SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

East Pakistan

East Pakistan was the eastern provincial wing of Pakistan between 1955 and 1971, covering the territory of the modern country Bangladesh. Its land borders were with a coastline on the Bay of Bengal. East Pakistan was renamed from East Bengal by the One Unit scheme of Pakistani Prime Minister Mohammad Ali of Bogra; the Constitution of Pakistan of 1956 replaced the British monarchy with an Islamic republic. Bengali politician H. S. Suhrawardy served as the Prime Minister of Pakistan between 1956 and 1957 and a Bengali bureaucrat Iskandar Mirza became the first President of Pakistan; the 1958 Pakistani coup d'état brought general Ayub Khan to power. Khan launched a crackdown against pro-democracy leaders. Khan enacted the Constitution of Pakistan of 1962. By 1966, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman emerged as the preeminent opposition leader in Pakistan and launched the six point movement for autonomy and democracy; the 1969 uprising in East Pakistan contributed to Ayub Khan's overthrow. Another general, Yahya Khan, enacted martial law.

In 1970, Yahya Khan organized Pakistan's first federal general election. The Awami League emerged as the single largest party, followed by the Pakistan Peoples Party; the military junta stalled in accepting the results, leading to civil disobedience, the Bangladesh Liberation War and the 1971 Bangladesh genocide. East Pakistan seceded with the help of India; the East Pakistan Provincial Assembly was the legislative body of the territory. Due to the strategic importance of East Pakistan, the Pakistani union was a member of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization; the economy of East Pakistan grew at an average of 2.6% between 1960 and 1965. The federal government invested more funds and foreign aid in West Pakistan though East Pakistan generated a major share of exports. However, President Ayub Khan did implement significant industrialization in East Pakistan; the Kaptai Dam was built in 1965. The Eastern Refinery was established in Chittagong. Dacca was declared as the second capital of Pakistan and planned as the home of the national parliament.

The government recruited American architect Louis Kahn to design the national assembly complex in Dacca. In 1955, Prime Minister Mohammad Ali Bogra implemented the One Unit scheme which merged the four western provinces into a single unit called West Pakistan while East Bengal was renamed as East Pakistan. Pakistan ended its dominion status and adopted a republican constitution in 1956, which proclaimed an Islamic republic; the populist leader H. S. Suhrawardy of East Pakistan was appointed prime minister of Pakistan; as soon as he became the prime minister, Suhrawardy initiated a legal work reviving the joint electorate system. There was a strong resentment to the joint electorate system in West Pakistan; the Muslim League had taken the cause to the public and began calling for implementation of separate electorate system. In contrast to West Pakistan, the joint electorate was popular in East Pakistan; the tug of war with the Muslim League to establish the appropriate electorate caused problems for his government.

The constitutionally obliged National Finance Commission Program was suspended by Prime Minister Suhrawardy despite the reserves of the four provinces of the West Pakistan in 1956. Suhrawardy advocated for the USSR-based Five-Year Plans to centralize the national economy. In this view, the East Pakistan's economy was centralized and all major economic planning shifted to West Pakistan. Efforts leading to centralizing the economy was met with great resistance in West Pakistan when the elite monopolist and the business community angrily refused to oblige to his policies; the business community in Karachi began its political struggle to undermine any attempts of financial distribution of the US$10 million ICA aid to the better part of the East Pakistan and to set up a consolidated national shipping corporation. In the financial cities of West Pakistan, such as Karachi, Lahore and Peshawar, there were series of major labour strikes against the economic policies of Suhrawardy supported by the elite business community and the private sector.

Furthermore, in order to divert attention from the controversial One Unit Program, Prime Minister Suhrawardy tried to end the crises by calling a small group of investors to set up small business in the country. Despite many initiatives and holding off the NFC Award Program, Suhrawardy's political position and image deteriorated in the four provinces in West Pakistan. Many nationalist leaders and activists of the Muslim League were dismayed with the suspension of the constitutionally obliged NFC Program, his critics and Muslim League leaders observed that with the suspension of NFC Award Program, Suhrawardy tried to give more financial allocations, aids and opportunity to East-Pakistan than West Pakistan, including West Pakistan's four provinces. During the last days of his Prime ministerial years, Suhrawardy tried to remove the economic disparity between the Eastern and Western wings of the country but to no avail, he tried unsuccessfully to alleviate the food shortage in the country. Suhrawardy strengthened relations with the United States by reinforcing Pakistani membership in the Central Treaty Organization and Southeast Asia Treaty Organization.

Suhrawardy promoted relations with the People’s Republic of China. His contribution in formulating the 1956 constitution of Pakistan was substantial as he played a vital role in incorporating provisions for civil liberties and universal adult franchise in line with his adherence to parliamentary form of liberal democracy. In 1958, President Iskandar Mirza enacted martial law as part of a military coup by the Pakistan Army's chief Ayub Khan

Gladstone to Monto railway line

Gladstone to Monto Branch Railway. The Boyne Valley west of Gladstone in Queensland, Australia was predominantly a dairying region and a railway had little justification; however a branch was justified in 1906 on the basis of large traffic in timber, fuel and flexing ores. Progressively opened between 1910 and 1931 the line branched from the North Coast line at Byellee a short distance west of Gladstone and struck a south-westerly route via Many Peaks and Mungungo to Monto; the first section from Byellee to Many Peaks was opened on 25 July 1910 and sidings were established at Beecher, Talaba, Calliope River, Barmundu, Wietalaba, Ubobo, Hellens and Builyan. Governor Fitzroy named Calliope after HMS Calliope, anchored in Port Curtis harbour in 1854; the line was built to transport low grade ore from Many Peaks to Mount Morgan for processing. A train of copper flexing ore ran to Mount Morgan daily and a mixed train to Gladstone and return ran four days a week. Cream and agricultural goods provided the major source of revenue when the Many Peaks mine closed in 1918.

The next stage took the line via Golembil to Barrimoon on 17 August 1926. Although there was a sixteen-year gap in building, the route traverses steep mountainous country. A ten-kilometre section beyond Golembil required the construction of six tunnels totalling 730 metres to negotiate a 239-metre climb of the Dawes Range. On 7 July 1930, the line was opened via Kalpowar, Dakiel and Crana to Mungungo only 12 kilometres from Monto, it was announced that Waratah would be the terminus, but settlers insisted that Monto must be linked with Gladstone. Kalpowar was a timber milling settlement en route to Monto. On 6 July 1931 the line reached Monto via Bukali thus completing a semi circular inland link between Maryborough and Gladstone via the completed line running north west from Mungar Junction through Biggenden, Gayndah and Eidsvold; the line was suspended from use in 2002. It awaits the possibility of coal transport from the Monto region to Gladstone port. Callide Valley railway line Triumph of Narrow Gauge: A History of Queensland Railways by John Kerr, 1990 Boolarong Press, Brisbane "History of Monto & Upper Burnett" by H N C Bandidt 28 July 1988 1925 map of the Queensland railway system

Ishq

Ishq is an Arabic word meaning "love" or "passion" widely used in other languages of the Muslim world and the Indian subcontinent. The word ishq does not appear in the Quran, which instead uses derivatives of the verbal root habba, such as the noun hubb; the word is traditionally derived from the verbal root ʿašaq "to stick, to cleave to" and connected to the noun ʿašaqah, which denotes a kind of ivy. In its most common classical interpretation, ishq refers to the irresistible desire to obtain possession of the beloved, expressing a deficiency that the lover must remedy in order to reach perfection. Like the perfections of the soul and the body, love thus admits of hierarchical degrees, but its underlying reality is the aspiration to the beauty which God manifested in the world when he created Adam in his own image. Islamic conception of love acquired further dimensions from the Greek-influenced view that the notions of Beauty and Truth "go back to one indissoluble Unity". Among classical Muslim authors, the notion of love was developed along three conceptual lines, oftentimes conceived in an ascending hierarchical order: natural love, intellectual love and divine love.

The growth of affection into passionate love received its most probing and realistic analysis in The Ring of the Dove by the Andalusian scholar Ibn Hazm. The term ishq is used extensively in Sufi poetry and literature to describe their selfless and'burning love for Allah', it is the core concept in the doctrine of Islamic mysticism as it is the key to the connection between man and God. Ishq itself is sometimes held to have been the basis of'creation'. Traditional Persian lexicographers considered the Persian ešq and Arabic ʿišq to derive from the Arabic verbal root ʿašaq "to stick, to cleave to", they connected the origin of the root to ʿašaqa, a kind of ivy, because it twines around and cleaves to trees. Heydari-Malayeri suggests that may have an Indo-European origin and may be related to Avestan words such as iš- "to wish, search", derive from *iška; the Avestan iš- exists in Middle Persian in the form of išt "desire". In the most languages such as Dari: eshq; some scholars objected to the use of the term'ishq' due to its association with sensual love but despite the linguistic, cultural or technical meanings, Sufis believe that'ishq' can only be associated to the Divine.

The word ishq referred to traditional ghazals and Indo-Persian literary culture and has made its way to many other languages which were influenced by Sufism. Some of the most notable languages which have this word are Persian, Pashto, Sindhi, Saraiki: عشق, Turkish: aşk, Azerbaijani: eşq, Bengali: ইশক and Punjabi: ਇਸ਼ਕ. In Persian, Ishq construed with the verbs "bākhtan باختن", "khāstan خواستن", "sanjīdan سنجیدن", "rūīdan روییدن", "nishīndan نشاندن", etc. In Persian, "Āshiq عاشق" is the active participle, "Mā'shūq معشوق" is the passive participle, "Mā'shūqah معشوقه" conveys a vulgar meaning, whilst in Arabic it is the female passive participle of "Mā'shūq معشوق". In Urdu, Ishq is used to refer to fervent love for person or God. However, it is used in its religious context. In Urdu, three common religious terminologies have been derived from Ishq; these terminologies are Ishq-e-Haqīqi, Ishq-e majāzi, ishq-e rasūl / ishq-e Muhammadi. Other than these, in non-religious context, ‘ishq is a synonym for obsessive love.

In Turkish, Aşk is used to express love, passion or adoration. The Turkish version replaces the'q' with a'k', as Turkish lacks voiceless uvular plosive, the letter'ş' with the cedilla denotes the "sh" sound, /ʃ/. In comparison with Arabic or Urdu, the word is less restrictive and can be applied to many forms of love, or romance, it is common in the lyrics of Turkish songs. Ishq is sometimes used in Hindi-language Bollywood movies which borrow more formal and poetic words and language from Urdu and Persian; the regular Hindi word for love is pyar. In Hindi, ʻIshq' means. In Arabic, it is a noun. However, in Urdu it is used as both noun. In Modern Arabic the usual terms used for romantic love are habba and its derived forms hubb, mahbub, etc. In religious context, divided into three kinds, is a important but rather complex concept of Sufi tradition of Islam. Ishq-e Majāzi means "metaphorical love", it refers to the love for God's creation i.e. love of a man for a woman or another man and vice versa.

It is said to be generated by beloved person's external beauty but since it is connected to lust, it is against the law and considered unlawful. Hence, in Faqr, the term Ishq-e-Majazi is directed only towards Ishq-e-Murshid; this love for one's Murshid leads to love for Muhammad and for God, upon which one that understands Ishq-e-Haqeeqi is in fact the source of all'metaphorical love'. Ishq-e Rasūl means "love of Muhammad," an important part of being a Muslim. In Sufism, the Ishq-e-Majazi changes its form to Ishq-e-Rasool through the development of an intense feeling of Ishq for Muhammad; every existent form of creation is in fact the slave of the Creator. Since Muhammad is the most beloved to Allah, the true Lover feels Ishq-e-Rasool till "the Prophet becomes dearer to him than his life, wive