Westhampton Beach, New York
The Incorporated Village of Westhampton Beach is an incorporated village on the southeast coast of Long Island. Administratively it is in the town of Suffolk County, New York, United States; as of the 2010 census, the village population was 1,721. The village of Westhampton Beach was incorporated in 1928. In 1938 all summer homes on its barrier beach were obliterated by a hurricane resulting in twenty-nine local deaths. Like most of the shoreline of southern Long Island, the beach at Westhampton Beach was eroding shoreward; this became a political issue in the 1960s. The project to protect the beaches in the area from further erosion was started by the Army Corp of Engineers in 1966, but was only completed because of the failure to secure funds from the state and local government. In addition the project design was flawed; as a result, there was increased erosion at the beaches in Westhampton Beach while, up current, the beaches grew. During the late 1970s and through the 1980s, beach homes were washed away with every severe storm that hit the coast.
It was only after the nor'easter of November 1992 destroyed over eighty homes, that the Army Corp of Engineers began renewed repair efforts. In the mid-1990s, fifteen historic houses were relocated by the Army Corps of Engineers; the homes were moved off the beach and out of harm's way, at least for a while, but the beach is still eroding and addition damage is incurred with every storm. Additional work was required after Hurricane Sandy in 2012; the Crowther House, Foster-Meeker House, U. S. Post Office are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Westhampton Beach has its own fire departments. Westhampton Beach is located at 40°48′32″N 72°38′46″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 3.0 square miles, of which 2.9 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles, or 2.35%, is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,902 people, 1805 households, 498 families residing in the village; the population density was 654.2 people per square mile. There were 2,279 housing units at an average density of 783.9 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the village was 89.17% White, 4.63% African American, 0.42% Native American, 1.16% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 2.84% from other races, 1.74% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.68% of the population. There were 805 households out of which 22.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.1% were married couples living together, 11.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.1% were non-families. 32.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.25 and the average family size was 2.81. In the village, the population was spread out with 20.5% under the age of 18, 6.1% from 18 to 24, 24.6% from 25 to 44, 28.2% from 45 to 64, 20.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.2 males. The median income for a household in the village was $58,438, the median income for a family was $74,412.
Males had a median income of $55,625 versus $33,000 for females. The per capita income for the village was $38,500. About 6.8% of families and 9.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.9% of those under age 18 and 4.3% of those age 65 or over. Westhampton Beach Elementary School Westhampton Beach Middle School Westhampton Beach High School Westhampton Beach and the surrounding area is served by Sunrise Highway, a major artery to the western parts of Long Island and New York City; the hamlet is served by Montauk Highway, a two-lane road which runs from New York City to Montauk. Montauk Highway serves as the "Main Street" of many towns and villages along the south shore of Long Island; the Long Island Rail Road provides limited rail service seven days per week via the Montauk Branch connecting Westhampton to Montauk and New York City. Hampton Jitney coach bus service provides more frequent passenger travel between New York City and Westhampton during summer months. Local Suffolk County buses provide service to neighboring areas.
Westhampton, New York West Hampton Dunes, New York
Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for
Northampton, Suffolk County, New York
Northampton is a hamlet and census-designated place in Suffolk County, New York, United States on Long Island. The CDP population was 570 at the 2010 census. Northampton is in the Town of Southampton; the Eastern Campus of Suffolk County Community College is located in Northampton. Northampton is at 40°52′47″N 72°41′49″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 11.7 square miles, of which 11.5 square miles is land and 0.12 square miles, or 0.86%, is water. The CDP was created for the 2000 census and includes part of the former village of Pine Valley, which disincorporated in 1991; as of the census of 2000, there were 468 people, 158 households, 121 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 51.6 per square mile. There were 205 housing units at an average density of 22.6/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 46.37% White, 44.23% African American, 0.85% Native American, 0.85% Asian, 2.35% from other races, 5.34% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8.33% of the population.
There were 158 households out of which 38.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.7% were married couples living together, 20.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.4% were non-families. 20.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.96 and the average family size was 3.31. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 29.3% under the age of 18, 9.6% from 18 to 24, 30.3% from 25 to 44, 20.9% from 45 to 64, 9.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.9 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $47,500, the median income for a family was $35,893. Males had a median income of $32,292 versus $30,956 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $23,660. About 6.6% of families and 9.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.5% of those under age 18 and none of those age 65 or over.
Shinnecock Hills, New York
Shinnecock Hills is a hamlet in Suffolk County, New York, United States. The population was 2,188 at the 2010 census, it is the home of Shinnecock Hills Golf Club. Ownership of the area has been the subject of a 2005 lawsuit filed by the Shinnecock Indian Nation. Shinnecock Hills is in the Town of Southampton. Shinnecock Hills is located at 40°53′17″N 72°27′42″W east of the Shinnecock Canal. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 3.1 square miles, of which 2.9 square miles is land and 0.19 square miles, or 6.61%, is water. The highest point in Shinnecock Hills is 141 feet above sea level; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,749 people, 502 households, 313 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 842.9 per square mile. There were 928 housing units at an average density of 447.3/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 89.99% White, 4.23% African American, 0.97% Native American, 0.97% Asian, 2.17% from other races, 1.66% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10.41% of the population.
There were 502 households out of which 24.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.8% were married couples living together, 6.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.6% were non-families. 27.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 3.00. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 13.8% under the age of 18, 34.0% from 18 to 24, 17.6% from 25 to 44, 20.5% from 45 to 64, 14.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 28 years. For every 100 females, there were 82.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 78.8 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $72,500, the median income for a family was $89,211. Males had a median income of $51,172 versus $32,500 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $28,378. About 7.7% of families and 13.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.7% of those under age 18 and 6.8% of those age 65 or over.
There is a question mark over ownership of the area of Shinnecock Hills, as it is claimed by the Shinnecock Indian Nation as their land, seized in a white land grab in 1859. In 2005 the nation filed a lawsuit against the state seeking the return of 3,500 acres in Southampton around the tribe's reservation and billions of dollars in reparations; the disputed property includes the Shinnecock Hills Golf Club, which Native American representatives say is the location of tribal burial grounds. The core of the lawsuit is over a 1703 deal between Southampton and the tribe for a 1,000-year lease; the suit charges that a group of powerful investors conspired to break the lease in 1859 by sending the state legislature a fraudulent petition from a number of Shinnecock tribesmen. Although other tribal members protested that the petition was a forgery, the Legislature approved the sale of 3,500 acres of former tribal land; the town of Southampton is claimed to have spent over $732,000 in legal fees in relation to this lawsuit
Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income
Hampton Bays, New York
Hampton Bays is a hamlet and census-designated place in Suffolk County, New York, United States. The population was 13,603 at the 2010 census. Hampton Bays is in the Town of Southampton. Hampton Bays is located at about 81 miles to the east of Manhattan. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 18.1 square miles, of which 12.9 square miles is land and 5.2 square miles, or 28.54%, is water. The hamlet is surrounded by three bays, the Great Peconic Bay to the north, Shinnecock and Tiana bays to the south; the two southern bays are a part of a greater bay system, called the Great South Bay system, which stretches from Southampton Village to Jamaica Bay in New York City. The Shinnecock Canal, a man-made canal located in the eastern part of the hamlet, connects the Great Peconic Bay with the Shinnecock Bay. Shinnecock Inlet, which leads from the Shinnecock Bay to the Atlantic Ocean, is the easternmost inlet, making it popular for commercial fishing; the inlet itself, which separates the barrier beaches of Hampton Bays from those of neighboring Southampton, was created in the New England Hurricane of 1938 when the forces of the hurricane washed over that area of barrier beach, connecting the waters of the Atlantic with the bay.
The Hampton Bays CDP is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the south. Hampton Bays is served by Sunrise Highway, a major artery to the western parts of Long Island and New York City; the hamlet is served by Montauk Highway, a two-lane road which runs from New York City to Montauk. Montauk Highway serves as the "Main Street" of many towns and villages along the south shore of Long Island; the Long Island Rail Road provides limited rail service seven days per week via the Montauk Branch connecting Hampton Bays to Montauk and New York City. Hampton Jitney and Hampton Luxury Liner coach bus services provide more frequent passenger travel between New York City and Hampton Bays during summer months. Local Suffolk County buses provide service to neighboring areas; the waterways in the area, including the Shinnecock Canal, provide invaluable routes for boats. Like most of the other communities in The Hamptons, tourism is a critical component of the local economy. Commercial fishing remains a vital part of the Hampton Bays economy, centered on the fishing station at Shinnecock Inlet.
After Montauk, Hampton Bays is the second-busiest commercial fishing port in the state of New York. According to 2014 statistics by the National Marine Fisheries Service, 4.7 million pounds of finfish and shellfish, worth $5.5 million, were landed in the Hampton Bays/Shinnecock port. Hampton Bays was used as the set of the 2007 movie Margot at the Wedding starring Nicole Kidman and Jack Black; the hamlet was settled in 1740 as "Good Ground", which became the main hamlet of eleven in the immediate area. The area where Main Street known as Montauk Highway, is located today, was the approximate area of the original hamlet. There were ten other hamlets in the area, they were called Canoe Place, East Tiana, Ponquogue, Red Creek, Southport and West Tiana. Most of these hamlets had their own school house. Many of the names from the former hamlets are still featured as local street names today. In 1743, a smallpox outbreak was attributed to deliberate distribution of infected blankets being handed out by one K "Mole" Fallo, who purchased land titles from widows and orphans.
As a result of the growth of the surrounding hamlets and villages in the Hamptons and increased tourism from New York City, the eleven hamlets, although called "Good Ground" collectively by the early part of the 20th century, amalgamated under the name "Hampton Bays" in 1922. The motive behind the name change was for the hamlet to benefit from the "Hamptons" trade that the community's neighbors were experiencing; as of the census of 2000, there were 12,236 people, 4,877 households, 3,092 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 1,016.1 per square mile. There were 6,875 housing units at an average density of 570.9/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 92% White, 0.87% African American, 0.13% Native American, 0.70% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 3.69% from other races, 1.55% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2% of the population. There were 4,877 households out of which 26.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.5% were married couples living together, 8.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.6% were non-families.
28.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.00. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 20.8% under the age of 18, 7.8% from 18 to 24, 31.1% from 25 to 44, 23.9% from 45 to 64, 16.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.3 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $50,161, the median income for a family was $58,773. Males had a median income of $47,633 versus $30,426 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $27,027. About 6.7% of families and 10.7% of t
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820