Newmarket Racecourse, which has a capacity of 45,000, is a British Thoroughbred horse racing venue in the town of Newmarket, Suffolk. The racecourse hosts two of the countrys five Classic Races - the 1,000 Guineas and 2,000 Guineas, in total, it hosts 9 of British racings 32 annual Group 1 races. Racing in Newmarket was recorded in the time of James I, charles II was known to attend races on Newmarket Heath with his brother, the future James II. Up until 1744, the two most valuable races run at the course were the Kings Plate and the Town Plate. Two more Plate races were added in year, paid for by local traders. Another paid for by landowners was a race over four miles. At that time, formal races at Newmarket only took place twice a year - once in April, a second Spring meeting was added in 1753. Both are wide, galloping tracks used for Flat racing only, the Rowley Mile Course has a 1 mile 2 furlong straight with minor undulations towards The Bushes, two furlongs out. The penultimate furlong is downhill and the last is uphill, forming The Dip, Races beyond the distance of 1m 2f start on the Cesarewitch or Beacon course which turns right-handed into the straight.
The July Course, called the Summer Course, has a 1 mile straight. After 2 furlongs, there is a downhill stretch before the uphill furlong to the finish. This course uses the Cesarewitch/Beacon course for longer distances, again turning right into the straight, the Rowley Mile is used for racing in the Spring and Autumn, while the July Course is used in Summer. The Rowley Mile has a grass strip used by light aircraft, the Devils Dyke runs past the edge of the July course. About half of the complex, including the July and Cesarewitch/Beacon courses, is actually in the neighbouring county of Cambridgeshire. Historically, there are names that have been given to courses or parts of courses at Newmarket. The Kings Plate was a race run between 1634 and 1765. 52°13′51. 1″N 0°22′56. 1″E 52°14′15″N 0°22′28″E 52°13′47. 5″N 0°21′43. 5″E Whyte, history of the British turf, from the earliest period to the present day, Volume I. Official website Course guide on GG. COM Course guide on At The Races
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
Emergency vehicle equipment in the United Kingdom
Emergency vehicle equipment is used in the United Kingdom to indicate urgent journeys by an emergency service. This usage is known as Blues and twos which refers to the blue lights. A call-out requiring the use of lights and sirens is often known as a blue light run. Each of the services listed above has different policies regarding the use of blue lights. Most require the driver to be trained to a standard in response driving. Provision exists for a standard to be required in order to utilise speed limit exemptions. In the UK, vehicles used for certain purposes may have exemptions from road traffic regulations whilst responding to an emergency. Merely being authorised to use lights and sirens does not of itself grant exemptions from road traffic law
North Weald Airfield
North Weald Airfield is an operational general aviation aerodrome, in the civil parish of North Weald Bassett in Epping Forest, England. It was an important fighter station during the Battle of Britain and it is the home of North Weald Airfield Museum. Although unlicensed it is home to private aircraft and historic types. Royal Flying Corps Station North Weald Bassett aerodrome was established in the summer of 1916 during the First World War by the Royal Flying Corps, it became Royal Air Force with effect from Monday 1 April 1918. Its military functions continued to develop during the period, with the building of large hangars. The airfield played an important part in the air defence strategy of the United Kingdom during the Second World War, initially Hawker Hurricanes were deployed at the airfield, alongside Bristol Blenheim night fighters. The Hurricanes from North Weald saw action over the beaches of Dunkirk, in 1940, two American Eagle Squadrons moved into North Weald supplied with Spitfires.
A couple of later, Norwegian squadrons were reassigned to the airfield. Jet fighter squadrons were based at North Weald from 1949 and the sight of Gloster Meteors, the last front line combat unit, No.111 Squadron RAF flying Hawker Hunters, the famous Black Arrows of 22 loop formation fame, left North Weald in 1958. And, in 1964, the RAF withdrew from the airfield completely, North Weald is a general aviation airfield with just over 20,000 movements per annum, connecting people from London and Essex, with destinations across England and abroad by air travel. Resident organizations include Area 51, Hangar 11 Collection, Aces High, an original 1927 hangar remains, as does the former Officers Mess, a Grade 2 listed building. Some former married quarters dating from the early 1970s can be seen in Lancaster, a Hawker Hurricane Mk1 replica has been erected near the main gate and can be viewed on market days. On occasions North Weald has 300 to 500 movements a day, the airfield was granted listed status in 2005.
There is a large Saturday market based on the airfield which draws crowds from around Essex. It claims to be one of the largest open air markets in the UK, bus service 522 operates a frequent service to the market from Harlow, and the service is subsidised by the company that owns the market. The airfield was used as the camp for the 2007 World Scout Jamboree. In the 1990s, the Aces High hangar was used as the home for Channel 4s TV game show The Crystal Maze, which had moved from Shepperton Studios because of lack of space. There are two FBOs at North Weald who provide aircraft maintenance and repair and cleaning, refuelling and hangarage services, as well as visitor parking and events organising
The Renault Master is an upper-medium size van produced by the French manufacturer Renault since 1980, now in its third generation. It replaced the earlier Saviem SG3 light trucks, Opel has sold versions of the second and third series vans as the Opel Movano in Continental Europe and Vauxhall Movano in the United Kingdom. All three generations have been designed and manufactured by Renault, irrespective of the brand, over its lifetime several different body styles have been available, from the standard van to bigger models with an increased load area and longer-wheelbases with an LWB prefix. Panel vans are common, but pickups are available. Heavier-duty models of the Master was sold by Renault Trucks as the B-series, as the Messenger, the original Renault Master was launched in September 1980. Originally launched with the 2.5 L Fiat-Sofim diesel engine, in rare cases the Master was sold with a 2.0 L or 2.2 L Renault petrol engine. In 1990, a larger version of the Sofim diesel replaced the earlier version.
The smaller Renault Trafic was launched in 1980 resulting in a range of light commercial vehicles. The Master was distinctively styled with the door design and unusual round door handles similar to those of the Fiat Ritmo/Strada. The van was manufactured at Renaults new SoVAB Batilly plant in northeastern France, an alternative heavier duty version which appeared almost identical, was sold by Renault Trucks as the Renault B70 to B120. It first appeared as the 70 PS B70 and as the 80 PS B80 in late 1982 and it was a light truck with a Renault Master I body on a separate chassis, rear wheel-drive and rear dual wheels. The B-series was offered with a range of body options. As the Master both carried manufacturers plates from Renaults automobile division, RVIs production numbers appeared to plummet as the SG2 and it was thus decided in 1982 to transfer the new, heavier B-series range to RVI. More powerful versions were added, incorporating turbochargers and intercooling. Although a 4x4 version of the B90 took part in the Paris Dakar Rally in 1987, the version of the B90 4x4 truck was unveiled in 1990 only.
In 1993, the B series had a change and was renamed Messenger. The Master used the Renault S-Type engine in S9U and S8W/S9W versions, the G-Type engine, displacements available included 2.2,2.5, and 2.8 litres with a range of power outputs. The van received a major facelift in Q42003, with the headlight area being heavily restyled
Essex /ˈɛsᵻks/ is a county in England immediately north-east of London. It borders the counties of Suffolk and Cambridgeshire to the north, Hertfordshire to the west, Kent across the estuary of the River Thames to the south, the county town is Chelmsford, which is the only city in the county. Essex occupies the part of the old Kingdom of Essex, before this. As well as areas, the county includes London Stansted Airport, the new towns of Basildon and Harlow, Lakeside Shopping Centre, the port of Tilbury. Originally recorded in AD527, Essex occupied territory to the north of the River Thames, incorporating all of what became Middlesex and its territory was restricted to lands east of the River Lea. In changes before the Norman conquest the East Saxons were subsumed into the Kingdom of England and, following the Norman conquest, Essex became a county. During the medieval period, much of the area was designated a Royal forest, including the county in a period to 1204. Gradually, the subject to forest law diminished, but at various times included the forests of Becontree, Epping, Ongar.
County-wide administration Essex County Council was formed in 1889, however County Boroughs of West Ham, Southend-on-Sea and East Ham formed part of the county but were unitary authorities. 12 boroughs and districts provide more localised services such as rubbish and recycling collections and planning, parish-level administration – changes A few Essex parishes have been transferred to other counties. Before 1889, small areas were transferred to Hertfordshire near Bishops Stortford, Essex became part of the East of England Government Office Region in 1994 and was statistically counted as part of that region from 1999, having previously been part of the South East England region. Two unitary authorities In 1998 the boroughs of Southend-on-Sea and Thurrock were granted autonomy from the county of Essex after successful requests to become unitary authorities. Essex Police covers the county and the two unitary authorities. The county council chamber and main headquarters is at the County Hall in Chelmsford, before 1938 the council regularly met in London near Moorgate, which with significant parts closer to that point and the dominance of railways had been more convenient than any place in the county.
It currently has 75 elected councillors, before 1965, the number of councillors reached over 100. The highest point of the county of Essex is Chrishall Common near the village of Langley, close to the Hertfordshire border, the pattern of settlement in the county is diverse. Epping Forest acts as a barrier to the further spread of London. Part of the southeast of the county, already containing the population centres of Basildon and Thurrock, is within the Thames Gateway
Norfolk /ˈnɔːrfək/ is a county in East Anglia in England. It borders Lincolnshire to the west and north-west, Cambridgeshire to the west and southwest and its northern and eastern boundaries are the North Sea and, to the north-west, The Wash. With an area of 2,074 square miles and a population of 859,400, of the countys population, 40% live in four major built up areas, Great Yarmouth, Kings Lynn and Thetford. The Broads is a network of rivers and lakes in the east of the county, the area is not a National Park although it is marketed as such. It has similar status to a park, and is protected by the Broads Authority. Norfolk was settled in times, with camps along the higher land in the west. A Brythonic tribe, the Iceni, inhabited the county from the 1st century BC to the end of the 1st century AD, the Iceni revolted against the Roman invasion in AD47, and again in 60 led by Boudica. The crushing of the second opened the county to the Romans. During the Roman era roads and ports were constructed throughout the county, situated on the east coast, Norfolk was vulnerable to invasions from Scandinavia and Northern Europe, and forts were built to defend against the Angles and Saxons.
Norfolk and several adjacent areas became the kingdom of East Anglia, the influence of the Early English settlers can be seen in the many place names ending in -ton and -ham. Endings such as -by and -thorpe are common, indicating Danish place names, in the 9th century the region came under attack. In the centuries before the Norman Conquest the wetlands of the east of the county began to be converted to farmland, and settlements grew in these areas. Migration into East Anglia must have high, by the time of the Domesday Book survey it was one of the most densely populated parts of the British Isles. During the high and late Middle Ages the county developed arable agriculture, the economy was in decline by the time of the Black Death, which dramatically reduced the population in 1349. During the English Civil War Norfolk was largely Parliamentarian, the economy and agriculture of the region declined somewhat. During the Industrial Revolution Norfolk developed little industry except in Norwich which was an addition to the railway network.
In the 20th century the county developed a role in aviation, during the Second World War agriculture rapidly intensified, and it has remained very intensive since, with the establishment of large fields for growing cereals and oilseed rape. Norfolks low-lying land and easily eroded cliffs, many of which are chalk and clay, make it vulnerable to the sea, the low-lying section of coast between Kelling and Lowestoft Ness in Suffolk is currently managed by the Environment Agency to protect the Broads from sea flooding
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain.
The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
National Health Service
The National Health Service is the name of the public health services of England and Wales, and is commonly used to refer to those of Northern Ireland. They were established together as one of the social reforms following the Second World War on the founding principles of being comprehensive, universal. Today, each provides a range of health services, the vast majority of which are free for people ordinarily resident in the United Kingdom. Taken together, the four National Health Services in 2015-16 employed around 1.6 million people with a budget of £136.7 billion. For non-residents, the NHS is free at the time of use, for general practitioner, the NHS began on the Appointed Day of 5 July 1948. This put into practice Westminster legislation for England and Wales from 1946 and Scotland from 1947, when Clement Attlees Labour Party won the 1945 election he appointed Aneurin Bevan as Health Minister. Bevan embarked upon what the historian of the NHS, Charles Webster. Three years after the founding of the NHS, Bevan resigned from the Labour government in opposition to the introduction of charges for the provision of dentures and glasses, the following year, Winston Churchills Conservative government introduced prescription charges.
These charges were the first of many controversies over reforms to the NHS throughout its history, each of the UKs four nations have their own separate NHS, each with its own history. From its earliest days, the history of the NHS has shown its place in British society reflected and debated in film, TV, cartoons. However, some functions might be performed by one health service on behalf of another. There have been issues about cross-border payments, taken together, the four National Health Services in 2015-16 employed around 1.6 million people with a combined budget of £136.7 billion. In 2014 the total health sector workforce across the UK was 2,165,043 and this broke down into 1,789,586 in England,198,368 in Scotland,110,292 in Wales and 66,797 in Northern Ireland. The NHS is free at the time of use, for general practitioner and emergency treatment not including admission to hospital, people with the right to medical care in European Economic Area nations are entitled to free treatment by using the European Health Insurance Card.
Those from other countries with which the UK has reciprocal arrangements qualify for free treatment, people not ordinarily resident in the UK are in general not entitled to free hospital treatment, with some exceptions such as refugees. People not ordinarily resident may be subject to an interview to establish their eligibility, patients who do not qualify for free treatment are asked to pay in advance, or to sign a written undertaking to pay, except for emergency treatment. The provision of treatment to non-UK-residents, formerly interpreted liberally, has been increasingly restricted. As of 2016 the surcharge was £200 per year, with exemptions and reductions in some cases, the systems are 98. 8% funded from general taxation and National Insurance contributions, plus small amounts from patient charges for some services
London's Air Ambulance
Londons Air Ambulance, known as London HEMS, is a British registered charity that operates an air medical service dedicated to responding to serious trauma emergencies in and around London. Using helicopters by day and road vehicles by night, it functions as an emergency department in life-threatening. The charity was the first in the UK to carry a doctor in addition to a paramedic at all times on a helicopter. Missions commonly involve serious road traffic collisions, falls from height and shootings, the team can provide advanced life-saving medical interventions, including open heart surgery, blood transfusion and anaesthesia, at the scene. The charity operates 24 hours a day, serving the 10 million people who live, work, of up to 5,000999 ambulance calls made every day in London, up to seven of the most critical are passed to the air ambulance. Londons Air Ambulance has been at the forefront of innovation in pre-hospital emergency medical care since its inception in 1989, the service has adopted elements of medical and aviation culture to deliver the highest standards in intensive care to the roadside.
The governance system and Standard Operating Procedures developed by the organisation are seen as a benchmark for other air ambulances across the world, London sees some of the highest level of trauma in the world and the service is internationally renowned for clinical excellence and pioneering procedures. Innovations introduced by the service can dramatically increase patient’s chances of survival, London’s Air Ambulance was the first service in the world to perform open heart surgery at the roadside. The service has the world’s highest survival rates from this procedure in pre-hospital environment, in 2014 Londons Air Ambulance performed the first pre-hospital Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta in the world. Key treatments further include surgical chest draining and non-surgical Rapid Sequence Induction, pelvic splinting, advanced pain relief, the service started a trial of a portable brain scanner which can detect blood clots on the brain in April 2015. The current helicopters used are two McDonnell Douglas MD902 Explorer aircraft, registration G-EHMS, and G-LNDN and they are notable as they do not use a tail-rotor.
This is a feature, as the helicopter must routinely land in confined inner city areas. The helicopters usually cruise at 130 knots, at an altitude of 1,500 ft, a regular fuel load, around 400 kg, allows for one hours flying time. Although the MD902 Explorer is a model aircraft than its predecessor. MD902 Explorer helicopter G-EHMS entered service in October 2000, replacing the earlier SA 365N Dauphin, a specialised refrigerator installed in the helicopter allows the transport of four units of the universal O-negative blood type which can be stored in the aircraft for up to 72 hours. In 2015 Londons Air Ambulance service launched an appeal to raise £6,000,000 to purchase, equip. Of the total needed, just over £4,000,000 represented the purchase price of the aircraft, in January 2016 Londons Air Ambulance took delivery of the second MD902 Explorer, registration G-LNDN. This was in due to a £2,000,000 donation by London Freemasons
Land Rover Freelander
The Land Rover Freelander is a compact sport utility vehicle which was produced by the British manufacturer Land Rover, in both two-wheel and four-wheel drive versions, from 1997 to 2014. The second generation, launched in 2007, was sold as the LR2 in North America and it uses a monocoque structure, in common with almost all other crossovers in its class, but unlike traditional SUVs built with body-on-frame designs. The Freelander was replaced by the Discovery Sport in 2015, market research by the Rover Group in the late 1980s suggested that Land Rover could enter the compact SUV market segment. In the early 1990s, the Rover Group had a product development budget and looked for a partner to develop the project. Rovers then-partner Honda declined and chose to develop its own CR-V model that was launched in 1997, Rover decided to go it alone with the CB40, using existing parts and components, as it had done with the MGF roadster. When BMW took over Rover Group in 1994, the CB40 project received the capital it needed to proceed, in December 2007, Autocar reported that early development designs and sketches of the Freelander featured Hyundai badging, suggesting that a tie up between both manufacturers was being proposed.
The design of the Freelander was by Gerry McGovern, who went on become the head of design at Land Rover in 2007, the Freelander was launched in October 1997. It became Europes best-selling four-wheel drive model until 2002, the last Freelanders in North America were sold as 2005 models. There were a variety of models, based around five-door estate and three-door softback, hardback, in 2004, Land Rover introduced an improved and upgraded version of the Mark I, changes included a new interior and major external revisions, including a new face and rear. The three-door model was available in E, S, SE, Sport and Sport Premium trim, the Automatic Tiptronic gearbox was available as an option on the Td4. The first generation Freelander was used in the 1998 Camel Trophy, the vehicle represented a compromise because it did not have a low-range gear selection, nor a locking differential, as found on larger Land Rover models. This meant that in comparison to other Land Rovers, off-road performance was not as good and this first generation used a Traction Control system and a special version of ABS produced by Wabco and modified to assist driving in off-road situations.
Lack of the MG Rover K18 and KV6 engines after the end of the MG Rover production led Land Rover to discontinue the model on 31 August 2005 in the U. S. the second generation named the Freelander 2 debuted at the 2006 British International Motor Show. While the new model retained the Freelander name in Europe, it was marketed as LR2 in North America, a presentation at the Kensington Roof Gardens was held for journalists featuring celebrity tennis player Maria Sharapova. Production ceased at the end of 2014, the second generation Freelander is based on the Ford EUCD platform, which itself is based on the Ford C1 platform. The Ford EUCD platform will be used by more upcoming vehicles from Volvo, the new Freelander features higher ground clearance and off-road capabilities that are closer to other Land Rover models. It has improved quality interior with more safety features as standard, the Freelander 2 features a modified version of the Terrain Response off-road driving system as fitted to the Discovery 3 and the Range Rover.
The 4WD system was developed in conjunction with Haldex and was called Third generation coupling, vehicles from the 2009 model year are fitted with a modified design of the active on-demand coupling, known as Haldexs Fourth generation