Yoyogi is a neighbourhood in the northern part of Shibuya, Japan. The area encompassed by Yoyogi is defined two ways: Only the five Yoyogi districts; the former Yoyogi Village, corresponding to the area south of National Route 20, east of Tokyo Route 420, north of the districts of Uehara and Tomigaya, west of Meiji Shrine. This larger definition of Yoyogi is used by residents and government to deliver services such as police and postal delivery. Yoyogi is composed of ten districts. Yoyogi 1-chōme: Home of the juku chain Yoyogi Seminar as well as other college preparatory schools and technical institutions. There are several businesses catering to those who use Yoyogi Station. Yoyogi 2-chōme: The Nishi-Shinjuku skyscraper district is directly north of this area. There are numerous shops due to the proximity to the south exit of Shinjuku Station. Yoyogi 3-chōme: This area was once called Yamaya-chō and is composed of small apartment buildings and houses. Yoyogi 4-chōme and Yoyogi 5-chōme: Close to Meiji Shrine and Yoyogi Park, these districts are quiet residential areas with a varied topography.
Yoyogi Kamizono-chō: This district covers Meiji Shrine and Yoyogi Park. Moto-Yoyogi-chō: Close to Yoyogi-Hachiman and Yoyogi-Uehara stations as well as Yamate-dōri, this district is a hilly residential area. Uehara, Nishihara, Ōyamachō: These three districts together with Tomigaya are referred to as "Yoyogi-Uehara." Yoyogi Station is located in the easternmost part of Yoyogi only 700 meters south of Shinjuku Station. JR Yoyogi Station has two platforms for the Yamanote lines. Platforms for the Toei Ōedo Line subway line are located underneath Tokyo Metropolitan Route 414 west of the JR station. Shinjuku Station extends into Yoyogi. Rail lines include: Yamanote Line, Chūō-Sōbu Line: Yoyogi Station Toei Ōedo Line: Yoyogi Station Odakyū Odawara Line: Minami-Shinjuku Station, Sangūbashi Station, Yoyogi-Hachiman Station, Yoyogi-Uehara Station Chiyoda Line: Yoyogi-Kōen Station, Yoyogi-Uehara Station Keiō Line: Hatsudai Station National Route 20 Nishi-sandō Yoyogi-yamaya-dōri Tokyo Metropolitan Route 413 Tokyo Metropolitan Route 317 Shuto Expressway Route 4 - Shinjuku Route Yoyogi Park is one of the largest parks in Tokyo, located in the centre of Shibuya directly south of Meiji Shrine.
In the years preceding its designation as a public park, Yoyogi Park's site was used as the location of the first successful powered aircraft flight in Japan, an army parade ground, a post-World War II US military installation, the location for the opening ceremonies of the 1964 Tokyo Olympics. East Japan Railway Company have its headquarters in Yoyogi. Square Enix and subsidiary Taito Corporation share the Shinjuku Bunka Quint Building in Yoyogi. Square Enix is no longer at the Higashi-Shinjuku Station. History of Shibuya
A bus is a road vehicle designed to carry many passengers. Buses can have a capacity as high as 300 passengers; the most common type of bus is the single-deck rigid bus, with larger loads carried by double-decker and articulated buses, smaller loads carried by midibuses and minibuses. Many types of buses, such as city transit buses and inter-city coaches, charge a fare. Other types, such as elementary or secondary school buses or shuttle buses within a post-secondary education campus do not charge a fare. In many jurisdictions, bus drivers require a special licence above and beyond a regular driver's licence. Buses may be used for scheduled bus transport, scheduled coach transport, school transport, private hire, or tourism. Horse-drawn buses were used from the 1820s, followed by steam buses in the 1830s, electric trolleybuses in 1882; the first internal combustion engine buses, or motor buses, were used in 1895. Interest has been growing in hybrid electric buses, fuel cell buses, electric buses, as well as ones powered by compressed natural gas or biodiesel.
As of the 2010s, bus manufacturing is globalised, with the same designs appearing around the world. Bus is a clipped form of the dative plural of omnis-e; the theoretical full name is in French voiture omnibus. The name originates from a mass-transport service started in 1823 by a French corn-mill owner named Stanislas Baudry in Richebourg, a suburb of Nantes. A by-product of his mill was hot water, thus next to it he established a spa business. In order to encourage customers he started a horse-drawn transport service from the city centre of Nantes to his establishment; the first vehicles stopped in front of the shop of a hatter named Omnés, which displayed a large sign inscribed "Omnes Omnibus", a pun on his Latin-sounding surname, omnes being the male and female nominative and accusative form of the Latin adjective omnis-e, combined with omnibus, the dative plural form meaning "for all", thus giving his shop the name "Omnés for all". His transport scheme was a huge success, although not as he had intended as most of his passengers did not visit his spa.
He turned the transport service into his principal lucrative business venture and closed the mill and spa. Nantes citizens soon gave the nickname "omnibus" to the vehicle. Having invented the successful concept Baudry moved to Paris and launched the first omnibus service there in April 1828. A similar service was introduced in London in 1829. Regular intercity bus services by steam-powered buses were pioneered in England in the 1830s by Walter Hancock and by associates of Sir Goldsworthy Gurney, among others, running reliable services over road conditions which were too hazardous for horse-drawn transportation; the first mechanically propelled omnibus appeared on the streets of London on 22 April 1833. Steam carriages were much less to overturn, they travelled faster than horse-drawn carriages, they were much cheaper to run, caused much less damage to the road surface due to their wide tyres. However, the heavy road tolls imposed by the turnpike trusts discouraged steam road vehicles and left the way clear for the horse bus companies, from 1861 onwards, harsh legislation eliminated mechanically propelled vehicles from the roads of Great Britain for 30 years, the Locomotive Act of that year imposing restrictive speed limits on "road locomotives" of 5 mph in towns and cities, 10 mph in the country.
In parallel to the development of the bus was the invention of the electric trolleybus fed through trolley poles by overhead wires. The Siemens brothers, William in England and Ernst Werner in Germany, collaborated on the development of the trolleybus concept. Sir William first proposed the idea in an article to the Journal of the Society of Arts in 1881 as an "...arrangement by which an ordinary omnibus...would have a suspender thrown at intervals from one side of the street to the other, two wires hanging from these suspenders. Although this experimental vehicle fulfilled all the technical criteria of a typical trolleybus, it was dismantled in the same year after the demonstration. Max Schiemann opened a passenger-carrying trolleybus in 1901 in Germany. Although this system operated only until 1904, Schiemann had developed what is now the standard trolleybus current collection system. In the early days, a few other methods of current collection were used. Leeds and Bradford became the first cities to put trolleybuses into service in Great Britain on 20 June 1911.
In Siegerland, two passenger bus lines ran but unprofitably, in 1895 using a six-passenger motor carriage developed from the 1893 Benz Viktoria. Another commercial bus line using the same model Benz omnibuses ran for a short time in 1898 in the rural area around Llandudno, Wales. Daimler produced one of the earliest motor-bus models in 1898, selling a double-decker bus to the Motor Traction Company, first used on the streets of London on 23 April 1898; the vehicle had a maximum speed of 18 km/h and accommodated up to 20 passengers, in an enclosed area below and on an open-air pl
In rail transport, track gauge or track gage is the spacing of the rails on a railway track and is measured between the inner faces of the load-bearing rails. All vehicles on a rail network must have running gear, compatible with the track gauge, in the earliest days of railways the selection of a proposed railway's gauge was a key issue; as the dominant parameter determining interoperability, it is still used as a descriptor of a route or network. In some places there is a distinction between the nominal gauge and the actual gauge, due to divergence of track components from the nominal. Railway engineers use a device, like a caliper, to measure the actual gauge, this device is referred to as a track gauge; the terms structure gauge and loading gauge, both used, have little connection with track gauge. Both refer to two-dimensional cross-section profiles, surrounding the track and vehicles running on it; the structure gauge specifies the outline into which altered structures must not encroach.
The loading gauge is the corresponding envelope within which rail vehicles and their loads must be contained. If an exceptional load or a new type of vehicle is being assessed to run, it is required to conform to the route's loading gauge. Conformance ensures. In the earliest days of railways, single wagons were manhandled on timber rails always in connection with mineral extraction, within a mine or quarry leading from it. Guidance was not at first provided except by human muscle power, but a number of methods of guiding the wagons were employed; the spacing between the rails had to be compatible with that of the wagon wheels. The timber rails wore rapidly. In some localities, the plates were made L-shaped, with the vertical part of the L guiding the wheels; as the guidance of the wagons was improved, short strings of wagons could be connected and pulled by horses, the track could be extended from the immediate vicinity of the mine or quarry to a navigable waterway. The wagons were built to a consistent pattern and the track would be made to suit the wagons: the gauge was more critical.
The Penydarren Tramroad of 1802 in South Wales, a plateway, spaced these at 4 ft 4 in over the outside of the upstands. The Penydarren Tramroad carried the first journey by a locomotive, in 1804, it was successful for the locomotive, but unsuccessful for the track: the plates were not strong enough to carry its weight. A considerable progressive step was made. Edge rails required a close match between rail spacing and the configuration of the wheelsets, the importance of the gauge was reinforced. Railways were still seen as local concerns: there was no appreciation of a future connection to other lines, selection of the track gauge was still a pragmatic decision based on local requirements and prejudices, determined by existing local designs of vehicles. Thus, the Monkland and Kirkintilloch Railway in the West of Scotland used 4 ft 6 in; the Arbroath and Forfar Railway opened in 1838 with a gauge of 5 ft 6 in, the Ulster Railway of 1839 used 6 ft 2 in Locomotives were being developed in the first decades of the 19th century.
His designs were so successful that they became the standard, when the Stockton and Darlington Railway was opened in 1825, it used his locomotives, with the same gauge as the Killingworth line, 4 ft 8 in. The Stockton and Darlington line was immensely successful, when the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, the first intercity line, was built, it used the same gauge, it was hugely successful, the gauge, became the automatic choice: "standard gauge". The Liverpool and Manchester was followed by other trunk railways, with the Grand Junction Railway and the London and Birmingham Railway forming a huge critical mass of standard gauge; when Bristol promoters planned a line from London, they employed the innovative engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel. He decided on a wider gauge, to give greater stability, the Great Western Railway adopted a gauge of 7 ft eased to 7 ft 1⁄4 in; this became known as broad gauge. The Great Western Railway was successful and was expanded and through friendly associated companies, widening the scope of broad gauge.
At the same time, other parts of Britain built railways to standard gauge, British technology was exported to European countries and parts of North America using standard gauge. Britain polarised into two areas: those that used standard gauge. In this context, standard gauge was referred to as "narrow gauge" to indicate the contrast; some smaller concerns selected other non-standard gauges: the Eastern Counties Railway adopted 5 ft. Most of them converted to standard gauge at an early date, but the GWR's broad gauge continued to grow; the larger railway companies wished to expand geographically, large areas were considered to be under their control. When a new
3 ft 6 in gauge railways
Railways with a track gauge of 3 ft 6 in / 1,067 mm were first constructed as horse-drawn wagonways. From the mid-nineteenth century, the 3 ft 6 in gauge became widespread in the British Empire, was adopted as a standard in Japan and Taiwan. There are 112,000 kilometres of 1,067 mm gauge track in the world. 1795 One of the first railways to use 3 ft 6 in gauge was the Little Eaton Gangway in England, constructed as a horse-drawn wagonway in 1795. Other 3 ft 6 in gauge wagonways in England and Wales were built in the early nineteenth century. 1862 In 1862 the Norwegian engineer Carl Abraham Pihl constructed the first 3 ft 6 in gauge railway in Norway, the Røros Line. 1865 In 1865 the Queensland Railways were constructed. Its 3 ft 6 in gauge was promoted by the Irish engineer Abraham Fitzgibbon and consulting engineer Charles Fox. 1867 In 1867, the construction of the railroad from the Castillo de Buitrón mine to the pier of San Juan del Puerto, Spain, began. The width was 3 ft 6 in. 1868 In 1868 Charles Fox asks civil engineer Edmund Wragge to survey a 3 ft 6 in railway in Costa Rica.
1871 In 1871 the Canadian Toronto and Bruce Railway and the Toronto and Nipissing Railway were opened, promoted by Pihl and Fitzgibbon and surveyed by Wragge as an engineer of Fox. 1872 In January 1872 Robert Fairlie advocated the use of 3 ft 6 in gauge in his book Railways Or No Railways: Narrow Gauge, Economy with Efficiency v. Broad Gauge, Costliness with Extravagance. 1872 saw the opening of the first 3 ft 6 in gauge railway in Japan, proposed by the British civil engineer Edmund Morel based on his experience of building railways in New Zealand. 1873 On 1 January 1873, the first 3 ft 6 in gauge railway was opened in New Zealand, constructed by the British firm John Brogden and Sons. Earlier built 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in and broad gauge railways were soon converted to the narrower gauge. In 1873 the Cape Colony adopted the 3 ft 6 in gauge. After conducting several studies in southern Europe, the Molteno Government selected the gauge as being the most economically suited for traversing steep mountain ranges.
Beginning in 1873, under supervision of Railway engineer of the Colony William Brounger, the Cape Government Railways expanded and the gauge became the standard for southern Africa. 1876 Natal converted its short 10 kilometres long Durban network from 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in standard gauge prior to commencing with construction of a network across the entire colony in 1876. Other new railways in Southern Africa, notably Mozambique, the Rhodesias and Angola, were constructed in 3 ft 6 in gauge during that time. After 1876 In the late nineteenth and early twentieth century numerous 3 ft 6 in gauge tram systems were built in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. In Sweden, the gauge was nicknamed Blekinge gauge, as most of the railways in the province of Blekinge had this gauge. An alternate name for this gauge, Cape gauge, is named after the Cape Colony in what is now South Africa, which adopted it in 1873; the term Cape Gauge is used in other languages, such as the Dutch kaapspoor, German Kapspur, Norwegian kappspor and French voie cape.
After metrication in the 1960s, the gauge was referred to in official South African Railways publications as 1,065 mm instead of 1067 mm. The gauge name. In Australia the imperial term 3 foot 6 inch is used. In some Australian publications the term medium gauge is used, while in Australian states where 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in is the norm, 1,067 mm gauge is referred to as narrow gauge. In Japan 1,067 mm gauge is referred to as kyōki, it is defined in metric units. Similar, but incompatible without wheelset adjustment, rail gauges in respect of aspects such as cost of construction, practical minimum radius curves and the maximum physical dimensions of rolling stock are: 1,100 mm, 1,093 mm, 1,055 mm, 1,050 mm, 1,000 mm metre gauge. Cape Government Railways Heritage railway List of track gauges South African Trains – A Pictorial Encyclopaedia Why Did Japan Choose the 3'6" Narrow Gauge
Tokyo Monorail the Tokyo Monorail Haneda Airport Line, is a monorail system connecting Haneda Airport in Ōta, Japan, to Monorail Hamamatsuchō Station in Minato, Tokyo. The trains operate along an elevated line; the following three different train service types operate on the line. Haneda Express Rapid Local Haneda Express trains make the non-stop run between Monorail Hamamatsuchō and Haneda Airport in 13 minutes. ● Stops at this station | Does not stop at this station Passengers using the monorail to travel to the airport can take advantage of check-in facilities at Hamamatsuchō. Japan's domestic airlines have check-in counters and ticket machines right at the station. Tokyo Monorail tickets can be purchased on the lower level of Kansai International Airport in Osaka, Itami Airport, as well as Naha Airport in Okinawa and departure gate area at Hiroshima Airport. An alternative to the monorail is the Keikyu Airport Line between Shinagawa Station. Both railways compete with bus services. 1000 series x 16, since 1989 2000 series x 4, since 1997 10000 series, since 18 July 2014Services are operated using six-car 1000 and 2000 series trains, running at speeds of up to 80 km/h.
Each car has a combination of aisle-facing bench seats and rear-facing seats, seats in the center of the aisle. The trains feature extra space for hand luggage, as a convenience for air travelers; these trains are stored and maintained at Shōwajima Depot beside Shōwajima Station during off-service hours. The 1000 series trains were introduced from 1989, the 2000 series trains were introduced from 1997. From 18 July 2014, the first of a fleet of new 10000 series 6-car trains was introduced, replacing the older 1000 series trains. Former rolling stock once used on Tokyo Monorail include the 100/200/300/350 series, 500 series, 600 series, 700/800 series. Tokyo Monorail was one of the first "private" railways to use JR East's Suica fare card system; the Monorail is now integrated with both Suica and the new Pasmo fare card. The first departure towards the airport leaves at 04:58 and the last departure is at 00:01. Towards Hamamatsuchō, the first departure is at 05:11 and the final departure is at 00:05.
Passengers can ride the Tokyo Monorail with a JR Pass. The line was planned to extend from Haneda to Shimbashi or Tokyo Stations and the monorail company acquired licences to build the line to both locations. However, cost overruns on the Tōkaidō Shinkansen drained the government subsidies allocated to the construction of both lines, requiring the Tokyo Monorail to shorten its route. In addition, to save costs the monorail was constructed over public waterways instead of acquiring private land for the route; the resulting construction eliminated a number of fishing and aquatic farming operations and the affected local fishing cooperatives had their licences summarily revoked by the Tokyo metropolitan government. In particular, the Omori no nori sea field in Ota Ward, which had produced a premium brand of nori since the Edo period, was destroyed; the line opened on 17 September 1964, ahead of the 1964 Summer Olympics. Built by Hitachi Monorail, the first cars were made in Japan from the German ALWEG design, were replaced by newer models in 1969, 1977, 1982, 1989.
It was the first commercial monorail in the world. The monorail only served Hamamatsuchō and the airport; the first station added in between was the Ōi Race Track in 1965, followed by Seibijō in 1967. When the monorail began operation, the passenger terminal at Haneda Airport was located on the west side of the airfield, south of Seibijō, this was the southern terminus of the monorail. Upon the opening of the new passenger terminal in 1993, the monorail was extended to a new platform, the former passenger terminal was razed to make room for an extension of Runway B; the now-unused monorail tunnel leading to the old station was leased from the Transport Ministry and therefore had to be restored to its original state prior to its handover. Although the rails were removed from the tunnel and its entrance walled off, the tunnel remains otherwise intact today below the extension of Runway B. A single-station, 0.9-km extension to Haneda's new Terminal 2 opened on December 1, 2004, the opening of a passing loop at Showajima allowed express services from March 18, 2007.
A new infill station to serve the airport's new International Terminal was opened on 21 October 2010. The Tokyo Monorail serves eleven stations and operates from around 5:00 a.m. to midnight with over 500 trains. It carried its 1.5 billionth passenger on January 24, 2007. The line is operated by the Tokyo Monorail Co. Ltd.. JR East purchased stock in the company in 2002 owning 70%. In June 2009, Tokyo Monorail Co. Ltd. formally notified the Ministry of Land and Transport of its intent to convert the present single-track terminal at Hamamatsucho, which had rested unchanged since 1964, into a dual-track, dual-platform structure. To be built in six and a half years at an estimated cost of 26 billion yen, this would increase the line's capacity from 18 to 24 trains per hour and lay the groundwork for a long-mooted extension to Shimbashi Station
In economics, cargo or freight refers to goods or produce being conveyed – for commercial gain – by water, air or land. Cargo was a shipload. Cargo now covers all types of freight, including that carried by train, truck, or intermodal container; the term cargo is used in case of goods in the cold-chain, because the perishable inventory is always in transit towards a final end-use when it is held in cold storage or other similar climate-controlled facility. Multi-modal container units, designed as reusable carriers to facilitate unit load handling of the goods contained, are referred to as cargo, specially by shipping lines and logistics operators. Aircraft ULD boxes are documented as cargo, with associated packing list of the items contained within; when empty containers are shipped each unit is documented as a cargo and when goods are stored within, the contents are termed as containerised cargo. Seaport terminals handle a wide range of maritime cargo. Automobiles are handled at many ports and are carried on specialized roll-on/roll-off ships.
Break bulk cargo is material stacked on pallets and lifted into and out of the hold of a vessel by cranes on the dock or aboard the ship itself. The volume of break bulk cargo has declined worldwide as containerization has grown. One way to secure break bulk and freight in intermodal containers is by using Dunnage Bags. Bulk cargo, such as salt, oil and scrap metal, is defined as commodities that are neither on pallets nor in containers. Bulk cargoes are not handled as individual pieces, the way heavy-lift and project cargoes are. Alumina, gypsum and wood chips, for instance, are bulk cargoes. Neo-bulk cargo comprises individual units that are counted as they are loaded and unloaded, in contrast to bulk cargo, not counted, but that are not containerized. Containers are the fastest growing cargo category at most ports worldwide. Containerized cargo includes everything from auto parts and manufacturing components to shoes and toys to frozen meat and seafood. Project cargo and the heavy lift cargo include items like manufacturing equipment, air conditioners, factory components, wind turbines, military equipment, any other oversized or overweight cargo, too big or too heavy to fit into a container.
Air cargo known as air freight, is collected by firms from shippers and delivered to customers. Aircraft were first used for carrying mail as cargo in 1911. Manufacturers started designing aircraft for other types of freight as well. There are many commercial aircraft suitable for carrying cargo such as the Boeing 747 and the bigger An‑124, purposely built for easy conversion into a cargo aircraft; such large aircraft employ quick-loading containers known as unit load devices, much like containerized cargo ships. The ULDs are located in the front section of the aircraft. Most nations own and utilize large numbers of military cargo aircraft such as the C‑17 Globemaster III for logistical needs. Popular commercial aircraft transformed to a cargo aircraft such as Saab 340A is designed for high revenue and profitability in short / medium haul operations. Trains are capable of transporting a large number of containers. Trains are used for the transportation of water, grain, steel and coal, they are used because they can carry a large amount and have a direct route to the destination.
Under the right circumstances, freight transport by rail is more economic and energy efficient than by road when carried in bulk or over long distances. The main disadvantage of rail freight is its lack of flexibility. For this reason, rail has lost much of the freight business to road transport. Rail freight is subject to transshipment costs, since it must be transferred from one mode of transportation to another. Practices such as containerization aim at minimizing these costs; when transporting point-to-point bulk loads such as cement or grain, with specialised bulk handling facilities at the rail sidings, rail mode of transport remains the most convenient and preferred option. Many governments are trying to encourage shippers to use trains more because of the environmental benefits. Many firms, like Parcelforce, R+L Carriers transport all types of cargo by road. Delivering everything from letters to houses to cargo containers, these firms offer fast, sometimes same-day, delivery. A good example of road cargo is food, as supermarkets require deliveries daily to replenish their shelves with goods.
Retailers and manufacturers of all kinds rely upon delivery trucks, be they full size semi trucks or smaller delivery vans. These smaller road haulage companies strive for the best routes and prices to ship out their products. Indeed, the level of commercial freight transported by smaller businesses is a good barometer of healthy economic development as it is these types of vehicles that move and transport anything, including couriers transporting parcel and mail. You can see the different weights of vehicles that are used to move cargo around. Freight is organized into various shipment categories before it is transported. An item's category is determined by: the type of item being carried. For example, a kettle could fit into the category'household goods'. How large the shipment is, in terms of both item size and quantity. How long the item for delivery will be in transit. Shipments are categorized as household goods, express and freight shipments: Household goods include furniture and similar items.
Small business or personal items like envelopes are considered overnight expres