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East Java

East Java is a province of Indonesia. It has a land border only with the province of Central Java to the west. Located in eastern Java, it includes the island of Madura, connected to Java by the longest bridge in Indonesia, the Suramadu Bridge, as well as the Kangean and Masalembu archipelagos located further east and north, respectively, its capital is the second largest city in Indonesia and a major industrial center. Banyuwangi is the largest on the island of Java; the province covers an area of 47,800 km2, According to the 2010 Census, there were 37,476,757 people residing in the East Java, making it Indonesia's second-most-populous province. East Java is inhabited by many different ethnic groups, such as the Javanese and Chinese. Most of the people in East Java adheres to Islam, forming around 96% of the total population. Other religions are worshipped, such as Christianity, which are worshipped by Chinese Indonesians and immigrants from Eastern Indonesia and North Sumatra, Hinduism which are worshipped by the Tenggerese people in the Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park and the Balinese people inhabiting the easternmost part of the province bordering Bali.

The Indonesian language is the official language of the province as well as the whole nation, but Javanese and Madurese are the most used language. Indonesian is only used for inter-ethnic official purposes. East Java is one of the provinces in Indonesia; this area offers a variety of natural attractions ranging from mountains, caves, to waterfalls. In general every regencies or city in East Java has its own unique tourist destinations, such as the Ijen volcano in Banyuwangi, Baluran National Park in Situbondo, Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park, etc. East Java has been inhabited by humans since prehistoric times; this can be proven by the discovery of remains from fossils of Pithecanthropus mojokertensis in Kepuhlagen, Mojokerto. The Dinoyo inscriptions found near the city of Malang are the oldest written sources in East Java, dating from 760 CE, they tell of many cultural events in the Kingdom of Dinoyo. The name of Malang is thought to come from the name of a sacred building called Malangkuseswara.

This name is contained in at least one inscription, the Mantyasih inscription written in 907 CE. In 1222, Ken Arok founded the Kingdom of Singhasari, which he ruled until 1292. Before coming to power, Ken Arok seized power in Tumapel from Tungul Ametung. Ken Arok dynasty's descendants became kings of Singhasari and Majapahit from the 13th until the 15th century. In 1227, Anusapati killed Ken Arok, became king of Singasari. Anusapati's power only lasted 20 years. Three years Tohjaya was killed in the uprising led by Jaya Wisnuwardhana, son of Anusapati. In 1268, Wisnuwardhana died, he was succeeded by Kertanegara. In 1292 Kertanegara was defeated by a rebel named Jayakatwang, ending the power of Kertanegara power and the history of Singhasari. In 1293, Kublai Khan, founder of the Yuan dynasty, sent a large invasion fleet to Java with 20,000 to 30,000 soldiers, beginning the Mongol invasion of Java; this was a punitive expedition against King Kertanegara of Singhasari, who had refused to pay tribute to the Yuan and maimed one of its ministers.

However, it ended with failure for the Mongols. In 1294, the Kingdom of Majapahit was founded, its founder was Raden Wijaya. Majapahit reached its peak during the reign of Hayam Wuruk, he was accompanied by the mahapatih Gajah Mada. Together they managed to unite the vast territory under the name Dwipantara. Majaphit developed to become one of the strongest empire in Southeast Asia. In 1357, the Bubat event occurred, the war between the King of Sunda and the Majapahit Patih Gajah Mada; this event stems from the desire to take the king Hayam Wuruk Sundanese princess named Dyah Pitaloka as queen. However, because of a misunderstanding about the procedure of marriage, the plan led to a battle in Bubat. Majapahit troops, under the command of Gajah Mada defeated Pajajaran. In 1389, Hayam Wuruk died, was succeeded by Wikramawardhana; this resulted in the beginning of the decline of the Majapahit Empire. As the Majapahit Empire went into decline in the late 1300s, Islam moved to fill the vacuum; the precise date when Islam enters Java remains unclear.

This is due to the absence of a definite source regarding the arrival of Islam in Java. However, according to some experts, it is estimated that Islam entered Java around the 11th century with evidence of the tomb of Fatimah Binti Maimun in the village of Leran in Gresik Regency which dates from 475 AH; the tomb shows that in the 11th century the North coast of Java had begun to be frequented by Arab traders from the Middle East. In addition, several Islamic tombs were discovered in Trowulan, located in what is now part of the Mojokerto Regency, near the site of the former Majapahit palace. On the 15th century, a Chinese Hui voyager named, he wrote the book Yingya Shenglan, which tells the story of the countries visited by him over the course of the Ming treasure voyages. He mentioned that at that time there were three different kind of people inhabiting

Nong Khai Province

Nong Khai was the northernmost of the northeastern provinces of Thailand until its eight eastern districts were split off to form Thailand's newest province in 2011. Nearby provinces are Bueng Kan, Sakon Nakhon, Udon Thani, Loei. To the north it borders Vientiane Province, Vientiane Prefecture, Bolikhamxai of Laos; the province is in the valley of the Mae Nam Kong, which forms the border with Laos. There are highlands to the south; the Laotian capital, Vientiane, is only 25 kilometers away from the provincial capital of Nong Khai. The Thai–Lao Friendship Bridge, which connects the two countries, was built jointly by the governments of Thailand and Australia, was opened in 1994. Nong Khai is considered the smallest province in the northeastern after Bueng Kan and other seven districts were separated into Bueng Kan Province in 2011. Over the centuries, control of the province swung between the Thai Kingdom Ayutthaya, the Laotian kingdom Lan Xang, as their respective powers ebbed and flowed in the region.

The Prap Ho Monument in front of the historic city hall memorializes the war dead of the Haw wars. In more recent years, Nong Khai has become a popular destination during the Buddhist Lent festival when mysterious balls of light, or Naga fireballs, rise from the Mekong River; the balls resemble an orange sun. They rise out of the river 6–9 meters and disappear after three to five seconds. Although the fireballs can be seen at other times, most Thais travel to see them during the full moon in October when the incidence of them is considered to be much higher. Nong Khai's main sight is a park of colossal sculptures, some over 20 m tall; the park is the handiwork of the mystic Luang Pu Bunleua Sulilat, who bought the land in 1978 when he was exiled from his native Laos, where he had built a similar park in Vientiane in the 1950s. Synthesizing Buddhist and Hinduist ideologies, many-armed goddesses, a seven-headed Naga snake, various human-animal hybrids dominate the site; as of 23 March 2011, the province is divided into nine districts.

The districts are further divided into 705 villages. The eight districts of Bueng Kan were districts of Nong Khai before they were split off to form Bueng Kan Province; as of 26 November 2019 there are: one Nong Khai Provincial Administration Organisation and 19 municipal areas in the province. Nong Khai and Tha Bo have town status. Further 17 subdistrict municipalities; the non-municipal areas are administered by 48 Subdistrict Administrative Organisations - SAO. The nearest airport is 56 km from Nong Khai; the main railway station in Nong Khai is Nong Khai Railway Station. This station can be considered the destination of the Upper Northeastern Railway Line; the Thai–Lao Friendship Bridge was funded by a gift to the Lao government from the Australian government. It is the road and railway gateway to Laos's capital, Vientiane, on the north bank opposite the Thai town of Si Chiang Mai District. Construction of a rail spur to Thanaleng outside of Vientiane was begun early-2007 and opened 5 March 2009.

Nong Khai is 60 km north of Udon Thani. Since 2003, United Nations Development Programme in Thailand has tracked progress on human development at sub-national level using the Human achievement index, a composite index covering all the eight key areas of human development. National Economic and Social Development Board has taken over this task since 2017. Reports from Thai government are "not copyrightable", Copyright Act 2537, section 7. Nong Khai travel guide from Wikivoyage Provincial website Nong Khai Travel Guide

Thompson and Powell Martyrs Monument

The Thompson and Powell Martyrs Monument is a memorial to two Confederate soldiers in St. Joseph, Kentucky, it is on the National Register of Historic Places, one of only three NRHP locations in Daviess County, Kentucky, not in Owensboro, Kentucky. The memorial honors two Confederate soldiers who were killed in accordance with the standing order of the Union general in command of Kentucky, Stephen G. Burbridge, known as Order No. 59. This called for the execution of four Confederate prisoners for every unarmed Union civilian killed by the Confederates; the two men honored on the monument were Charles W. Thompson and Pierman Powell, who were executed in retaliation for the fatal wounding of a prominent resident of Henderson, James E. Rankin, they were held in Daviess County, but were taken to Henderson by Federal troops to be killed. The two men were executed on July 22, 1864. Confederate Colonel Lee A. Sypert of the 16th Kentucky Cavalry tried to rescue the two men on July 21, using a bluff to draw away Union forces.

However, the defenders held on. The two Confederate prisoners were killed by firing squad on the banks of the Ohio River in Henderson after which the Union gunboats left the city, along with all the Union soldiers in the city. Fearing retaliation, many of the Union-sympathizing citizens of Henderson fled the city though Sypert sent a proclamation to the city, stating:... They are gone, their murder is another crime added to the damnable catalogue of the despotism that rules you. We are Confederate soldiers. We fight for the liberty. We have not made, nor will we make war upon citizens and women. Let not your people be excited by any further apprehension that we will disturb the peace of your community by the arrest of Union men, or of any interference with them unless they place themselves in the attitude of combatants; such conduct would be cowardly, we scorn it. Like most monuments dedicated in the memory of the Confederacy, the letters CSA are at the bottom of the monument. Due to the placement of the lettering on the monument it is possible to misconstrue that Burbridge was a Confederate general, not a Union one.

Burbridge spent years trying unsuccessfully to have those letters removed, as it angered him to have those letters after his name. On July 17, 1997, the Thompson and Powell Martyrs Monument was one of sixty-one different monuments related to the Civil War in Kentucky placed on the National Register of Historic Places, as part of the Civil War Monuments of Kentucky Multiple Property Submission; the Confederate Monument in Owensboro is the only other monument on the list in Daviess County. Other monuments to victims of Burbridge so honored are Confederate Martyrs Monument in Jeffersontown, Confederate Soldiers Martyrs Monument in Eminence, Martyrs Monument in Midway