Cooperatives frequently have social goals which they aim to accomplish by investing a proportion of trading profits back into their communities. As an example of this, in 2013, retail co-operatives in the UK invested 6. 9% of their profits in the communities in which they trade as compared with 2. 4% for other rival supermarkets. The International Co-operative Alliance was the first international association formed by the cooperative movement and it includes the World Council of Credit Unions. A second organization was formed in Germany, the International Raiffeisen Union, in the United States, the National Cooperative Business Association serves as the sectors oldest national membership association. It is dedicated to ensuring that cooperative businesses have the same opportunities as other businesses operating in the country, a U. S. National Cooperative Bank was formed in the 1970s. By 2004, a new association focused on worker co-ops was founded, since 2002 cooperatives and credit unions could be distinguished on the Internet by use of a. coop domain.
Since 2014, following International Cooperative Alliances introduction of the Cooperative Marque, ICA cooperatives, cooperation dates back as far as human beings have been organizing for mutual benefit. Tribes were organized as cooperative structures, allocating jobs and resources among each other, in alpine environments, trade could only be maintained in organized cooperatives to achieve a useful condition of artificial roads such as Viamala in 1472. Pre-industrial Europe is home to the first cooperatives from an industrial context, in 1761, the Fenwick Weavers Society was formed in Fenwick, East Ayrshire, Scotland to sell discounted oatmeal to local workers. Its services expanded to include assistance with savings and loans and education, owen left New Lanark to pursue other forms of cooperative organization and develop coop ideas through writing and lecture. Cooperative communities were set up in Glasgow and Hampshire, in 1828, William King set up a newspaper, The Cooperator, to promote Owens thinking, having already set up a cooperative store in Brighton.
The Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers, founded in 1844, is considered the first successful cooperative enterprise, used as a model for modern coops. A group of 28 weavers and other artisans in Rochdale, England set up the society to open their own store selling food items they could not otherwise afford, within ten years there were over a thousand cooperative societies in the United Kingdom. Other events such as the founding of a society by the Tolpuddle Martyrs in 1832 were key occasions in the creation of organized labor. Cooperatives traditionally combine social benefit interests with capitalistic property-right interests, Cooperatives achieve a mix of social and capital purposes by democratically governing distribution questions by and between equal by not controlling members. Democratic oversight of decisions to equitably distribute assets and other benefits means capital ownership is arranged in a way for social benefit inside the organization, external societal benefit is encouraged by incorporating the operating-principle of cooperation between co-operatives.
In the final year of the 20th century, cooperatives banded together to establish a number of social enterprise agencies which have moved to adopt the cooperative model. In the years 1994–2009 the EU and its member nations gradually revised national accounting systems to make visible the increasing contribution of social economy organizations, the roots of the cooperative movement can be traced to multiple influences and extend worldwide
Vejle Municipality is a municipality in the Region of Southern Denmark on the Jutland peninsula in southeast Denmark. The municipality covers an area of 1,058.43 km2 (www. noegletal. dk] and its mayor is Arne Sigtenbjerggaard, a member of the liberal party Venstre. Vejle Municipalitys offices are located in its largest population center, the city of Vejle, the central administration of the Region of Southern Denmark is in Vejle, located in the former Vejle County offices at Damhaven 12
VIA University College
VIA University College is a university college organisation in Central Denmark Region, established in January 2008. It is present in the region with a total of eight campuses, VIA University College offers vocational bachelor courses of all kinds. VIA operates within the pedagogical, the profession and the technical-commercial area. Overall, VIA offers more than 50 higher educations in Danish, with education and participating in various research. Some of the educations are taught in English, VIA is headquartered in Aarhus, but the activities are anchored on eight campuses spread across 39 locations throughout the region. VIAs annual turnover is 1.2 billion DKK, in Aarhus, where VIA University College has its headquarters, there are two campuses, both newly built. The increasing campus population is now around 4,000 students – of whom approx, half are international students from more than 40 different countries. The new student housing placed directly on Campus contributes to the pulse here, as does the Student Bar, social activities, above Campus Horsens towers the newly built 8,000 m2 Vitus Bering Innovation Park, named after the famous Horsens resident and Arctic explorer Vitus Bering.
The VBI Park plays an important role in the interaction between the programmes and the companies employ the students after graduation. Another facilitator of contact between students and companies is the Career Service Centre, based on Campus, in Randers VIA University College offers nursing, social education and as one out two university colleges in Denmark, VIA offers psychomotor therapy. The campus is situated in the middle of Randers in a new three story building, which houses the aforementioned educations as well as COK educations, the latter is not offered by VIA, but by a third party. Furthermore, from 2017 VIA offers FIF-courses in Randers, which is a course for refugees. Finally, from 2017 the social education department offers a six month 30 ECTS course in the Early Childhood-field, approximately 800 students attend the educations housed at campus Randers. VIA University College has four faculties, the courses are taught in English. VIA University College is engaged in international research and development projects as the leading institution or as a partner.
Projects are initiated under a variety of funding programmes and are often interdisciplinary and cross-sectorial yet always rooted within the fields of VIAs Faculties
Funen, with an area of 3,099.7 square kilometres, is the third-largest island of Denmark, after Zealand and Vendsyssel-Thy. It is the 165th-largest island in the world and it is in the central part of the country and has a population of 466,284. The main city is Odense which is connected to the sea by a seldom-used canal, the citys shipyard, Odense Steel Shipyard, has been relocated outside Odense proper. Funen belongs administratively to the Region of Southern Denmark, from 1970 to 2006 the island formed the biggest part of Funen County, which included the islands of Langeland, Ærø, Tåsinge, and a number of smaller islands. Funen is linked to Zealand, Denmarks largest island, by the Great Belt Bridge which carries both trains and cars, two bridges connect Funen to the Danish mainland, Jutland. The Old Little Belt Bridge was constructed in the 1930s shortly before World War II for both cars and trains, the New Little Belt Bridge, a suspension bridge, was constructed in the 1970s and is used for cars only.
Apart from the city, all major towns are located in coastal areas. Beginning in the north-east of the island and moving clockwise, they are Kerteminde, Svendborg, Fåborg, Middelfart, the highest natural point on Funen is Frøbjerg Bavnehøj. Broholm Egeskov Castle Fynske Livregiment Horne Church Hvedholm Castle Korshavn, Denmark Skrøbelev Gods The Funen Village Funen brachteate in the collections of the National Museum of Denmark, official tourist information site for Funen
Triangle Region (Denmark)
The Triangle Region began as the general term for the industrial and communications hubs of Kolding and Fredericia in the early 1960s. The seven municipalities together have 417,372 inhabitants and cover an area of 4,150.7 km2, an area of political and economic stability, the Triangle Region is often regarded as Denmark’s third major region after Aarhus and Copenhagen. It has a reputation for having lower levels of pollution, the Triangle Region was historically an industrial area with an emphasis on production and logistics but more recently, it has become a hub for entrepreneurs and energy companies. Billund was first mentioned as Byllundt in the year 1454 and as Billund in 1510, in 1916, Ole Kirk Christiansen, who would found LEGO, bought a Billund furniture company that was founded in 1895. He invested in the town, creating a new dairy and the Skjoldbjerg church, in 1930, Kirk Christiansen began producing utility items such as ironing boards and miniature toys. His first toys were created from leftover production scraps but his true toy production started in 1932, in 1934, the toy factory was named LEGO.
A small town, Billund today is most notable as the home of the LEGO Group, for LEGOLAND, and for Billund Airport, the airport opened in 1964 and was built by the LEGO Group, but is now run independently. Fredericia was designed and built in 1650 by Frederick III as the fortress for Jutland. When the city was built, the King gave certain privileges to the city such a freedom of religion and asylum, in 1849 the Danes defeated the Prussians at Fredericia. The fortress was closed in 1909, and the modern development began. Fredericia Harbor is among Denmarks busiest and important harbors, the Taulov Transport Center was designated as a Core Rail Road Terminal by the European Union in 2014. A new train station is currently being proposed in Taulov to serve as a Park & Ride-station for the region when faster train services will be implemented, Haderslev is situated in a valley, leading from Vojens to Haderslev Fjord and the Baltic Sea. Haderslev was presumably founded by Vikings at least a century before it was granted status as royal borough in 1292, at that time, it had become one of the main trading centres in Southern Jutland.
In 1327, the castle, was mentioned for the first time. It was situated east of the cathedral, an area still called Slotsgrunden, in the following centuries the city prospered, building both the Gothic Cathedral and the second castle of Hansborg, which was similar to Kronborg. Due to the plague in Copenhagen, King Christian IV was married there, in the 16th century, the city became one of the first Scandinavian places to embrace the Lutheran Reformation. Prior to the Second Schleswig War of 1864, Haderslev was situated in the Duchy of Schleswig, from 1864 it was part of Prussia, and as such part of the North German Confederation, and from 1871 onwards, part of the German Empire. In the 1920 Schleswig Plebiscite that returned Northern Schleswig to Denmark,38. 6% of Haderslevs inhabitants voted for remaining part of Germany and 61. 4% voted for the cession to Denmark and it was formerly the capital of the German Kreis Hadersleben and the Danish Haderslev County
A dairy is a business enterprise established for the harvesting or processing of animal milk – mostly from cows or goats, but from buffaloes, horses, or camels – for human consumption. A dairy is located on a dedicated dairy farm or in a section of a multi-purpose farm that is concerned with the harvesting of milk. For example, in the United States, the dairy farm is commonly called a dairy. The building or farm area where milk is harvested from the cow is called a milking parlor or parlor. The farm area where milk is stored in tanks is known as the farms milk house. Milk is hauled to a plant, referred to as a dairy. In New Zealand, farm areas for milk harvesting are called milking parlours, as in the United States, sometimes milking sheds are referred to by their type, such as herring bone shed or pit parlour. Parlour design has evolved from simple barns or sheds to large structures in which the workflow is very efficiently handled. This on-site processing is a method of producing specialist milk products.
In New Zealand English the singular use of the word dairy almost exclusively refers to a corner shop and this usage is historical as such shops were a common place for the public to buy milk products. As an attributive, the word refers to milk-based products and processes. A dairy farm produces milk and a dairy factory processes it into a variety of dairy products and these establishments constitute the global dairy industry, a component of the food industry. Milk producing animals have been domesticated for thousands of years, they were part of the subsistence farming that nomads engaged in. As the community moved about the country, their animals accompanied them and feeding the animals were a big part of the symbiotic relationship between the animals and the herders. In the more recent past, people in agricultural societies owned dairy animals that they milked for domestic and local consumption, the animals might serve multiple purposes. In this case the animals were normally milked by hand and the size was quite small.
These tasks were performed by a dairymaid or dairyman, the word dairy harkens back to Middle English dayerie, from deye and further back to Old English dæge. With industrialisation and urbanisation, the supply of milk became an industry, with specialised breeds of cattle being developed for dairy
Aarhus School of Architecture
The Aarhus School of Architecture was founded in 1965 in Århus, Denmark. Along with the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture in Copenhagen, the school has approximately 750 students. Teaching at the Aarhus School of Architecture is studio-based, emphasising group work, the school places an emphasis on practice-based teaching, while maintaining an artistic approach to architecture. Teaching is organised around a number of labs, based on on-going. Workshop facilities allow students to explore their ideas in 3D and in 1,1, other resources include a specialised library, a materials shop and a robot lab. Besides Bachelor’s, Master’s and PhD programmes the school offers education for architects. Research at the school is to a high degree practice-based, the high concentration of architectural practices in Aarhus provides a sound basis for this cooperation. The Aarhus School of Architecture is an institution under the Danish Ministry for Science, Innovation. The school is situated in the Nørre Stenbro neighborhood on Nørreport, the campus comprises the listed building known as Raaes House from 1798 and a newer building from 1997 with auditorium and an exhibition hall.
Raaes House is a building in Neoclassical style built by Hans Fridrich Raae. It was originally built on the edge of the city by the city walls on what was at the time Studsgade. It is one of the best examples of Neoclassical architecture in Aarhus, the building is in 4 wings with a courtyard in the middle but only the house facing the street is constructed in brick with the remaining being half-timbered structures with Baroque elements. The building was listed in 1919, in 1997 the architects firm Kjaer & Richter built an addition on an adjacent plot of land. It was designed in a style of concrete with glass facade. It is structured as a rectangular, black box with a glass facade facing the street. The design is modeled as a house-in-house with the auditorium appearing like an island that divides the building in an exhibition hall. Some notable rectors and teachers include, Official website
Gothenburg is the second-largest city in Sweden and the fifth-largest in the Nordic countries. Situated by Kattegat, on the west coast of Sweden, the city has a population of approximately 550,000 in the urban area, Gothenburg was founded as a heavily fortified, primarily Dutch, trading colony, by royal charter in 1621 by King Gustavus Adolphus. At a key location at the mouth of the Göta älv, where Scandinavias largest drainage basin enters the sea. Gothenburg is home to students, as the city includes the University of Gothenburg. Volvo was founded in Gothenburg in 1927, the original, parent Volvo Group and the now separate Volvo Car Corporation are still headquartered on the island of Hisingen in the city. Other key companies are SKF and Astra Zeneca, Gothenburg is served by Göteborg Landvetter Airport 30 km southeast of the city center. The smaller Göteborg City Airport,15 km from the city center, was closed to airline traffic in 2015. The city hosts some of the largest annual events in Scandinavia, the Gothenburg Film Festival, held in January since 1979, is the leading Scandinavian film festival with over 155,000 visitors each year.
In summer, a variety of music festivals are held in the city, such as Way Out West. The city was named after the Geats, the inhabitants of Gothia, the river on which the city sits is the Göta älv or Gothia River. Göta borg Gothia Fortress is the fort on the Göta Älv, in Dutch and English, all languages with a long history in this trade and maritime-oriented city, the name Gothenburg is used for the city. The French form of the city name is Gothembourg, but in French texts, Gothenburg can be seen in some older English texts. In Spanish the city is called Gotemburgo and these traditional forms are sometimes replaced with the use of the Swedish Göteborg, for example by The Göteborg Opera and the Göteborg Ballet. However, Göteborgs universitet, previously designated as the Göteborg University in English, the Gothenburg municipality has reverted to the use of the English name in international contexts. Other old variations in Swedish are Götheborgh, and the more common Götheborg, one English text, written in the late 15th century, states the name as Guthaeborg.
In 2009, the city launched a new logotype for Gothenburg. Since the name Göteborg contains the Swedish letter ö the idea was to make the more international. As of 2015, the name is spelled Go, teborg on a number of signs in the city
Wind power is the use of air flow through wind turbines to mechanically power generators for electric power. The net effects on the environment are far less problematic than those of power sources. Wind farms consist of individual wind turbines which are connected to the electric power transmission network. Onshore wind is a source of electric power, competitive with or in many places cheaper than coal or gas plants. Offshore wind is steadier and stronger than on land, and offshore farms have less visual impact, small onshore wind farms can feed some energy into the grid or provide electric power to isolated off-grid locations. Wind power gives variable power which is consistent from year to year. It is therefore used in conjunction with other power sources to give a reliable supply. As the proportion of power in a region increases, a need to upgrade the grid. In addition, weather forecasting permits the power network to be readied for the predictable variations in production that occur. As of 2015, Denmark generates 40% of its power from wind.
In 2014 global wind power capacity expanded 16% to 369,553 MW, yearly wind energy production is growing rapidly and has reached around 4% of worldwide electric power usage,11. 4% in the EU. Wind power has been used as long as humans have put sails into the wind, for more than two millennia wind-powered machines have ground grain and pumped water. Wind power was available and not confined to the banks of fast-flowing streams, or later. Wind-powered pumps drained the polders of the Netherlands, and in regions such as the American mid-west or the Australian outback, wind pumps provided water for live stock. The first windmill used for the production of power was built in Scotland in July 1887 by Prof James Blyth of Andersons College. Blyth offered the surplus power to the people of Marykirk for lighting the main street, however. The Brush wind turbine had a rotor 17 metres in diameter and was mounted on an 18 metres tower, although large by todays standards, the machine was only rated at 12 kW.
The connected dynamo was used either to charge a bank of batteries or to operate up to 100 incandescent light bulbs, with the development of electric power, wind power found new applications in lighting buildings remote from centrally-generated power
ARoS Aarhus Kunstmuseum
The ARoS Aarhus Kunstmuseum is an art museum in Aarhus, Denmark. The museum was established in 1859 and is the oldest public art museum in Denmark outside of Copenhagen, today ARoS is one of the largest art museums in northern Europe with a total of 816,468 visitors in 2015. This figure includes visitors who in one way or another have redeemed ticket and people who have visited ARoS Shop, ARoS features a shop, café and restaurant. The architectural vision of the museum was completed in 2011, with the addition of the circular skywalk Your rainbow panorama by Ólafur Elíasson. The installation has helped boost the attendance, making it the second most visited museum in Denmark. ARoS has an art collection with works from the Golden Age until today. Andersen, Bill Viola and Wim Wenders, in the present building, the first themed exhibitions presented a series of main works by pop artists like Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein. As many other art galleries and museums, ARoS pays great tribute to architecture and architects.
Located in the basement is The 9 Spaces, a gallery with art from artist like James Turrell, Shirin Neshat. The number 9 refers to Dante Alighieris The Divine Comedy and the 9 circles of hell, the rooms are painted black to contrast with the bright white exterior. The roof terrace substitutes for the divine light your enter from hell and this way the whole museum is part of the travel from hell to heaven. This movement emphasised by the spiral staircase in the main museum streetscape. The roof of the museum is dominated by the installation Your rainbow panorama by Ólafur Elíasson and this circular skywalk has windows in the colors of the rainbow thereby showing the panorama of Aarhus in different colors depending on location of the viewer. The installation cost DKK million 60 to construct and was sponsored by the Realdania foundation and it was inaugurated on May 28,2011. A second section, a lounge that guides visitors from the main museum building to Your rainbow panorama. The museum was established in 1859 and is the oldest public art museum in Denmark outside of Copenhagen, the art collecting activities was initiated some years earlier in 1847 by the local art association of Århus Kunstforening af 1847 and the first public exhibition was presented on the 6.
January 1859 in Aarhus old Town Hall, located at the Cathedral, the present building next to the Concert Halls is the fourth locality of the art museum and it opened here in 2004. January 2009, ARoS Aarhus Kunstmuseum celebrated its 150-year anniversary with an exhibition, displaying the same works as the very first exhibition in 1859
The term is used to describe sustainable energy generation technologies such as photovoltaics, wind turbines, etc. Sustainable development is the core of environmental technologies, the term environmental technologies is used to describe a class of electronic devices that can promote sustainable management of resources. Renewable energy is the energy that can be replenished easily, for years we have been using sources such as wood, water, etc. for means for producing energy. Energy that can be produced by objects like wood, wind. Water purification, The whole idea/concept of having dirt/germ/pollution free water flowing throughout the environment, many other phenomena lead from this concept of purification of water. Water pollution is the enemy of this concept, and various campaigns. Air purification and common green plants can be indoors to keep air fresh because all plants remove CO2. The best examples are, Dypsis lutescens, Sansevieria trifasciata, sewage treatment is conceptually similar to water purification.
Sewage treatments are very important as they purify water per levels of its pollution, the most polluted water is not used for anything, and the least polluted water is supplied to places where water is used affluently. It may lead to other concepts of environmental protection, sustainability etc. Environmental remediation is the removal of pollutants or contaminants for the protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical and bulk movements, solid waste management is the purification, reuse and treatment of solid waste that is undertaken by the government or the ruling bodies of a city/town. Egain forecasting is a method using forecasting technology to predict the future impact on a building. By adjusting the heat based on the weather forecast, the system eliminates redundant use of heat, thus reducing the energy consumption, Energy conservation is the utilization of devices that require smaller amounts of energy in order to reduce the consumption of electricity. Reducing the use of electricity causes less fossil fuels to be burned to provide that electricity, Green syndicalism Sustainability Sustainable design Sustainable engineering Scientists continue to search for clean energy alternatives to our current power production methods.
Some technologies such as anaerobic digestion produce renewable energy from waste materials, the global reduction of greenhouse gases is dependent on the adoption of energy conservation technologies at industrial level as well as this clean energy generation. That includes using unleaded gasoline, solar energy and alternative fuel vehicles, since industrial use of energy accounts for 51% of worldwide energy usage improving energy efficiency in this field is a top priority for environmental technology companies around the globe. Greasestock is an event held yearly in Yorktown Heights, New York which is one of the largest showcases of environmental technology in the United States, EUCETSA - European Committee of Environmental Technology Supplier Associations Related Norway Online resources How Silicon Valley could become the Detroit of electric cars