East Riding Royal Garrison Artillery

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East Riding Royal Garrison Artillery
Royal Artillery Badge.jpg
Cap Badge of the Royal Regiment of Artillery
Active 1908–1992
Country  United Kingdom
Branch Flag of the British Army.svg Territorial Force
Role Coast Artillery
Siege Artillery
Field Engineers
Air Defence Artillery
Garrison/HQ Kingston upon Hull
Engagements Battle of the Somme
Third Battle of Ypres
Hundred Days Offensive

The East Riding Royal Garrison Artillery (ERRGA) was a part-time unit of Britain's Royal Artillery based at Hull in the East Riding of Yorkshire. It provided coastal defence artillery along the Humber Estuary from 1908 to 1956, manned siege batteries on the Western Front during World War I at the Somme and Ypres and played a role in the pursuit of the German army during the Hundred Days Offensive. It served as infantry in Allied-occupied Germany after World War II. Its successor units in the Territorial Army included anti-aircraft artillery and field engineers.

Early history[edit]

At times of national crisis volunteers were regularly called upon to defend the vulnerable harbours on the coast of East Yorkshire. At the time of the Jacobite rising of 1745, the Wardens and Brethren of Hull Trinity House formed four volunteer artillery companies, equipped with 20 nine-pounder cannon from a ship lying in Hull roads. These were the first volunteer artillery units formed in Yorkshire, though there may have been others manning the cannon in the fort covering Bridlington harbour. The companies were stood down after the Jacobite defeat at Culloden.[1]

Hull Trinity House organised a new artillery company during the French Revolutionary Wars, and a mixed unit of infantry and artillery manned the fort at Bridlington harbour. These units existed from 1794 until the Treaty of Amiens in 1802. When the peace broke down in 1803, the Bridlington Volunteer Artillery reformed, but the guns at Hull were manned by the Sea Fencibles and by Regulars.[2]

Volunteer Force[edit]

See main article: 2nd East Riding Artillery Volunteers

A number of new artillery companies were formed in the East Riding during the first enthusiasm for the Volunteer Movement in 1859–60, including the 4th to 9th Companies at Hull. These were formed into a battalion in 1860, becoming the 4th (Yorkshire East Riding) Artillery Volunteer Corps under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Martin Samuelson, a prominent local engineer and shipbuilder, whose brother Alexander Samuelson served as Captain of the 6th Company.[3][4][5][6][7][8]

Preserved 32-pounder gun on traversing carriage.

The 4th East Riding AVC competed with other Hull volunteer units for recruits, increasing its establishment in 1877 from eight to 12 batteries with a total of 965 men in 1878. One battery was formed by employees of Messrs Rose, Downs & Thompson (a manufacturer of oilseed crushing machinery), and another from members of the Hull Gymnastic Society. Other units having disappeared, the 4th was renumbered 2nd East Riding Artillery Volunteers in 1881.[3][4][5][6][9][10]

The unit leased from Hull Corporation a hall that had been built adjacent to the Corporation Field in Park Street for a working men's exhibition. The government supplied 32-pounder muzzle-loading guns in June 1860. Eight were used for drill purposes at the Hull Citadel and four were placed in a battery built on the Humber Bank adjacent to Earle's shipyard. The unit took part in national gunnery competitions, and won the Queen's Prize on several occasions. From 1886 the coastal artillery batteries were supplemented by minefields, and the 2nd East Riding AV trained with the Humber Division Submarine Miners.[4][11]

In 1882, the 2nd East Riding AV became part of the Northern Division of the Royal Artillery (later transferring to the Western Division). All Volunteer Artillery units became part of the Royal Garrison Artillery (RGA) in 1899 and in 1902 the unit was redesignated 2nd East Riding Royal Garrison Artillery (Volunteers).[4][5][9][12]

Territorial Force[edit]

Londesborough Barracks.

With the creation of the Territorial Force by the Haldane Reforms in 1908,[13][14] the RGA Volunteers were extensively reorganised. In the original plans, the 2nd East Riding RGA would have become the 3rd Northumbrian Brigade in the Royal Field Artillery (RFA).[15] However, these plans were revised in 1910, so that the Hull-based RGA formed two field batteries and an ammunition column in the 2nd Northumbrian Brigade, RFA, and a separate East Riding RGA (ERRGA) with four companies of coast defence artillery.[5][6][9][16][17]

The East Riding RGA shared Londesborough Barracks in Park Street with the 1st and 2nd East Riding Batteries and the ammunition column of the 2nd Northumbrian RFA and other TF units.[9][18][19]

World War I[edit]

Mobilisation[edit]

The East Riding RGA's wartime role, together with other TF and Regular RGA units, was to man guns defending major ports on the North East Coast of England,[5][20][21][22] which it carried out during the early part of World War I in the Humber Garrison under No 15 Coastal Fire Command (Spurn Point) and No 16 Coastal Fire Command (Hull).[23]

Although the existing battery at Fort Paull was disarmed as the war progressed, a number of new batteries were established to defend the Humber Estuary, so that by April 1918 the dispositions of the Humber Garrison were as follows:[24]

As the war progressed, RGA coastal units supplied trained manpower to batteries raised for other purposes. The RGA opened a Siege Artillery School in the Humber Garrison and the ERRGA manned 77th and 164th Siege Batteries, RGA, and it appears that by the end of 1916 most of its remaining gunners had been mobilised to man anti-aircraft batteries.[25][26]

77th Siege Battery[edit]

An 8-inch Howitzer in action, September 1916.

In March 1916, 77th Siege Battery was stationed at Fort Borstal in Kent together with 654 Company, Army Service Corps, formed that month to operate the Ammunition Column (Motor Transport) for 77th Siege Bty. The two units entrained for Folkestone, where they embarked on the SS Princess Victoria on 27 March and landed at Boulogne the same day.[27][28][29][30][31]

On 9 April, the battery and MT company went to Beauval to collect its 8-inch howitzers and the Holt caterpillar tractors to tow them. The battery was posted to 17th Heavy Artillery Group (HAG) in VIII Corps of Fourth Army and began moving to Sailly-au-Bois to dig gun positions, collect ammunition and stores, and move in the guns. On 2 May 1916 it began firing registering shots against targets in its area and later constructed its Observation post (OP). The battery fired 16 rounds against Beaucourt Redoubt on 30 May, only two of which burst properly, reflecting the notoriously unreliable fuzes of the 8-inch shells at that time.[29][32]

Somme[edit]

77th Siege Battery had been positioned at Sailly to take part in the artillery preparation for the Battle of the Somme. During June the battery was engaged in shoots against targets such as Hawthorn Ridge Redoubt and Beaumont-Hamel, the preliminary bombardment of the German trenches beginning on 6 June. On the First day on the Somme, VIII Corps had one heavy gun for every 44 yards of its attack frontage. 77th Siege Battery joined in the 'general bombardment' that began at 06.00, and then after the infantry 'went over' at 07.30 the guns extended their range in six 'lifts'. 77th 'took part in lifts through Beaumont Hamel, Beaucourt-sur-l'Ancre, Beaucourt Redoubt and finished up at Baillescourt Farm'. Unfortunately, these lifts were premature, the Germans being able to man their trenches once the guns lifted, and the infantry of VIII Corps failed to penetrate much beyond the enemy front line trench.[29][33] Gunner T. Tharratt, ERRGA, was later awarded the Military Medal (MM) for conspicuous good work as a telephonist and line repairman under heavy shellfire on 1 July.[29][34]

As the battle continued, 77th Siege Bty concentrated on counter-battery (CB) fire, sometimes directed by aircraft of the Royal Flying Corps. On 14 July the battery commander, Major W.N. Leggett, and his driver were killed when the battery car was hit by a shell.[a] After a short period under a temporary commander, Captain C.D. Allderidge, a pre-war officer of the ERRGA, was promoted to take command on 2 August.[29]

8-inch Howitzer being towed by a Holt caterpillar tractor during the Battle of the Somme, 1916.

During August, the battery remained at Sailly, but it dug new gun pits closer to Hébuterne, which gave it an arc of fire from the sunken lane north of Serre to Thiepval, covering the whole northern sector of the Somme battlefield. After registering new targets, the battery carried out a 'steady bombardment of trenches' on 26 August, and then on 3 September fired a large number of rounds in support of an unsuccessful attack by V Corps along the Ancre. In November, six months after the bombardment began, 77th Siege Bty was still firing at Beaucourt Redoubt.[29]

During the Somme fighting, the battery had been transferred to 4th HAG on 4 July, back to 17th HAG on 12 July, to 16th HAG on 29 July, to 56th HAG (V Corps in Reserve Army) on 14 August, which moved to XIII Corps and then returned to V Corps on 16 October – all without the battery shifting its position from Sailly.[28][29][36]

During the winter, 77th Siege Bty moved to 72nd HAG (still in Reserve Army, now designated Fifth Army) on 15 December and then was rested from 15 February 1917 until early March, when it joined 43rd HAG.[28][36] In February, Lieutenant G.W. Sainsbury was awarded the Military Cross (MC) 'for conspicuous gallantry in action. He displayed great courage and determination while observing under very heavy fire. Later, although wounded, he continued to remain at his post. He has previously done fine work'.[29][37]

In March 1917, the Germans began a phased retreat to the Hindenburg Line; when they reached the intermediate Bucquoy Line they passed out of range of 77th Siege Bty's howitzers, so on 9 and 10 March they were moved up from Sailly to Hebuterne and opened fire again on 12 March. Soon, however, the Germans had moved many miles out of range.[29]

Acting-Major Allderidge was Mentioned in dispatches in January 1917[29] and awarded the Distinguished Service Order (DSO) in June 1917.[38]

Ypres[edit]

The British now also reorganised their front, Fifth Army HQ and its Army Troops, including 40th HAG (which 77th Siege Bty joined on 9 July), moving north to the Ypres Salient in preparation for the Third Ypres Offensive. Fifth Army opened the offensive on 31 July with the Battle of Pilckem Ridge, which was preceded by a preliminary bombardment lasting 18 days, during which British batteries suffered badly from CB fire. The attack was generally successful, but the guns had to be moved forward to prepare for the next phase.[28][36][39][40][41]

Chateau Wood, near Hooge, 29 October 1917.

77th Siege Bty was transferred to 68th HAG in Third Army on 2 August 1917, then back to 40th HAG with Third Army on 4 September. On 19 September, 40th HAG joined Second Army,[28][36] which had taken over responsibility for part of the Third Ypres offensive. This included the successful Battle of the Menin Road Ridge (20–25 September), Battle of Polygon Wood (26 September–3 October), Battle of Broodseinde (4 October) and Battle of Poelcappelle (9 October), all of which were characterised by extremely heavy artillery support.[42][43][44]

However, the wet weather and consequent mud was now so bad that it was extremely difficult to move guns and ammunition. The next phases of the offensive (the First (12 October) and Second Battle of Passchendaele (26 October–10 November)) were disastrous.[45][46][47]

On 4 November, 77th Siege Bty was at Hooge engaged in CB work when No 2 gun, a Mk V 8-inch howitzer, was put completely out of action by direct hit from a German 24 cm shell. Again, on 26 November, after the end of the major fighting, 77th Siege Bty lost a number of men killed and wounded from German CB fire.[29]

Reorganisation[edit]

The battery joined 84th HAG in Fourth Army on 14 December, with which (except for a short detachment to 50th HAG later that month) it remained for the rest of the war.[28][48]

On 16 December 1917, the battery was joined by a section of 218th Siege Bty, bringing it up to a strength of six 8-inch howitzers.[28] 218th Siege Battery had been formed at Plymouth on 31 July 1916.[49] and had arrived in France on 17 January 1917. It had served with various HAGs until December when it was broken up to reinforce other batteries and subsequently re-raised as a 6-inch howitzer unit.[28]

84th HAG became LXXXIV or 84th (Mixed) Brigade, RGA, on 1 February 1918, and joined Third Army on 14 March 1918.[36]

Hundred Days Offensive[edit]

During the Second Battle of Cambrai on 8 October 84th was among the six heavy artillery brigades that supported the attack of VI Corps (2nd and 3rd Divisions), which made an advance of over 300 yards and took about 500 prisoners.[50]

By now the German line was breaking up, and during 10 October, VI Corps ordered Guards Division to continue the pursuit across 8 miles towards the River Selle, supported by cavalry, cyclists, tanks and artillery, including 84th Heavy Bde.[51] Once the Selle was reached, Third Army ordered it to be crossed by a surprise moonlight attack on 20 October without preliminary bombardment but with heavy artillery support once the attack was launched (the Battle of the Selle). Once again, 84th Bde supported VI Corps in this successful attack, the heavy gunners taking care to avoid hitting the town of Solesmes, which was occupied by French civilians.[52][53][54]

VI Corps pushed on after its success at the Selle, and on 26 October 84th Bde once again joined the cavalry and cyclists in supporting the pursuit, this time by 3rd Division.[55] During the Battle of the Sambre, the last set-piece battle of the war, 84th Bde was up in support of the attack by 62nd (2nd West Riding) Division.[56]

164th Siege Battery[edit]

A 6-inch 26 cwt Howitzer in action, February 1918.

164th Siege Battery, RGA, was raised from the Humber Garrison on 23 May 1916,[57] and disembarked in France on 4 September. It was equipped with four 6-inch (26 cwt) Howitzers.[27][28]

The battery joined 5th HAG with Second Army on 11 September 1916, moving to 1 HAG with Reserve Army on 4 October 1916, during the Battle of the Ancre Heights.[28][36] It was attached to the Canadian Corps from 22 March 1917 (joining 28 March) and to 1st Canadian HAG from 8 April.[28][36]

It moved again to 64th HAG (First Army) on 15 April, to 78th HAG (Third, then First Army) on 13 July and to 12th HAG (Third Army) on 7 September. Finally it moved to 52nd HAG in Second Army on 27 September 1917 with which it remained until the Armistice with Germany.[28][36] The battery was therefore with Second Army during the later stages of the Third Ypres offensive, and remained with it when it was redesignated Fourth Army in December 1917.

On 6 April 1918, 164th Siege Bty was joined by a section of 522nd Siege Bty, bringing it up to a strength of six 6-inch howitzers. 522nd Siege Battery had only just arrived in France and was immediately broken up to reinforce existing batteries.[28] 52nd HAG (redesignated LII or 52nd Brigade, RGA, from 1 February) moved to First Army on 1 May 1918. Officially, 52nd Brigade was a 9.2-inch Howitzer unit, but in fact three out of its four batteries were equipped with 6-inch howitzers.[36][48]

52nd Brigade served with Fifth Army from 7 July until the Armistice, taking part in the pursuit to the Scheldt in October 1918, when the 'heavies' were principally employed on harassing fire on the roads used by the retreating enemy and concentrations of fire on HQs and exits from villages.[36][58]

Interwar[edit]

Postwar, the East Riding RGA reformed in the Territorial Army as East Riding Coast Brigade, RGA, with Major Allderidge as Adjutant. In 1924 the RGA was subsumed into the Royal Artillery, and the 'Coast Brigades, RGA' became 'Heavy Brigades, RA'. The brigade's two batteries were initially titled A & B, then 1 & 2, and finally 182 & 183. RA brigades were redesignated regiments in 1938. The unit served as coastal defence troops under 50th (Northumbrian) Divisional Area.[5][9][16][59]

World War II[edit]

Coast Artillery[edit]

On the outbreak of war, the East Riding Heavy Rgt comprising Regiment Headquarters (RHQ), 182 and 183 Btys mobilised at Hull and formed part of the coastal defences under Northern Command.[60]

The Humber Estuary was defined as a Class A Port with defences already in place, but after the German invasion of the Low Countries in May 1940 the War Office and the Admiralty agreed a programme of coast defence emergency batteries, which included amongst its highest priorities the installation of two 6-inch Mk VII guns (initially manned by the Royal Navy) at Grimsby on the south side of the Humber Estuary.[61]

In July 1940, while Britain faced the threat of invasion, the East Riding Heavy Rgt expanded to form two regiments:[5][16][62]

A 9.2-inch coastal defence gun in August 1941.

By the peak of coastal defences in September 1941, the Humber Estuary had the following guns installed:[61]

617 Infantry Regiment[edit]

As the war progressed and the German invasion threat receded, the need for coastal defence diminished, and 513th Coast Regiment was placed in suspended animation in April 1944 and disbanded in 1947.[16][63][66] Then, in January 1945, the War Office began to reorganise surplus coastal artillery regiments in the UK into infantry battalions, primarily for line of communication and occupation duties in North West Europe, thereby releasing trained infantry for frontline service.[67] In consequence, 512th Regiment handed its batteries over to 526th (Durham) Coast Regiment and became RHQ of 617 Regiment RA (TA) in 301st Infantry Brigade.[5][16][65][68]

After infantry training in Scotland, the brigade came under the orders of 21st Army Group on 9 May 1945, and landed on the Continent on 15 May (a week after VE Day), where it came under the command of First Canadian Army.[68][69] Following the end of the war, 617 Regiment carried out occupation duties until it was placed in suspended animation in October 1945.[5]

Postwar[edit]

When the TA was reconstituted in 1947, the 512 and 513 Regiments reformed at Hull as 422 (East Riding) Coast Regiment and 423 (East Riding) Coast Regiment respectively.[5][16][64][70] The two regiments formed part of 103 Coast Brigade based at Darlington.[70][71][72][73]

422 (East Riding Coast) Squadron[edit]

When coastal artillery was abolished in the TA in 1956,[74] 422 (ER) Coast Rgt transferred to the Royal Engineers as 422 (East Riding Coast) Field Park Squadron at Hull, in 129 Construction Rgt based at Leeds.[16][5]

The TA was reduced in 1967, and 129 Construction Rgt became 129 (East Riding) Sqn at Hull, joining 72nd (Tyne Electrical Engineers) Rgt. In 1969, the squadron absorbed part of P Bty of The Humber Regiment, RA, lineal successor to the other half of the 2nd East Riding Artillery Volunteers.[75][76]

Then, in 1977, 129 (ER) Sqn, based at Hull and Goole, transferred to 73 Engineer Rgt based at Bilborough, Nottingham.[77]

In 1991, 73 Engineer Rgt re-roled as an air support unit and 129 (ER) Sqn was broken up: part was absorbed by a Commando Sqn, but part of it went to form 'E' (Humber Artillery) Company in 2nd Battalion Yorkshire Volunteers, recreating the Humber Artillery lineage of the former 2nd East Riding Artillery Volunteers until it was absorbed by another company in 1992.[5][70][77]

676 Heavy Anti-Aircraft Regiment[edit]

The War Office deemed that as 513th Coast Rgt had been disbanded, it was inappropriate for the second Hull regiment to be assigned the number it would have taken (423rd). The new regiment was therefore renumbered on 21 February 1948 as 676 (East Riding) Coast Rgt. Shortly afterwards it was converted into 676th (East Riding) Heavy Anti-Aircraft Rgt. In 1954, it was amalgamated with 462nd (Northumbrian) Heavy Anti-Aircraft Rgt, descended from the 2nd East Riding Artillery Volunteers.[16][70]

Honorary Colonel[edit]

The following served as Honorary Colonel of the unit:[9]

  • Major A.T. Downs, TD, appointed 13 November 1909
  • R. Hall, TD, appointed 20 May 1921
  • Brevet-Colonel F. Holman, TD, appointed 2 February 1938

Memorial[edit]

A memorial plaque was placed in Holy Trinity Church, Hull, in 1960 to mark the centenary of the East Yorkshire Artillery Volunteers. Its full wording is:[26] [b]

THIS TABLET WAS PLACED HERE TO MARK THE CENTENARY/ YEAR IN 1960 OF THE FORMATION OF THE EAST YORKSHIRE/ ARTILLERY VOLUNTEERS AND IN RECOGNITION OF THE/ FAITHFUL AND GALLANT SERVICES OF THOSE CITIZENS OF/ KINGSTON UPON HULL AND OTHERS WHO SERVED IN PEACE AND/ WAR AS ARTILLERY MEN IN THE UNDERMENTIONED REGIMENT/ 3RD EAST YORKSHIRE ARTILLERY VOLUNTEERS 2ND EAST YORKSHIRE ARTILLERY VOLUNTEERS 2ND EAST RIDING OF YORKSHIRE/ RGA VOLUNTEERS 2ND NORTHUMBRIAN BRIGADE RFA T.F. EAST RIDING RGA T.F. 77TH SIEGE BATTERY RGA T.F./ 165 SIEGE BATTERY RGA T.F. 251ST BRIGADE T.F. 73RD NORTHUMBRIAN FIELD BRIGADE RA T.A. EAST RIDING HEAVY/ BRIGADE RA T.A. 62ND HEAVY A.A. REGIMENT RA T.A. 422 EAST RIDING COAST REGIMENT RA T.A. 462 MIXED HEAVY/ A.A. REGIMENT RA T.A. 676 A.A. REGIMENT RA T.A. 440 HUMBER LIGHT A.A. REGIMENT RA T.A.

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Major Wilfred Noel Leggett, RGA, killed 14 July 1914, was buried in Martinsart British Cemetery.[29][35]
  2. ^ '165 Siege Battery' is either an error on the tablet, or a mistranscription in the War Memorials register: authoritative sources[57] confirm that it was 164th Siege Bty that was raised from the Humber Garrison on 23 May 1916, and that 165th Siege Bty was a Canadian unit.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Norfolk, pp. 7–8 and Appendix I.
  2. ^ Norfolk, pp. 14, 21, 24 and Appendices III and IV.
  3. ^ a b Beckett, Appendix VIII.
  4. ^ a b c d Norfolk, pp. 35–8 and Appendix V.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n 2nd East Riding Artillery Volunteers at Regiments.org
  6. ^ a b c Litchfield & Westlake, pp. 176–9.
  7. ^ Martin Samuelson at Grace's Guide.
  8. ^ Alexander Samuelson at Grace's Guide.
  9. ^ a b c d e f Army List, various dates.
  10. ^ Rose, Downs & Thompson at Grace's Guide.
  11. ^ Earle's at Grace's Guide.
  12. ^ Litchfield & Westlake, pp. 4–6.
  13. ^ Dunlop, Chapter 14.
  14. ^ Spiers, Chapter 10.
  15. ^ London Gazette 20 March 1908.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h Litchfield, pp. 250–2.
  17. ^ London Gazette 14 October 1910.
  18. ^ Hull at Great War Centenary Drill Halls.
  19. ^ Hull at Drill Hall Project.
  20. ^ RGA batteries at the Regimental Warpath
  21. ^ Coast defence at the Regimental Warpath
  22. ^ TF Artillery at British Army 1914.
  23. ^ Home Artillery at Long, Long Trail
  24. ^ Farndale, Home Base, Annex 4..
  25. ^ Discussion on Siege Artillery School, Hull, at Great War Forum.
  26. ^ a b IWM UKWMR Ref 35647.
  27. ^ a b Siege batteries at Long, Long Trail.
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m 'Allocations of Siege Batteries RGA', The National Archives (TNA), Kew, file WO 95/5494.
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l 77th Siege Battery War Diary, TNA file WO 95/396/2.
  30. ^ Young, Annex Q.
  31. ^ 'Allocation of Mechanical Transport Companies ASC', TNA file WO 95/5494.
  32. ^ Farndale, Western Front, p. 135.
  33. ^ Edmonds, pp. 427–44.
  34. ^ London Gazette, 9 December 1916.
  35. ^ Martinsart British Cemetery at CWGC.
  36. ^ a b c d e f g h i j 'Artillery Headquarters', TNA file WO 95/5494.
  37. ^ London Gazette, 3 March 1917.
  38. ^ London Gazette, 4 June 1917.
  39. ^ Farndale, Western Front, pp. 195–204.
  40. ^ Liddle, pp. 33, 36–7, 111–2.
  41. ^ Wolff, pp. 142–4, 148–9, 153–60.
  42. ^ Farndale, Western Front, pp. 205–11.
  43. ^ Liddle, pp. 219–21.
  44. ^ Wolff, pp. 191–235.
  45. ^ Farndale, Western Front, pp. 211–4.
  46. ^ Liddle, pp. 112, 262–8.
  47. ^ Wolff, pp. 247–64.
  48. ^ a b Farndale, Western Front, Annex M.
  49. ^ ACI 1544, 8 August 1916, Army Council Instructions Issued During August 1916, London: HM Stationery Office, 1916.
  50. ^ Edmonds & Maxwell-Hyslop, pp. 206–8.
  51. ^ Edmonds & Maxwell-Hyslop, p. 241.
  52. ^ Edmonds & Maxwell-Hyslop, pp. 335, 339–42.
  53. ^ Farndale, Western Front, pp. 309–10.
  54. ^ Haldane,p. 359.
  55. ^ Edmonds & Maxwell-Hyslop, p. 391.
  56. ^ Edmonds & Maxwell-Hyslop, pp. 484–6.
  57. ^ a b ACI 1104, 31 May 1916, "Army Council Instructions Issued During May 1916", London: HM Stationery Office, 1916.
  58. ^ Edmonds & Maxwell-Hyslop, pp. 404–5.
  59. ^ Titles & Designations.
  60. ^ Northern Command 3 Sep 1939 at Patriot Files.
  61. ^ a b Farndale, Years of Defeat, Annex B.
  62. ^ Coast Rgts at RA 39–45.
  63. ^ a b c Farndale, Years of Defeat, Annexe H.
  64. ^ a b c Farndale, Years of Defeat, Annexe M.
  65. ^ a b 512 Coast Rgt at RA 39–45.
  66. ^ a b 513 Coast Rgt at RA 39–45.
  67. ^ Ellis, pp. 369, 380.
  68. ^ a b 617 Rgt at RA 39–45.
  69. ^ Joslen, p. 397.
  70. ^ a b c d 413–443 Regiments at British Army units 1945 on
  71. ^ Coast Bdes at British Army units 1945 on
  72. ^ Territorial Army 1947.
  73. ^ Litchfield, Appendix 5.
  74. ^ Litchfield, p. 6.
  75. ^ 129 Rgt RE at Regiments.org.
  76. ^ 72 Rgt RE at Regiments.org.
  77. ^ a b 73 Rgt RE at Regiments.org.

References[edit]

  • Ian F.W. Beckett, Riflemen Form: A Study of the Rifle Volunteer Movement 1859–1908, Aldershot, The Ogilby Trusts, 1982, ISBN 0 85936-271 X.
  • Major L.F. Ellis, "History of the Second World War: United Kingdom Military Series: Victory in the West", Volume II: "The Defeat of Germany", London: HMSO, 1968/Uckfield: Naval & Military, 2004, ISBN 1 845740 59 9.
  • Col John K. Dunlop, The Development of the British Army 1899–1914, London: Methuen, 1938.
  • Brig-Gen Sir James E. Edmonds, History of the Great War: Military Operations, France and Belgium, 1916, Vol I, London: Macmillan,1932/Woking: Shearer, 1986, ISBN 0-946998-02-7.
  • Brig-Gen Sir James E. Edmonds & Lt-Col R. Maxwell-Hyslop, History of the Great War: Military Operations, France and Belgium 1918, Vol V, 26th September–11th November, The Advance to Victory, London: HM Stationery Office, 1947/Imperial War Museum and Battery Press, 1993, ISBN 1-870423-06-2.
  • Gen Sir Martin Farndale, History of the Royal Regiment of Artillery: Western Front 1914–18, Woolwich: Royal Artillery Institution, 1986, ISBN 1-870114-00-0.
  • Gen Sir Martin Farndale, History of the Royal Regiment of Artillery: The Forgotten Fronts and the Home Base 1914–18, Woolwich: Royal Artillery Institution, 1988, ISBN 1-870114-05-1.
  • Gen Sir Martin Farndale, History of the Royal Regiment of Artillery: The Years of Defeat: Europe and North Africa, 1939–1941, Woolwich: Royal Artillery Institution, 1988/London: Brasseys, 1996, ISBN 1-85753-080-2.
  • Gen Sir Aylmer Haldane, A Soldier's Saga, Edinburgh: Blackwood, 1948.
  • Lt-Col H.F. Joslen, Orders of Battle, United Kingdom and Colonial Formations and Units in the Second World War, 1939–1945, London: HM Stationery Office, 1960/Uckfield: Naval & Military, 2003, ISBN 1 84342474 6.
  • Peter H. Liddle (ed), Passchendaele in Perspective: The Third Battle of Ypres, London: Leo Cooper, 1997, ISBN 0-85052-552-7.
  • Norman E.H. Litchfield, The Territorial Artillery 1908–1988 (Their Lineage, Uniforms and Badges), Nottingham: Sherwood Press, 1992, ISBN 0-9508205-2-0.
  • Norman Litchfield & Ray Westlake, The Volunteer Artillery 1859–1908 (Their Lineage, Uniforms and Badges), Nottingham: Sherwood Press, 1982, ISBN 0-9508205-0-4.
  • R.W.S. Norfolk, Militia, Yeomanry and Volunteer Forces of the East Riding 1689–1908, York: East Yorkshire Local History Society, 1965.
  • Edward M. Spiers, The Army and Society 1815–1914, London: Longmans, 1980, ISBN 0-582-48565-7.
  • Titles and Designations of Formations and Units of the Territorial Army, London: War Office, 7 November 1927; RA sections also reprinted in Litchfield Appendix IV.
  • Leon Wolff, In Flanders Fields: The 1917 Campaign, London: Longmans, 1959/Corgi, 1966.
  • Lt-Col Michael Young, Army Service Corps 1902–1918, Barnsley: Leo Cooper, 2000, ISBN 0-85052-730-9.

External sources[edit]