Joseph Campau was among Detroit, Michigan's leading citizens and wealthiest landowners at the beginning of the 19th century. Campau had a store in Detroit until the early 1800s, he embarked on a real estate career that made him wealthy. Campau was a newspaper man, establishing a newspaper with his nephew, John R. Williams, he held several city public offices for the city. Campau was an officer in the Michigan Territory Militia and during the War of 1812. Campau was a Roman Catholic until he was excommunicated for selling whiskey to Native Americans and having joined the Masons. Joseph Campau was born on February 1769 in Detroit, his parents were Catherine Ménard. Campau's grandfather, Jacques Campau, left Montreal and settled at Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit in 1708, one year after his brother Michel. Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit in 1701 and sold 68 land grants between 1707 and 1710, two of which were sold to the Campau brothers. Jacques had served as a secretary and an officer to Cadillac.
Jacques sold furs and bread at "one of the finest merchant stores" in Detroit by the 1740s, according to Clarence M. Burton. In his youth, Joseph Campau traded with the Native Americans, his younger brother, Barnabé aka Barnabas, was a wealthy businessman. He was a fur trader and landowner. One of his properties was Belle Isle. Campau began his business career as a merchant, he purchased goods from Boston, the first person to do so in Detroit, sold them at his store on Atwater. Campau spoke the dialects of several Native American tribes and English to his customers at his three trading posts at Saginaw, on Lake St. Clair, on Lake Erie, he was called Chemokamun by Chief Maccounse of Lake St. Clair. Campau was the first in the city's real estate industry to sell and lease houses, built on vacant lots, he was sometimes considered a "slum lord", to charge late fees with high interest rates to delinquent tenants. However, an obituary stated of Campau, "o the honest and industrious, he was always lenient."C.
M. Burton asserts, he had become the state's largest landowner. Campau held a large percentage of the stock in Michigan Central Bank of Michigan. Campau held multiple public office positions, he was City Trustee in 1802, City Treasurer, City Inspector of water barrels and City Assessor and over-seer of the poor. In 1802, he was an original trustee of its incorporation, he served in the Michigan Territory Militia as captain in 1806. During the War of 1812, he was a major in the U. S. Army. With his nephew, John R. Williams, Campau operated the Democratic Free Press and Michigan Intelligencer, which evolved into the Detroit Free Press. Campau was married to Adelaide Dequindre on May 18, 1808, their children, born through 1829, were Joseph, Dennis, Jacques Joseph, Theodore Joseph and Alexander Timothy. His daughter Catherine married Francis Palms, the largest landowner in Michigan during the mid-1850s. Campau bought a nine-year-old African boy in Montreal as a slave, to be freed at 21 years of age. Campau and Father Gabriel Richard, the priest of St. Anne's Church, engaged in "heated disagreements" about Campau having sold whiskey to Native Americans and joining the Masons.
As a result, he was excommunicated from the Catholic Church in 1817. Campou was buried at Elmwood Cemetery in Detroit; the Masons held the largest funeral in the city's history until that time for Campau. His wife was buried at Catholic Mount Elliott Cemetery, his estate was worth $3 million. Joseph Campau Street in Hamtramck was named for him, by association, Jos. Campau Historic District. Campau lived in a log house on the south side of Jefferson Avenue, between Shelby and Griswold, built after the fire of 1805. Frederick E. Cohen made a painting in 1853 of Campau house, built in 1815, it was located between Shelby and Griswold on Jefferson Avenue. The Joseph Campau House on 2910 East Jefferson Avenue in Detroit is attributed to Campau, but it is said that he never lived there. One of the oldest residences in Detroit, it was built on land, part of the Joseph Campau farm, it came into the Campau family in 1734 when it was awarded to his grandfather
Charles N. Agree
Charles Nathanial Agree was an American architect in Detroit, Michigan. Agree moved to Detroit in 1909 at the age of 12, he opened his firm in 1917 after graduating from the Detroit Y. M. C. A. Technical School, his first major commission was in 1921 to build the Whittier Hotel near the bank of the Detroit River. He went on to design many office buildings and ballrooms. Agree was one of the Detroit architects of the 1920s and 1930s who utilized the services of architectural sculptor Corrado Parducci; as the architecture changed by the 1960s, so did Agree's commissions. He began designing many modern-style malls. In addition to the office in the Book Tower, Agree's firm opened an office on McNichols Road in Detroit and a suburban office in Bloomfield Hills. Several Agree-designed buildings have been plundered by architectural scavengers; these include the Vanity Ballroom, where several Mayan-Deco panels were torn off, the Grande Ballroom, which brought rock band MC5 into fame, which has sat empty since closing in 1972.
All buildings are located in Detroit. Whittier Hotel, 1921-1927 The Sovereign Apartments, 1923 The Stratford Arms, 1924 Belcrest Hotel, 1926 Seville Apartment Hotel, 1926 Hollywood Theater, 1927 Grande Ballroom, 1928 Vanity Ballroom, 1929 Lincoln Theatre, Lincoln Park, Michigan, 1936 Westown Theater, 1936 Beverly Theatre, 1937 Palmer Park Theatre, 1937 Harpos Concert Theatre, 1939 Royal Theatre, 1940 Trans-Lux Krim, 1941 Showcase Cinemas Dearborn, Michigan, 1941 Duke Theatre, Oak Park, named after Duke Ellington, 1941-1947 Park Theatre, Lincoln Park, Michigan, 1942 Nadell Furs Building, 1948 Woods 6 Theater, Grosse Pointe, Michigan, 1948 Southgate Shopping Center, Michigan, 1957 Flint Tavern Hotel, Michigan Highland Lodge Apartment Building, Connecticut Detroit Zoo Holden Reptile House, Royal Oak, Michigan Jewish Community Center, West Bloomfield, Michigan Oakland Mall, Michigan 1968 Panama City Mall, Panama City, Florida Trenton Village Theatre, Michigan Wabeek Building, Michigan Wilshire Residential Hotel Charles N. Agree, Buffalo As An Architectural Museum, link Hill, Eric J..
AIA Detroit: The American Institute of Architects Guide to Detroit Architecture. Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0-8143-3120-3. Meyer, Katherine Mattingly. P. McElroy with Introduction by W. Hawkins Ferry & Hon A. I. A.. Detroit Architecture A. I. A. Guide. Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0-8143-1651-4
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U. S. history. As a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States; the loyalists of the Union in the North proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, secessionist partisans in seven Southern slave states declared state secessions from the country and unveiled their defiant formation of a Confederate States of America in rebellion against the U. S. Constitutional government; the Confederacy grew to control over half the territory in eleven states, it claimed the additional states of Kentucky and Missouri by assertions from exiled native secessionists without territory or population.
These were given full representation in the Confederate Congress throughout the Civil War. The two remaining slave holding states of Delaware and Maryland were invited to join the Confederacy, but nothing substantial developed; the Confederate States was never diplomatically recognized by the government of the United States or by that of any foreign country. The states that remained loyal to the U. S. were known as the Union. The Union and the Confederacy raised volunteer and conscription armies that fought in the South over the course of four years. Intense combat left 620,000 to 750,000 people dead, more than the number of U. S. military deaths in all other wars combined. The war ended when General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the Battle of Appomattox Court House. Confederate generals throughout the southern states followed suit. Much of the South's infrastructure was destroyed the transportation systems; the Confederacy collapsed, slavery was abolished, four million black slaves were freed.
During the Reconstruction Era that followed the war, national unity was restored, the national government expanded its power, civil rights were granted to freed black slaves through amendments to the Constitution and federal legislation. In the 1860 presidential election, led by Abraham Lincoln, supported banning slavery in all the U. S. territories. The Southern states viewed this as a violation of their constitutional rights and as the first step in a grander Republican plan to abolish slavery; the three pro-Union candidates together received an overwhelming 82% majority of the votes cast nationally: Republican Lincoln's votes centered in the north, Democrat Stephen A. Douglas' votes were distributed nationally and Constitutional Unionist John Bell's votes centered in Tennessee and Virginia; the Republican Party, dominant in the North, secured a plurality of the popular votes and a majority of the electoral votes nationally. He was the first Republican Party candidate to win the presidency.
However, before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies declared secession and formed the Confederacy. The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, with an average of 49 percent. Of those states whose legislatures resolved for secession, the first seven voted with split majorities for unionist candidates Douglas and Bell, or with sizable minorities for those unionists. Of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession. Outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincoln's March 4, 1861, inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war. Speaking directly to the "Southern States", he attempted to calm their fears of any threats to slavery, reaffirming, "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists.
I believe I have no lawful right to do so, I have no inclination to do so." After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed and both sides prepared for war. The Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on "King Cotton" that they would intervene, but none did, none recognized the new Confederate States of America. Hostilities began on April 1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter. While in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive during 1861–1862. In September 1862, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy much of its western armies, seized New Orleans; the successful 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lee's Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg.
Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grant's command of all Union armies in 1864. Inflicting an ever-tightening naval blockade of Confederate ports, the Union marshaled the resources and manpower to attack the Confederacy from all directions, leading to the fall of Atlanta to William T. Sherman and his march to th
The Palms is an apartment building located at 1001 East Jefferson Avenue in Detroit, Michigan. It was one of the first buildings in the United States to use reinforced concrete as one of its major construction materials, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1985. The six-story apartment building was built as a high-class residence between 1901 and 1903 at a cost of about $80,000. However, the historical importance of this building lies in its construction; the building was designed by the architectural firm of George D. Mason and Albert Kahn Associates, who used reinforced concrete as one of the major construction materials—one of the first buildings in the nation constructed in such fashion; the technique of using reinforced concrete was not developed until Julius Kahn, brother of Albert, developed the "Kahn System" of reinforcing the concrete and formed the Trussed Concrete Steel Company in Detroit to produce the steel bar, developed for this system. In 1905, Building No. 10 of the Packard Plant was built using the new Kahn System.
The Palms and Book families were the investors in the construction of this building. The building is constructed with an exterior of solid masonry faced in limestone; the façade is symmetrical, with octagonal towers at the corners. The original floor plans called for apartments that occupied an entire wing of the building, consisting of a double parlor in the front and a dining room with fireplace to the back separated by bedrooms, libraries and more. However, in the 1930s the building was divided into smaller apartments. Much of the original details still exist on the exterior; the building was listed on the State Register in 1979, the National Register in 1985, received Local Historic District designation in 1980. "Palms Apartments," City of Detroit Planning and Development Department, 1980
Solomon Sibley was an American politician and jurist in the Michigan Territory who became the first mayor of Detroit, Michigan. Sibley was born in Sutton and after completing preparatory studies, he graduated from the College of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations at Providence in 1794, he studied law, was admitted to the Bar in 1795 and began a practice in Marietta, part of the Northwest Territory. He soon moved to Cincinnati and moved again to Detroit, Michigan in 1797, shortly after the British handed over the fort in 1796; when he arrived, Sibley was one of only two lawyers in Detroit. Being a pioneer lawyer was a physically challenging profession requiring long travel by horseback through wilderness over Indian trails in all types of weather to attend the territorial courts in Cincinnati, Marietta, or Chillicothe, Ohio. In December, 1798, Detroit elected a delegate to the legislature of the Northwest Territory. This, the first election in Michigan under United States control, was held in a Detroit tavern.
Although Sibley was elected, his opponent, James May, claimed he had won by providing liquor for the voters. Despite the protestation, Sibley represented Wayne County in the first legislature of the Northwest Territory, commencing his term in January 1799. Sibley was instrumental in passing the legislation in 1802 by which Detroit was incorporated as a town. Sibley was elected first as Chairman of the Board of Trustees, under the first city charter of 1806 as the first mayor of Detroit. During the War of 1812, Sibley commanded a company of riflemen in defense of Detroit, though the British attack was successful and William Hull surrendered the fort. After the war, Sibley served as Auditor of Public Accounts for the Michigan Territory from 1814 to 1817. Sibley was appointed as the first United States Attorney for the Michigan Territory by U. S. President James Madison, serving from 1815 to 1823; when William Woodbridge resigned on August 9, 1820 as territorial Delegate to the 16th United States Congress, Sibley was elected to fill the vacancy.
Sibley won re-election to the 17th Congress, serving in total from November 20, 1820 to March 3, 1823. Sibley continued to serve as U. S. Attorney, thus held concurrent legislative and executive positions. During this period, Sibley was commissioned, along with Lewis Cass, to negotiate the August 29, 1821, Treaty of Chicago with the Ottawa and Chippewa, in which the tribes ceded most of their territory south of the Grand River. Sibley was not a candidate for re-election to Congress in 1822. In 1824, he was appointed as one of three justices on the Michigan Territorial Supreme Court by U. S. President James Monroe, becoming the sixth Territorial Justice. From 1827 until 1837, when he had to resign due to deafness, Sibley was Chief Justice of the court. Sibley married Sarah Whipple Sproat Sibley, the only daughter of Colonel Ebenezer Sproat, a veteran of the American Revolutionary War, they had eight children, one of whom, Henry Hastings Sibley, was a territorial delegate from Wisconsin Territory, 1848–1849 and from Minnesota Territory, 1849–1853 and the first Governor of Minnesota, 1858–1860.
A second son, Alexander H. Sibley, was the president of the Silver Islet Mining Company which operated a silver mine in Ontario. A daughter, Catherine Whipple Sibley, married Charles Christopher Trowbridge, mayor of Detroit in 1834 and unsuccessful candidate for Governor of Michigan in 1837. Sibley is interred in Elmwood Cemetery there. Upon his death, many members of the Bar wore a badge of mourning for 30 days. Shortly after his death, his widow Sarah built the Sibley House on Jefferson. United States Congress. "Solomon Sibley". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. History of Detroit Michigan Supreme Court Historical Society Solomon Sibley: Michigan's First United States Attorney, 1815–1823 by Ross Parker Political Graveyard Elmwood Cemetery Biography
The Italianate style of architecture was a distinct 19th-century phase in the history of Classical architecture. In the Italianate style, the models and architectural vocabulary of 16th-century Italian Renaissance architecture, which had served as inspiration for both Palladianism and Neoclassicism, were synthesised with picturesque aesthetics; the style of architecture, thus created, though characterised as "Neo-Renaissance", was of its own time. "The backward look transforms its object," Siegfried Giedion wrote of historicist architectural styles. The Italianate style was first developed in Britain in about 1802 by John Nash, with the construction of Cronkhill in Shropshire; this small country house is accepted to be the first Italianate villa in England, from, derived the Italianate architecture of the late Regency and early Victorian eras. The Italianate style was further developed and popularised by the architect Sir Charles Barry in the 1830s. Barry's Italianate style drew for its motifs on the buildings of the Italian Renaissance, though sometimes at odds with Nash's semi-rustic Italianate villas.
The style was not confined to England and was employed in varying forms, long after its decline in popularity in Britain, throughout Northern Europe and the British Empire. From the late 1840s to 1890 it achieved huge popularity in the United States, where it was promoted by the architect Alexander Jackson Davis. Key visual components of this style include: In interior decoration there were direct parallels to "Italianate" architecture with free re-combinations of decorative features drawn from Italian 16th-century architecture and objects, which were applied to purely 19th century forms. Wardrobes and dressers could be dressed in Italianate detailing as well as row houses; the spur to such commercial designs can be found in the "free Renaissance" style, espoused by Charles Eastlake. In 1868 he published Hints on Household Taste in Furniture and other Details, influential in Britain and in the United States, where the book was published in 1872. Although the archaeology of Mr. Eastlake's volume was always careful, most of the principles in it are beyond question, can be stated in a few words.
The Italianate style would have no carving or molding or other ornament glued on—such work must be done in the solid. The furniture that he thus proposed has straight, squarely cut members equal to their intention, its ornament is painted panels, porcelain plaques and tiles, metal trimmings, conventionalized carvings in sunk relief, a part of the construction entering into the ornament in the shape of narrow striated strips of wood radiating in opposite lines, after a fashion not altogether unknown in the time of Henry III. It has the solidity, but not the attraction, of the Medieval. Today "Italianate" furnishings are called "Eastlake" by American collectors and dealers, but contemporary terms ranged imaginatively, included "Neo-Grec". A late intimation of Nash's development of the Italianate style was his 1805 design of Sandridge Park at Stoke Gabriel in Devon. Commissioned by the dowager Lady Ashburton as a country retreat, this small country house shows the transition between the picturesque of William Gilpin and Nash's yet to be evolved Italianism.
While this house can still be described as Regency, its informal asymmetrical plan together with its loggias and balconies of both stone and wrought iron. Examples of the Italianate style in England tend to take the form of Palladian-style building enhanced by a belvedere tower complete with Renaissance-type balustrading at the roof level; this is a more stylistic interpretation of what architects and patrons imagined to be the case in Italy, utilises more the Italian Renaissance motifs than those earlier examples of the Italianate style by Nash. Sir Charles Barry, most notable for his works on the Tudor and Gothic styles at the Houses of Parliament in London, was a great promoter of the style. Unlike Nash he found his inspiration in Italy itself. Barry drew on the designs of the original Renaissance villas of Rome, the Lazio and the Veneto or as he put it: "...the charming character of the irregular villas of Italy." His most defining work in this style was the large Neo-Renaissance mansion Cliveden.
Although it has been claimed that one third of early Victorian country houses in England used classical styles Italianate, by 1855 the style was falling from favour and Cliveden came to be regarded as "a declining essay in a declining fashion."Anthony Salvin designed in the Italianate style in Wales, at Hafod House and Penoyre House, described by Mark Girouard as "Salvin's most ambitious classical house."Thomas Cubitt, a London building contractor, incorporated simple classical lines of the Italianate style as defined by Sir Char
William Hull was an American soldier and politician. He fought in the American Revolutionary War and was appointed as Governor of Michigan Territory, gaining large land cessions from several American Indian tribes under the Treaty of Detroit, he is most remembered, however, as the general in the War of 1812 who surrendered Fort Detroit to the British on August 16, 1812 following the Siege of Detroit. After the battle, he was court-martialed and sentenced to death, but he received a pardon from President James Madison and his reputation somewhat recovered. Hull was born in Derby, Connecticut on June 24, 1753, he graduated from Yale University in 1772, studied law in Litchfield and joined the bar in 1775. At the outbreak of fighting in the American Revolutionary War, Hull joined a local militia and was promoted to captain through the ranks to lieutenant colonel in the Continental Army, he fought in the battles of White Plains, Princeton, Saratoga, Fort Stanwix and Stony Point. He was recognized by commanding General George Washington and the Second Continental Congress for his service.
Hull was a friend of Nathan Hale and tried to dissuade him from the dangerous spy mission that cost him his life. Hull was responsible for publicizing the last words attributed to Hale, "I only regret that I have but one life to give for my country." After the war, he moved to his wife's family estate in Newton and served as a judge and state senator. He was elected captain of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company of Massachusetts in 1789. On March 22, 1805, President Thomas Jefferson appointed Hull as Governor of the created Michigan Territory and as its Indian Agent. All of the territory was in the hands of the Indians except for two enclaves around Detroit and Fort Mackinac, so Hull worked to purchase Indian land for occupation by American settlers, he negotiated the Treaty of Detroit in 1807 with the Ottawa, Chippewa and Potawatomi tribes, which ceded most of Southeast Michigan and northwestern Ohio to the United States, to the mouth of the Maumee River where Toledo developed. These efforts to expand American settlement began to generate opposition from Shawnee leaders Tecumseh and his brother Tenskwatawa, who urged resistance to American culture and to further land cessions.
By February 1812, Congress was making plans for war with Great Britain, including an invasion of Canada, while the British were busy recruiting Indian tribes in the Michigan and Canada area. Hull was in Washington, D. C. when Secretary of War William Eustis informed him that President James Madison wished to appoint him a Brigadier General in command of the new Army of the Northwest. Hull was nearly 60 years old and had little interest in a new military commission, so Colonel Kingsbury was selected to lead the force instead. Kingsbury fell ill before taking command and the offer was repeated to Hull, who accepted, his orders were to go to Ohio, whose governor had been charged by Madison with raising a 1,200-man militia that would be augmented by the 4th Infantry Regiment from Vincennes, Indiana to form the core of the army. From there, he was to march the army to Detroit where he was to continue managing as Territorial Governor. Hull arrived in Cincinnati on May 10, 1812 and took command of the militia at Dayton on May 25.
The militia comprised three regiments who elected Duncan McArthur, Lewis Cass, James Findlay as their commanding Colonels. They marched to Staunton and to Urbana, Ohio where they were joined by the 300-man 4th Infantry Regiment; the men of the militia were little trained, averse to strong military discipline. Hull relied on the infantry regiment to quell several instances of insubordination on the remainder of the march. By the end of June, the army had reached the rapids of the Maumee River, where he committed the first of the errors that reflected poorly on him later. America declared war on Britain on June 18, 1812, that same day Secretary Eustis sent two letters to General Hull, he sent one of them by special messenger which arrived on June 24—but it did not mention the declaration of war. The second one did announce the declaration of war, but Eustis sent it via the postal service and it did not arrive until July 2; as a result, Hull was still unaware that his army was at war when he reached the rapids of the Maumee.
Taking advantage of the waterway, he sent the schooner Cuyahoga Packet ahead of the army to Detroit with a number of invalids and official documents. Thus, he gained all of Hull's military plans for an attack on Fort Amherstburg. Hull was the victim of his government's poor preparation for war and poor communication, he had urged his superiors while he was governor to build a naval fleet on Lake Erie in order to defend Detroit, Fort Mackinac, Fort Dearborn, but his requests were ignored by General Henry Dearborn, the commander of the northeast. Hull began an invasion of Canada on 12 July 1812, he faced unfriendly Indian forces which threatened to attack from the other direction. Hull surrendered Fort Detroit to General Isaac Brock on August 16, 1812 because Brock had tricked him into thinking that he was vastly outnumbered by his British foes. Accounts varied however. Colonel Lewis Cass subsequently succeeded him as Territorial Governor. Hull was court martialed at a trial presid