The East London line is part of the London Overground, running north to south through the East and South areas of London. It was a line of the London Underground. Built in 1869 by the East London Railway Company, which reused the Thames Tunnel intended for horse-drawn carriages, the line became part of the London Underground network in 1933. After nearly 75 years as part of that network, it closed on 22 December 2007 for an extensive refurbishment and expansion, reopening as part of the Overground network in April 2010. Phase 2, which links the line to the South London line with a terminus at Clapham Junction, opened on 9 December 2012, creating an orbital railway around inner London; the East London Railway was created by the East London Railway Company, a consortium of six railway companies: the Great Eastern Railway, the London and South Coast Railway, the London and Dover Railway, the South Eastern Railway, the Metropolitan Railway, the District Railway. The latter two operated what are now the Metropolitan, Circle and Hammersmith & City lines of the London Underground.
The incorporation of the ELR took place on 26 May 1865 with the aim of providing a link between the LB&SCR, GER and SER lines. The companies reused the Thames Tunnel, built by Marc and Isambard Kingdom Brunel between 1825 and 1843 for horse-drawn carriages; the tunnel, with generous headroom and two carriageways separated by arches, connected Wapping on the north bank of the Thames with Rotherhithe on the south bank. A triumph of civil engineering, it was a commercial failure and by the 1860s it had become an unpleasant and disreputable place; the tunnel was the most easterly land connection between the north and south banks of the Thames, close to the docks on both banks of the river, was not far from mainline railways at either end. Converting the tunnel for railway use thus offered a means of providing a cross-Thames rail link without having to go to the expense of boring a new tunnel. On 25 September 1865 the East London Railway Company took ownership of the tunnel at a cost of £800,000.
Over the next four years the company built a railway through the tunnel to connect with the existing lines. The company's engineer was Sir John Hawkshaw, responsible for the major re-design and completion of I K Brunel's long-abandoned Clifton Suspension Bridge at Bristol; the line opened in stages as financing became available: 7 December 1869: New Cross Gate to Wapping opened, operated by the London, Brighton & South Coast Railway, with intermediate stations at Deptford Road and Rotherhithe. 13 March 1871: A spur opened from just south of what is now Surrey Quays station to the South London line's Old Kent Road station. Passenger services were withdrawn from 1 June 1911 and freight last used the line in 1964; this alignment was relaid and restored to passenger service by London Overground in late 2012. 10 April 1876: Wapping to Shoreditch, through a cut-and-cover tunnel constructed in part along the bottom of an infilled dock. At Shoreditch a connection was made with the Great Eastern Railway to Liverpool Street.
Intermediate stations were at Whitechapel. 1 April 1880: A spur to New Cross opened. 3 March 1884: A spur to the Metropolitan and Metropolitan District Railways opened south of Whitechapel using St Mary's Curve. This enabled Metropolitan Railway and Metropolitan District Railway trains to commence through services to the East London Railway that year. Although passenger services via this spur ceased in 1941, it was retained to transfer empty trains to the rest of the sub-surface network; the East London Railway Company owned the infrastructure but it was operated by its controlling railways. Steam trains were operated by the GER, LB&SCR and the SER; the LB&SCR used its LBSCR A1 Class Terrier locomotives, which William Stroudley designed with this line in mind. It carried both passenger and goods trains. From March to September 1884 the SER service ran from Addiscombe to St Mary's. Metropolitan Railway services from St Mary's to New Cross and Metropolitan District Railway services from St Mary's to New Cross Gate commenced on 1 October 1884.
On 6 October through services started from Hammersmith to New Cross and from Hammersmith to New Cross. Before the development of the Kent coalfields in the early part of the 20th century, house coal from the north for distribution in south London and as far afield as Maidstone and Brighton was an important source of revenue. Access at the north end of the line was difficult: trains were limited to 26 wagons and had to be shunted into the Great Eastern's Liverpool Street station and drawn forward onto the ELR. To avoid this reversal, a line was planned from the ELR north of Whitechapel to the GER at Bethnal Green. Acts for this were passed in 1866 and 1868; when the GER route to Hackney Downs Junction, now Hackney Downs, was constructed in 1872, the route was altered to connect at Cambridge Heath, with an abandonment Act for the previous route in 1871 and two new Acts in 1876 and 1877. A short length of the latter tunnel was built, from October 1900 additional capacity was offered by a wagon lift, carrying two ten-ton wagons, from the Great Eastern coal depot at Spitalfields to a siding laid in the tunnel stub.
The surface junction was taken up in 1966 and the lift closed in 1967, after a fire at the Spitalfields depot. When the Metropolitan District Railway was electrified in 1905 it ceased using the ELR, the l
V. S. Mani was an Indian legal scholar, he was the founder and director of Gujarat National Law University and an expert in the field of public international law. He was the founder and director of the Seedling School of Law and Governance at Jaipur National University in Rajasthan, India, he died on 22 August 2016. He was a member of the Advisory Board of the Indian Yearbook of International Law and Policy. Chief Editor, ISIL Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law & Refugee Law, President of the Asian Society of International Law, Singapore, he was an ex officio member of the Editorial Advisory Board of the Asian Journal of International Law, Singapore. On 1 September 2013, he was awarded "Professor N. R. Madhava Menon Best Law Teacher 2013" award by President of the Indian Law Firms, he was professor at Centre of International Legal Studies, School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. He had served as ISRO Chair in International Space Law, as Jawaharlal Nehru Chair in International Environmental Law, as Director of its Human Rights Teaching and Research Programme.
He was the founder-director of the prestigious Gujarat National Law University, Gandhinagar and was elected Executive President of the Indian Society of International Law, New Delhi in 2003. He had been Member, Advisory Committee on drafting of Optional Rules of Arbitration of Space Law Disputes under the auspices of Permanent Court of Arbitration 2010-2011. Mani had appeared before the International Court of Justice as agent and counsel on several occasions, he was Legal Advisor to the Government of the Republic of Nauru in 1981-83 and again in 1985-90. He was directly involved in organising Nauru’s case against Australia before the International Court of Justice, he was a member of the Indian legal team to the ICJ led by India’s Attorney-General, Soli Sorabjee, in Pakistan’s case against India in 1999-2000. He was involved in the drafting of pleadings in at least four cases before the World Court, he had authored/edited nine books and more than 110 research articles, some published in international journals and books, including one published in a book on Essays in International Law published by the United Nations Office of the Legal Affairs.
Handbook of International Humanitarian Law and South Asia, sponsored by the ICRC Delegation, New Delhi. "Humanitarian" Intervention Recueil des Cours, 2005, vol. 313, pp. 9–323. India on the Threshold of the 21st Century: Shape of Things to Come Human Rights in India: An Overview Recent Trends in Space Law and Policy Air Law and Policy in India Basic Principles of Modern International Law: A Study of the United Nations Debates on the Principles of International Law concerning Friendly Relations and Co-operation among States The Non-Aligned and the United Nations International Adjudication: Procedural Aspects Worldcat identities - Mani, V. S. 1942- 2016
The Group of temples at Talakad, located about 45 km south-east of the culturally important city of Mysore in the Karnataka state of India are ancient Hindu temples built by multiple South Indian dynasties. Archaeological excavations of the sand dunes at Talakad have shown the existence of several ruined temples built during the rule of the Western Ganga dynasty. However, according to historian I. K. Sarma, only two temples, the Pataleshvara and Maraleshvara, built during the reign of King Rachamalla Satyavakya IV are intact. According to the Archaeological Survey of India, the Vaidyeshvara temple, the largest, the most intact and ornate of the group bears Ganga-Chola-Hoysala architectural features, its consecration is assignable to the 10th century with improvements made up to the 14th century. According to the art historian Adam Hardy, the Kirtinarayana temple was built in 1117 A. D. by the famous Hoysala King Vishnuvardhana to celebrate his victory over the Cholas in the battle of Talakad.
It has been dismantled by the ASI for renovation. Only its mahadwara is intact; the Sand dunes of Talakad are protected by the Karnataka state division of the ASI. The Vaidyeshvara and Kirtinarayana temples are protected as monuments of national importance by the central Archaeological Survey of India. Both the Pataleshvara and Maraleshvara temples have on their original base a sanctum and a vestibule from the Ganga period; the tower over the shrine may be a Chola period renovation. The pillars and the pilasters in the main hall are similar to those in the Rameshvara Temple, Narasamangala. High quality Ganga workmanship with late Pallava influences is seen in the images of Hindu gods in these temples; these images include the four handed Mahavishnu, Durga standing on the horned head of the demon king Mahisha and Kartikeya in the Maraleshvara temple. The Vaidyeshvara temple comprises a sanctum with a Vesara tower in stucco, a vestibule that connects the sanctum to a short hall, a six-pillared hall and two entrance porchs facing east-west and southern directions.
To the north, within the temple is another large hall with shrines for deities. The entire complex is built on a platform; the outer walls of the temple are articulated with pilasters, deities from the Shaiva faith and aedicula in relief. The ornate doorjamb and lintel over the entrance doorway to the pillared hall, with the 2 m tall reliefs of door-keepers on either side is Hoysala in workmanship. At the rear of the complex is a large bounding wall that houses independent sculptures from the Ganga and Vijayanagara periods. According to Adam Hardy, The Kirtinarayana temple is a granite, single vimana plan, an ekakuta construction, with an open mantapa; the temple is similar in plan to the famous Chennakesava Temple at Belur. The temple has a typical stellate plan with the sanctum and open hall mounted on a platform called jagati; these features are, according to historian Suryanath Kamath. The platform serves a dual purpose: improves visual effect as well as provides a path for ritual Circumambulation around the temple for devotees.
The sanctum has an image of Narayana. The decorative features in the temple are notable. At the entrance to the sanctum, the doorjamb and lintel are ornate, the lathe turned pillars in the spacious hall support a ceiling, decorated with floral designs. Mallikarjuna temple at Mudukuthore and Sri Arkeshwaraswamy Temple are located little far form the main Talakadu village. Sarma, I. K.. Temples of the Gangas of Karnataka. New Delhi: Archaeological Survey of India. ISBN 0-19-560686-8. Adam Hardy, Indian Temple Architecture: Form and Transformation: the Karṇāṭa Drāviḍa Tradition, 7th to 13th Centuries, Abhinav, 1995 ISBN 81-7017-312-4 Gerard Foekema, A Complete Guide to Hoysala Temples, Abhinav, 1996 ISBN 81-7017-345-0 Kamath, Suryanath U.. A concise history of Karnataka: from pre-historic times to the present. Bangalore: Jupiter books. LCCN 80905179. OCLC 7796041. "Kirtinarayana temple". Archaeological Survey of India, Bengaluru Circle. ASI Bengaluru Circle. Archived from the original on 25 December 2013.
Retrieved 24 December 2013. "Vaidyesvara temple". Archaeological Survey of India, Bengaluru Circle. ASI Bengaluru Circle. Archived from the original on 25 December 2013. Retrieved 24 December 2013. "Alphabetical List of Monuments - Karnataka -Bangalore, Bangalore Circle, Karnataka". Archaeological Survey of India, Government of India. Indira Gandhi National Center for the Arts. Retrieved 19 January 2013. "Temple tales". Deccan Herald. Archived from the original on 19 July 2006. Retrieved 24 December 2013