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East Kalimantan

East Kalimantan is a province of Indonesia. Its territory comprises the eastern portion of Borneo, it had a population of about 3.03 million at 3.42 million at the 2015 Census. Its capital is Samarinda; the province will host the future capital city of Indonesia that will be built on the border of Kutai Kartanegara and North Penajam Paser regencies. While the future capital is yet to be named, its construction is projected to start in 2020, conclude in 2024. East Kalimantan has a total area of 129,066.64 square kilometres and is the second least densely populated province in Kalimantan. The majority of the region shares a maritime border to the east with West Sulawesi and North Sulawesi, its former northernmost region is now North Kalimantan Province. The province still borders Sarawak. In December 2012, the existing West Kusai Regency was split in two, with the northernmost five districts forming a new Mahakam Ulu Regency. East Kalimantan is now divided into three cities. Isran Noor is the current Governor of East Kalimantan and Hadi Mulyadi is its vice governor.

East Kalimantan was once covered by tropical rainforest. In prehistory period, there is limestone cave called Lubang Jeriji Saléh located in the Sangkulirang-Mangkalihat Karst in district of Bengalon, East Kutai, believed to contain the oldest figurative art in the world; the cave paintings were first spotted in 1994 by the French explorer Luc-Henri Fage. In 2018, a team of scientists investigating the cave, led by Maxime Aubert from Griffith University and Pindi Setiawan from the Bandung Institute of Technology, published a report in the journal Nature identifying the paintings as the world's oldest known figurative art; the team had investigated cave paintings in the neighbouring island of Sulawesi. In order to date the paintings, the team used dating techniques on the calcium carbonate deposits close to them. There are several kingdoms in East Kalimantan, including the Kingdom of Kutai, Sultanate of Kutai ing Martadipura, the Sultanate of Pasir. East Kalimantan region include Pasir, Kutai and Karasikan claimed as conquered territory Suryanata Maharaja, the governor of Majapahit in the State Dipa until 1620 in the Sultanate of Banjar.

Between the years 1620-1624, kingdoms in East Kalimantan turned into an area influence of the Sultanate of Sultan Alauddin Makassar, before the Bungaya agreement. According to the Hikayat Banjar, the Sultan of Makassar never borrowed land for trade covers an area east and southeast of Borneo to the Sultan Mustain Billah of Banjar when Kiai Martasura sent to Makassar and entered into an agreement with the Sultan Tallo I Mangngadaccinna Daeng I Ba'le'Sultan Mahmud Karaeng Pattingalloang, which became Mangkubumi and principal advisor to the Sultan Muhammad Said, King of Gowa in 1638-1654 and in-law of Sultan Hasanuddin, which will make the East Kalimantan region as a place to trade for the Sultanate of Makassar, since that began to arrive people from South Sulawesi. However, based on the agreement between the Sultanate of Banjar and the Dutch East India Company in 1635, VOC help Banjar restore lands in East Kalimantan into spheres of influence of the Sultanate of Banjar, it is embodied in the Bungaya agreement, that the Sultanate of Makassar are not allowed to trade up to the east and the north Borneo In accordance with treaties, on January 1, 1817, Sultan Sulaiman of Banjar handed East Kalimantan, Central Kalimantan, part of West and South Kalimantan over to the Dutch East Indies.

On May 4, 1826, Sultan Adam al-wathiq Billah of Banjar reaffirmed the handover of these territories to the Dutch East Indies colonial administration. In 1846, the Dutch began to put a Resident Assistant in East Borneo at Samarinda named H. Von Dewall. East Kalimantan was part of the Dutch East Indies. East Kalimantan with its administrative area was established based on the Law No. 25 of 1956 with the first governor being APT Pranoto. East Kalimantan Proviunce comprises a land area of 129,066.642 square kilometers and a comprehensive ocean management area of 25,656 km², located between 113°44'E and 119°00'E, between 2°33'N and 2°25'S. The province is divided into seven regencies and three cities, subdivided into 103 districts and 1,026 villages; the regencies and cities are enumerated below. East Kalimantan is one of the main gates to the eastern part of Indonesia; the area is known as a storehouse of timber and mining, has hundreds of rivers which area the main means of transportation in addition to land transport, with the longest river being the Mahakam.

East Kalimantan borders North Kalimantan in the north, South Kalimantan in the south, Central Kalimantan in the southwest, West Kalimantan and Sarawak in the east. It touches the Celebes Sea and the Makassar Strait in the east, with its large Mangkalihat Peninsula separating the two. There are hills in all districts, there are numerous lakes. Most lakes are located in the Kutai Regency, with the most extensive lakes and Melintang, having an area of 13,000 ha and 11,000 ha respectively; such a climate of Indonesia in general, East Kalimantan tropical climate and has

Joanna Piwowarska

Joanna Aleksandra Pilichiewicz/Piwowarska is a Polish pole vaulter. She set her personal best height of 4.53 metres by finishing second for the women's pole vault at the 2006 IAAF Super Grand Prix Meeting in Doha, Qatar. Pilichiewicz/Piwowarska represented Poland at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, where she competed for the women's pole vault, along with her compatriots Monika Pyrek and Olympic bronze medalist Anna Rogowska, she cleared a height of 4.30 metres in the qualifying rounds, finishing nineteenth overall, tying her position with Greece's Afroditi Skafida and Portugal's Sandra-Helena Tavares. Joanna Piwowarska at World Athletics NBC Olympics Profile


Qzone is a social networking website based in China, created by Tencent in 2005. It allows users to write blogs, keep diaries, send photos, listen to music, watch videos. Users can set their Qzone background and select accessories based on their preferences so that every Qzone is customized to the individual member's taste. However, most Qzone accessories are not free. According to a 2009 report published by Tencent, Qzone was surpassing other social networking websites like Tencent Weibo and Tagged in China. Qzone is growing: as of November 2013, it had 623.3 million users and by 2014 it had 645 million. 150 million Qzone users update their accounts at least once a month. This makes Qzone one of the most active communities in the whole industry. Qzone started in April 2005 as an interior service within the Tencent company; the name was "Little Home Zone" in Tencent company. In 2008, Qzone was taken by Zhu Liang; this year, QQ registered users have reached 490 million, about 200 million are active users.

Qzone is positioned by Tencent as virtualization products along with QQ pet. At the beginning, the reference object of Qzone is not a social network, but blog products. "In 2005, Chinese blog market has been the rise of this market. Sina blog and MSN Space are two major competitors, but Tencent did not have such power on media propagation. MSN spaces have a random combination of functional modules; the function of Space Decoration in Qzone was similar to it, on, we found the commercial value of it." Until now, the "Yellow Diamond System", Space Decoration still dominate. Qzone transformed from a personal space, where users can customize blogs, keep diaries, post photos, watch videos and listen to music, to one of the China's biggest social network. Qzone is set by Tencent as a bonded service to QQ; as the rise of social networks based on mobile platform such as WeChat, Qzone is seeing a decline. Certified Space is Tencent page that certified by Tencent as well-known brands, agencies, e-commerce, application providers, web media, celebrities.

Certified space is a more advanced version of the ordinary Qzone, which adds some features and modules. The most notable feature is "I like" function, which allow user to follow up news from their favorite brands, media or celebrity. All updates of the certified space will display in information center of fans'. Certified Space users can launch various activities to maintain continuous and smooth interaction with their fans. Users can set the background of their own space. Ordinary users can use the free background, while paid or open "Yellow diamond" users can use more backgrounds. Users can custom style settings, Module Manager, making new module, "my items", "Restore Default". Users can set the background music. There are ordinary users. "Green Diamond" users can enjoy genuine background music. Ordinary users can with a lower connecting quality. Qzone album is storage platform. All users have free access to album feature, QQ "Yellow Diamond" users and members can enjoy free access to larger space.

User can create up to 1000 albums, each album can hold 10000 photos. Ordinary users have basic space size 3G for album, getting more space is possible. "Yellow Diamond" users and members can have 25G-500G space for album according their levels. Users can add games from Application Center to their homepage, play with their friends in Qzone. There are not only games available in Application Center, but social applications, entreatment applications, utilities applications; this feature is for people. Qzone's "Expert in Cities" provides a platform for all users to show their expertise. Users who join "Expert in Cities" will be possible to find like-minded friends, let more people get to know them. Qzone stopped this service on January 20, 2013. Qzone is known to employ a variety of censorship methods, depending on the specific nature and level of sensitivity of the content being censored. In strict cases, a user is prevented from posting at all. Upon clicking “publish,” the tester is presented with an error message of some form, with varying degrees of explanation but implying that the content was sensitive in some way.

Details are never given, providing an explanation as to what the offending content was or why it was unpublishable. Industry sources have confirmed that posts censored in this way are blocked via an automated system triggered by keywords, phrases, or whole passages that are plugged into the system by administrators. In less strict cases, posts may be "held for moderation". Upon clicking “publish,” the user is presented with a message indicating that the content is being held for approval the result of an automated process triggered by the use of keywords; this happened on the same services that have prevented publication of other posts, indicating that some services categorize different types of content at different sensitivity levels, to be handled differently. In some cases the content held for moderation was published, indicating that a human being reviewed it and determined that the content was acceptable. In other cases the content was “held for moderation” indefinitely. Posts may be published at first, but deleted or "unpublished" some time - within 24 hours, although over weekends it could sometimes take as long as two days before a blog post would


In analytical chemistry, biomonitoring is the measurement of the body burden of toxic chemical compounds, elements, or their metabolites, in biological substances. These measurements are done in blood and urine; the two best established biomonitoring programs in representative samples of the general population are those of the United States and Germany, although population-based programs exist in a few other countries. In 2001, the U. S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention began to publish its biennial National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals, which reports a statistically representative sample of the U. S. population. Biomonitoring involves the use of organisms to assess environmental contamination, such as of surrounding air or water, it can be done qualitatively by observing and noting changes in organisms, or quantitatively by measuring accumulation of chemicals in organism tissues. By observing or measuring the effects the environment has on its resident organisms, pollution may be suspected or inferred.

Public health regulations have been based on theoretical risk calculations according to known levels of chemical substances in air, soil, other consumer products and other sources of potential exposure. Human biomonitoring offers the opportunity to analyze the actual internal levels of bodily substances from all potential routes of exposure at one time, which may contribute to improving risk assessments. Scientific advancements have made it possible to detect a greater number of chemical substances in smaller concentrations in the body, with some chemicals detectable at levels as low as parts per trillion. A single biomonitoring measurement is only one snapshot in time and may not reflect the level of exposure over longer periods. In 2006 the U. S. National Research Council published Human Biomonitoring for Environmental Chemicals; the report recognized the value of biomonitoring for better understanding exposure to environmental chemicals, included several findings and recommendations to improve the utility of biomonitoring data for health risk assessment.

In summary, the report called for more rigorous health-based criteria for selecting chemicals to include in biomonitoring studies. The issue of exposure to environmental chemicals has received attention as a result of televised reports by Bill Moyers for PBS and Anderson Cooper for CNN's "Planet in Peril" series; the book Our Stolen Future, with a foreword by former Vice President Al Gore raised awareness by focusing on endocrine disruption. In the United States, the CDC first tested samples from the general population for lead and a few pesticides in 1976. In the late 1990s, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey program had a major expansion. National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental ChemicalsThe CDC's Division of Laboratory Sciences within the National Center for Environmental Health has developed a National Biomonitoring Program, has published the biennial National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals since 2001; as the selection of chemicals is controversial, the CDC has identified influential criteria:Evidence of exposure in a U.

S. population and significance of health effects after a given level of exposure, desire to track public health initiatives to reduce exposure to a given agent, existing method for measuring biologically relevant concentrations of the chemical, sufficient tissue specimens, in particular, blood and/or urine samples and cost-effectiveness. CDC established three criteria for removing chemicals from future surveys: a new replacement chemical is more representative of exposure than the chemical measured, or if after three survey periods, detection rates for all chemicals within a method-related group are less than 5 percent for all population subgroups, or if after three survey periods, levels of chemicals within a method-related group are unchanged or declining in all demographic subgroups documented in the National Report; the National Children's Study plans to follow 100,000 children across the United States from birth until age 21. The study was authorized as part of the Children's Health Act of 2000 as the largest effort undertaken to address the effects of social and environmental factors on a child's health.

The CDC's Environmental Health Laboratory announced in 2009 it would play a key role in the biomonitoring of the ongoing National Children's Study,In collaboration with the National Institute of Child Health and Development, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and U. S. Environmental Protection Agency; some U. S. states have established biomonitoring programs. In 2001, the CDC awarded planning grants to 33 states to assist in capacity building for expanding biomonitoring; the California Environmental Contaminant Biomonitoring Program was established by law in 2006 and is administered by the California Department of Public Health. Minnesota's Biomonitoring Pilot Program was established by law in 2007 and is run by the Minnesota Department of Health; the German Environmental Survey has been performed since 1985, in 1992 the Human Biomonitoring Commission of the German Federal Environment Agency was established. Statistics Canada administers the Canadian Health Measures Survey, which includes bi


The term squeezebox is a colloquial expression referring to any musical instrument of the general class of hand-held bellows-driven free reed aerophones such as the accordion and the concertina. The term is so applied because such instruments are in the shape of a rectangular prism or box, the bellows is operated by squeezing in and drawing out. Accordions have right-hand buttons or keys that play single notes and left hand buttons that play chords and bass notes; the bandoneon is a type of concertina popular in South America and Lithuania featuring in tango ensembles. Concertinas play single notes on both right hands; the Indian harmonium remains an important instrument in many genres of Indian music, stemming from French-made hand-pumped harmoniums being brought to India by missionaries in the mid-19th century. The flutina is an early precursor to the diatonic button accordion. Bandoneon Squeezebox and Accordion A collection of media and videos of musicians playing the accordion

William Wilshere

William Wilshere was a British Whig politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1837 to 1847. He was the son of Thomas Wilshere of The Frythe and his wife Lora, daughter of Charles Beaumont of Houghton, Huntingdonshire, he was educated at Bedford grammar school, Wadham College, Oxford. He inherited an estate from his uncle William Wilshere, who died in 1824, who had adopted him while still young. Wilshere was a landed banker of Hertford, he was elected as the Member of Parliament for Great Yarmouth at the 1837 general election. He held the seat until 1847. Wilshere lived at The Frythe, near Welwyn and in 1846 had a Gothic revival mansion built to the design of Thomas Smith and Edward Blore. In 1858, he became High Sheriff of Hertfordshire, he died unmarried at the age of 61. The Frythe passed to his younger brother Charles Willes Wilshere. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by William Wilshere