stories and poems of Charles Bukowski, a native of East Hollywood, are set in the area. On April 24 each year, Armenians gather in Hollywood to commemorate the Armenian Genocide. Though Hollywood was once home to the biggest Armenian community in the region, Glendale surpassed Hollywood in both the total number and proportion of Armenians in population, while Burbank, Montebello, La Crescenta have large Armenian communities but with no special designation.
Little Armenia is served by the Red Line subway which runs north-south along Vermont Avenue and east-west along Hollywood Boulevard. Metro subway stations include: Vermont/Santa Monica Vermont/Sunset Hollywood/WesternNumerous bus lines run on the major thoroughfares, including Metro's Rapid and Local service lines. Los Angeles Department of Transportation's DASH shuttle lines, serving East Hollywood and the Griffith Observatory operate in the area; the 101/Hollywood Freeway cuts northwest from downtown Los Angeles, through Hollywood, to the San Fernando Valley. Thirteen percent of East Hollywood residents aged 25 and older had earned a four-year degree by 2000, an average figure for the city and the county, but the percentage of residents with less than a high school diploma was high for the county. Schools within Little Armenia's borders are: Barnsdall Art Park Hollyhock House Kaiser Permanente Los Angeles Medical Center Zankou Chicken's first American restaurant Armenian Genocide Memorial Square, not yet finished Armenian American History of the Armenian Americans in Los Angeles List of Armenian-Americans Armenian Diaspora Armenian Assembly of America Armenian American Political Action Committee Armenian National Committee of America Armenian Youth Federation Little Armenia, New York LittleArmenia.com: Community-based website.
Little Armenia Video Tour
Asian Americans are Americans of Asian ancestry. The term refers to a panethnic group that includes diverse populations, which have ancestral origins in East Asia, South Asia, or Southeast Asia, as defined by the U. S. Census Bureau; this includes people who indicate their race on the census as "Asian" or reported entries such as "Chinese, Indian, Japanese and Other Asian". Asian Americans with other ancestry comprise 5.6% of the U. S. population, while people who are Asian alone, those combined with at least one other race, make up 6.9%. Although migrants from Asia have been in parts of the contemporary United States since the 17th century, large-scale immigration did not begin until the mid-18th century. Nativist immigration laws during the 1880s–1920s excluded various Asian groups prohibiting all Asian immigration to the continental United States. After immigration laws were reformed during the 1940s–60s, abolishing national origins quotas, Asian immigration increased rapidly. Analyses of the 2010 census have shown that Asian Americans are the fastest growing racial or ethnic minority in the United States.
As with other racial and ethnicity-based terms and common usage have changed markedly through the short history of this term. Prior to the late 1960s, people of Asian ancestry were referred to as Oriental and Mongoloid. Additionally, the American definition of'Asian' included West Asian ethnic groups Jewish Americans, Armenian Americans, Assyrian Americans, Iranian Americans, Kurdish Americans, Arab Americans, although these groups are now considered Middle Eastern American; the term Asian American was coined by historian Yuji Ichioka, credited with popularizing the term, to frame a new "inter-ethnic-pan-Asian American self-defining political group" in the late 1960s. Changing patterns of immigration and an extensive period of exclusion of Asian immigrants have resulted in demographic changes that have in turn affected the formal and common understandings of what defines Asian American. For example, since the removal of restrictive "national origins" quotas in 1965, the Asian-American population has diversified to include more of the peoples with ancestry from various parts of Asia.
Today, "Asian American" is the accepted term for most formal purposes, such as government and academic research, although it is shortened to Asian in common usage. The most used definition of Asian American is the U. S. Census Bureau definition, which includes all people with origins in the Far East, Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent; this is chiefly because the census definitions determine many governmental classifications, notably for equal opportunity programs and measurements. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, "Asian person" in the United States is sometimes thought of as a person of East Asian descent. In vernacular usage, "Asian" is used to refer to those of East Asian descent or anyone else of Asian descent with epicanthic eyefolds; this differs from the U. S. Census definition and the Asian American Studies departments in many universities consider all those of East, South or Southeast Asian descent to be "Asian". In the US Census, people with origins or ancestry in the Far East, Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent are classified as part of the Asian race.
As such, "Asian" and "African" ancestry are seen as racial categories for the purposes of the Census, since they refer to ancestry only from those parts of the Asian and African continents that are outside the Middle East and North Africa. In 1980 and before, Census forms listed particular Asian ancestries as separate groups, along with white and black or negro. Asian Americans had been classified as "other". In 1977, the federal Office of Management and Budget issued a directive requiring government agencies to maintain statistics on racial groups, including on "Asian or Pacific Islander". By the 1990 census, "Asian or Pacific Islander" was included as an explicit category, although respondents had to select one particular ancestry as a subcategory. Beginning with the 2000 census, two separate categories were used: "Asian American" and "Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander"; the definition of Asian American has variations that derive from the use of the word American in different contexts.
Immigration status, citizenship and language ability are some variables that are used to define American for various purposes and may vary in formal and everyday usage. For example, restricting American to include only U. S. citizens conflicts with discussions of Asian American businesses, which refer both to citizen and non-citizen owners. In a PBS interview from 2004, a panel of Asian American writers discussed how some groups include people of Middle Eastern descent in the Asian American category. Asian American author Stewart Ikeda has noted, "The definition of'Asian American' frequently depends on who's asking, who's defining, in what context, why... the possible definitions of'Asian-Pacific American' are many and shifting... some scholars in Asian American Studies conferences suggest that Russians and Israelis all might fit the field's subject of study." Jeff Yang, of the Wall Street Journal, writes that the panethnic definition of Asian American is a unique American construct, as an identity is "in beta".
Scholars have grappled with the accuracy, correctn
Hollywood East is a term for the multiple efforts to build film industry agglomerations on the East Coast of the United States. The term has been applied to the growing film industry in New England in Massachusetts and Connecticut, that served as home to the production of over 140 major motion pictures and television series between 2000 and 2013, it is a reference to Hollywood, the center of the American film industry, located on the west coast of the United States. The term as used in New England was popularized in the press in 2007 as film and television productions migrated to the east coast to take advantage of the region's scenery, culture and tax incentives put in place by several state governments. Hollywood East is a term used by local press in Orlando, Florida in anticipation of the opening of the Disney-MGM Studios in 1989 and Universal Studios Florida in 1990 in order to attract more filmmaking business to the region. While both are legitimate studios, they are predominantly theme parks, although many film and television productions have used these facilities since before the theme parks were built, Orlando was not able to retain the image of "Hollywood East."The collapse of the Florida film industry has been blamed on multiple factors, including increased film tax incentives in other states and decreased Florida tax incentives after the 2012 bankruptcy of Digital Domain which resulted in the closure of its taxpayer-subsidized Florida studios.
New England Boston, played a prominent role in the dawn of the film industry at the turn of the 20th century. After Thomas Edison's Vitascope projector was debuted in a commercial setting in New York City on April 23, 1896, it was soon thereafter debuted in Boston by Benjamin Franklin Keith on May 18, 1896 at Keith's theater on 547 Washington street; the technology received rave reviews from local media, with the Boston Herald writing, "The Vitascope is going to be the greatest drawing card of the season. Its possibilities are unlimited. Just think what it means; the scenes shown are full of life and action lacking in vocalization. To describe the enthusiasm aroused would be impossible."As motion pictures grew in popularity, so did the local and regional film production community. Filmmakers during this time period created short films based on either real life or based on stories or entertainment. Roxbury, Massachusetts born G. W. "Billy" Bitzer rose to prominence during this early age of motion pictures, created two pictures set in Boston: Seeing Boston in 1905, a picture consisting of a series of scenes from Boston, Midwinter Bathing, L Street Bath, Boston in 1905.
These two pictures are thought to be two of the first shot in Boston. As motion picture production evolved, so did its themes. Shortly after the silent shorts, filmmakers began adapting novels to the screen. Adaptation material in New England was rich with so many well-known novels being based there. House of the Seven Gables and The Scarlet Letter are two such novels based in New England and adapted into motion pictures, two films that played a role in shaping the cinematic themes that would become part of New England film's identity for the entirety of the 20th century. According moving picture archives Northeast Historic Film, these themes include Development of Yankee Characters, Smalltown Life Contrasted with city Values, Seafaring Tales, Family Secrets, Haunted New England; these themes, rooted in centuries of New England culture, are complemented by the region's diverse natural landscape and architecture, from the Atlantic Ocean and brilliant fall foliage to church steeples and skyscrapers.
After the motion picture's introduction to New England in the late 1800s, the region saw a boom in film production in the 1930s and 40's due to the spread of talking pictures or "talkies." Classic movies set in Boston from this era include Captains Courageous, Lost Boundaries and Our Town. The number of movies produced in Boston between the 1950s and 1980s averaged 10 per decade, including box office hits Boston Strangler and Jaws, until the 1990s when film production in the region exploded thanks to new and improved filming infrastructure; this upward trend continued in the 2000s, due in large part to tax incentive programs put in place by regional governments to attract filmmakers and production companies. One such example is the Massachusetts Tax Incentive program. Many T. V. series were filmed in New England during the 20th century, the most well known of them being Cheers, Ally McBeal, Boston Legal, Sabrina the Teenage Witch. All in all, 352 TV series and films have been produced in Boston since 1900, with a number of them winning Academy Awards: Goodwill Hunting, The Departed, The Fighter.
The area has produced many film and television stars, including but not limited to Ben Affleck, Matt Damon, Amy Poehler, Elizabeth Banks, Steve Carell, Ruth Gordon, John Krasinski, Edward Norton, Mark Wahlberg, Matthew Perry. A full list can be found here, a listing of notable films and television series produced in the area here. In 2008, the name Hollywood East was used to brand Plymouth Rock Studios, a proposed movie studio, to be built in Plymouth, Massachusetts before funding failed to materialize in 2009. More the phrase has resurfaced thanks in part to the opening of New England Studios and the rapid growth of the Hollywood East Actors Group, a social media based organization for actors and filmmakers in New England. Multiple efforts attempted to build functioning studios Universal Studios Florida housed multiple live-action productions, including Nickelodeon Studios game sho
Hollywood is a neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, notable as the home of the U. S. film industry, including several of its historic studios. Its name has come to be a shorthand reference for the people associated with it. Hollywood was incorporated as a municipality in 1903, it was consolidated with the city of Los Angeles in 1910 and soon thereafter, a prominent film industry emerged becoming the most recognizable film industry in the world. In 1853, one adobe hut stood in Nopalera, named for the Mexican Nopal cactus indigenous to the area. By 1870, an agricultural community flourished; the area was known as the Cahuenga Valley, after the pass in the Santa Monica Mountains to the north. According to the diary of H. J. Whitley known as the "Father of Hollywood", on his honeymoon in 1886 he stood at the top of the hill looking out over the valley. Along came a Chinese man in a wagon carrying wood; the man bowed. The Chinese man was asked what he was doing and replied, "I holly-wood," meaning'hauling wood.'
H. J. Whitley decided to name his new town Hollywood. "Holly" would represent England and "wood" would represent his Scottish heritage. Whitley had started over 100 towns across the western United States. Whitley arranged to buy the 480 acres E. C. Hurd ranch, they shook hands on the deal. Whitley shared his plans for the new town with General Harrison Gray Otis, publisher of the Los Angeles Times, Ivar Weid, a prominent businessman in the area. Daeida Wilcox learned of the name Hollywood from Ivar Weid, her neighbor in Holly Canyon and a prominent investor and friend of Whitley's, she recommended the same name to Harvey. H. Wilcox, who had purchased 120 acres on February 1, 1887, it wasn't until August 1887 Wilcox decided to use that name and filed with the Los Angeles County Recorder's office on a deed and parcel map of the property. The early real-estate boom busted at the end of that year. By 1900, the region had a post office, newspaper and two markets. Los Angeles, with a population of 102,479 lay 10 miles east through the vineyards, barley fields, citrus groves.
A single-track streetcar line ran down the middle of Prospect Avenue from it, but service was infrequent and the trip took two hours. The old citrus fruit-packing house was converted into a livery stable, improving transportation for the inhabitants of Hollywood; the Hollywood Hotel was opened in 1902 by H. J. Whitley, a president of the Los Pacific Boulevard and Development Company. Having acquired the Hurd ranch and subdivided it, Whitley built the hotel to attract land buyers. Flanking the west side of Highland Avenue, the structure fronted on Prospect Avenue, still a dusty, unpaved road, was graded and graveled; the hotel was to become internationally known and was the center of the civic and social life and home of the stars for many years. Whitley's company sold one of the early residential areas, the Ocean View Tract. Whitley did much to promote the area, he paid thousands of dollars for electric lighting, including bringing electricity and building a bank, as well as a road into the Cahuenga Pass.
The lighting ran for several blocks down Prospect Avenue. Whitley's land was centered on Highland Avenue, his 1918 development, Whitley Heights, was named for him. Hollywood was incorporated as a municipality on November 14, 1903, by a vote of 88 for and 77 against. On January 30, 1904, the voters in Hollywood decided, by a vote of 113 to 96, for the banishment of liquor in the city, except when it was being sold for medicinal purposes. Neither hotels nor restaurants were allowed to serve liquor before or after meals. In 1910, the city voted for merger with Los Angeles in order to secure an adequate water supply and to gain access to the L. A. sewer system. With annexation, the name of Prospect Avenue changed to Hollywood Boulevard and all the street numbers were changed. By 1912, major motion-picture companies had set up production in Los Angeles. In the early 1900s, most motion picture patents were held by Thomas Edison's Motion Picture Patents Company in New Jersey, filmmakers were sued to stop their productions.
To escape this, filmmakers began moving out west to Los Angeles, where attempts to enforce Edison's patents were easier to evade. The weather was ideal and there was quick access to various settings. Los Angeles became the capital of the film industry in the United States; the mountains and low land prices made Hollywood a good place to establish film studios. Director D. W. Griffith was the first to make a motion picture in Hollywood, his 17-minute short film In Old California was filmed for the Biograph Company. Although Hollywood banned movie theaters—of which it had none—before annexation that year, Los Angeles had no such restriction; the first film by a Hollywood studio, Nestor Motion Picture Company, was shot on October 26, 1911. The H. J. Whitley home was used as its set, the unnamed movie was filmed in the middle of their groves at the corner of Whitley Avenue and Hollywood Boulevard; the first studio in Hollywood, the Nestor Company, was established by the New Jersey–based Centaur Company in a roadhouse at 6121 Sunset Boulevard, in October 1911.
Four major film companies – Paramount, Warner Bros. RKO, Columbia – had studios in Hollywood, as did several minor companies and rental studios. In the 1920s, Hollywood was the fifth-largest industry in the nation. By the 1930s, Hollywood studios became vertically integrated, as production and exhibition was controlled by these companies, enabling Hollywood to produce 600 films per year. H
Barnsdall Art Park
Barnsdall Art Park is a city park located in the East Hollywood district of Los Angeles, California. Parking and arts buildings access is from Hollywood Boulevard on the park's north side; the park is a Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument, a facility of the City of Los Angeles Department of Cultural Affairs. Aline Barnsdall donated Barnsdall Park to the City of Los Angeles for arts and recreational purposes, including the preservation of the historic architecture and landscape features. Located at the crest of Olive Hill, Barnsdall Art Park overlooks the city of Los Angeles, the Hollywood Hills, including Griffith Park; the park is centered on the Barnsdall's Hollyhock House designed by architect Frank Lloyd Wright, a National Historic Landmark, Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument, on the National Register of Historic Places in Los Angeles. Aline Barnsdall, a native of Bradford and heiress to an oil fortune, was led by her interest in the future of the American stage to Chicago, where she co-directed an experimental theatre company.
While in Chicago, she met the unconventional Frank Lloyd Wright, whose completed Midway Gardens she admired. A trip to California turned Barnsdall's attention to Los Angeles. In 1915 she commissioned Wright to help her develop an innovative theatrical community on the nation's western cultural frontier. Selecting a thirty-six acre site in East Hollywood known as Olive Hill and Wright worked together to develop a plan that included a home for Barnsdall and her young daughter, two secondary residences, a theater, a director's house, a dormitory for actors, studios for artists, a motion picture theater; the site plan was based on the gridded spacing of the existing olive grove’s 1225 trees. The Aline Barnsdall Residence, known as Hollyhock House, was the first Los Angeles project of Frank Lloyd Wright. Built between 1919 and 1921, it represents his earliest efforts to develop a regionally appropriate style of architecture for Southern California. Taking advantage of the area's mild climate, Hollyhock House is a combination of house and gardens.
It is a remarkable example of Wright's love of nature and the way he incorporated it into his designs. The house takes its name from the favorite flower of Aline Barnsdall. Wright's abstracted hollyhock patterns were incorporated into the decoration motif on and in the residence. Wright was absent during the actual construction of Hollyhock House, due to the demands of a major commission, the Imperial Hotel in Tokyo, Japan. Therefore, he gave supervision of the Barnsdall project to two young Taliesin studio associates: his son Lloyd Wright, Rudolph Schindler, they both became independently renowned architects. Because of financial and artistic differences, only the two secondary residences and the Barnsdall home, Hollyhock House, were built. In 1926, Aline Barnsdall gave Hollyhock House and eleven surrounding acres to the City of Los Angeles for use as a public park in memory of her father, Theodore Barnsdall; the City agreed to take the Hollywood estate, but did not do anything with it because of Barnsdall's restrictions on how the land could be used, as well as her controversial ideals.
Part of the ensuing negotiations between the City and Barnsdall included a provision that the California Art Club would be granted a fifteen-year lease on Hollyhock House to use as their clubhouse. In the 1950s and 1960s additional art center buildings, including a modern theatre, an art gallery, studios, were built on Olive Hill in the park. In the 1990s the Olive Hill restoration master plan and work was completed, including restoring the original olive groves; the Los Angeles Municipal Art Gallery is a 10,000-square-foot venue that offers dramatic exhibition space for large, thematic group exhibitions and major retrospective exhibitions of individual work. The Junior Arts Center Gallery is a 2,000-square-foot venue in the building that offers a more intimate gallery space. At times the two galleries are used together for single large-scale exhibitions; the Municipal Art Gallery's exhibitions program produces nine exhibitions of contemporary art per year. The mission of the program is to promote and present to the general public the contemporary art of artists from culturally diverse Southern California.
The curatorial focus includes painting, photography, design, electronic and installation works. Exhibits at Barnsdall Park receive over 45,000 visitors annually; the Barnsdall Gallery Theatre is owned and operated by Performing Arts in the City of Los Angeles's Department of Cultural Affairs. It is a 299-seat proscenium space rented at nominal fees to individuals and organizations for live theatre, music, spoken word, lectures and other events; the venue is equipped with dual sound, lights, an HD ready digital projector, built-in 16mm film and video projectors, as well as dressing rooms and spacious upper and lower lobbies with box office and refreshment counters. BGT presents a variety of community events in the space, including many popular free programs, such as the Independent Shakespeare Company, Music Summer Camps by the Silverlake Conservatory of Music, many annual festivals, including the Thai Festival and Artwallah. Independent Shakespeare CompanyThe Independent Shakespeare Company is an ongoing, free live summer series held on an outdoor stage in the park.
In 2004, in association with the City's Department of Cultural Affairs, the ISC established a residency in Barnsdall Art Park. The first production was "The Two Gentlemen of Verona". In October 2004, the ISC toured Richard III in France as part of the 100th anniversary of the Ent