Eastbourne is a town, seaside resort and borough in the non-metropolitan county of East Sussex on the south coast of England, 19 miles east of Brighton. Eastbourne is to the east of Beachy Head, the highest chalk sea cliff in Great Britain and part of the larger Eastbourne Downland Estate. With a seafront consisting of Victorian hotels, a pier and a Napoleonic era fort and military museum, Eastbourne was developed at the direction of the Duke of Devonshire from 1859 from four separate hamlets, it has a growing population, a broad economic base and is home to companies in a wide range of industries. Though Eastbourne is a new town, there is evidence of human occupation in the area from the Stone Age; the town grew as a fashionable tourist resort thanks to prominent landowner, William Cavendish to become the Duke of Devonshire. Cavendish appointed architect Henry Currey to design a street plan for the town, but not before sending him to Europe to draw inspiration; the resulting mix of architecture is Victorian and remains a key feature of Eastbourne.
As a seaside resort Eastbourne derives a large and increasing income from tourism, with revenue from traditional seaside attractions augmented by conferences, public events and cultural sightseeing. The other main industries in Eastbourne include trade and retail, education, manufacturing, professional scientific and the technical sector. Eastbourne's population is growing; the 2011 census shows that the average age of residents has decreased as the town has attracted students and those commuting to London and Brighton. Flint mines and Stone Age artefacts have been found in the surrounding countryside of the Eastbourne Downs. Celtic people are believed to have settled on the Eastbourne Downland in 500BC. There are Roman remains buried beneath the town, such as a Roman bath and section of pavement between Eastbourne Pier and the Redoubt Fortress. There is a Roman villa near the entrance to the Pier and the present Queens Hotel. In 2014, skeletal remains of a woman who lived around 425AD were discovered in the vicinity of Beachy Head on the Eastbourne Downland Estate.
The remains were found to be of a 30-year-old woman who grew up in East Sussex, but had genetic heritage from sub-Saharan Africa, giving her black skin and an African skeletal structure. Her ancestors came from below the Saharan region, at a time when the Roman Empire extended only as far as North Africa. An Anglo-Saxon charter, circa 963 AD, describes a landing stream at Burne; the original name came from the'Burne' or stream which ran through today's Old Town area of Eastbourne. All that can be seen of the Burne, or Bourne, is the small pond in Motcombe Gardens; the bubbling source is guarded by a statue of Neptune. Motcombe Gardens are overlooked by St. Mary's Church, a Norman church which lies on the site of a Saxon ‘moot’, or meeting place; this gives Motcombe its name. In 2014 local metal-detectorist Darrin Simpson found a coin minted during the reign of Æthelberht II of East Anglia, in a field near the town, it is believed that the coin may have led to Æthelberht's beheading by Offa of Mercia, as it had been struck as a sign of independence.
Describing the coin, expert Christopher Webb, said, "This new discovery is an important and unexpected addition to the numismatic history of 8th century England." Following the Norman conquest, the Hundred of what is now Eastbourne, was held by Robert, Count of Mortain, William the Conqueror's half brother. The Domesday Book lists 28 ploughlands, a church, a watermill and salt pans; the Book referred to the area as'Borne'.'East' was added to ‘Borne’ in the 13th century, renaming the town. A charter for a weekly market was granted to Bartholomew de Badlesmere in 1315–16. During the Middle Ages the town was visited by King Henry I and in 1324 by Edward II. Evidence of Eastbourne's medieval past can seen in the 12th century Church of St Mary, the manor house called Bourne Place. In the mid-16th century Bourne Place was home to the Burton family, who acquired much of the land on which the present town stands; this manor house is owned by the Duke of Devonshire and was extensively remodelled in the early Georgian era when it was renamed Compton Place.
It is one of the two Grade I listed buildings in the town. Eastbourne has Cornish connections, most notably visible in the Cornish high cross in the churchyard of St Mary's Church, brought from an unspecified location in Cornwall. In 1752, a dissertation by Doctor Richard Russell extolled the medicinal benefits of the seaside, his views were of considerable benefit to the south coast and, in due course, Eastbourne became known as "the Empress of Watering Places". Eastbourne's earliest claim as a seaside resort came about following a summer holiday visit by four of King George III's children in 1780. In 1793, following a survey of coastal defences in the southeast, approval was given for the positioning of infantry and artillery to defend the bay between Beachy Head and Hastings from attack by the French. Fourteen Martello Towers were constructed along the western shore of Pevensey Bay, continuing as far as Tower 73, the Wish Tower at Eastbourne. Several of these towers survive: the Wish Tower is an important feature of the town's seafront and was the subject of a painting by James Sant RA, part of Tower 68 forms the basement of a house on St. Antony's Hill.
Between 1805 and 1807, the construction took place of a fortress known as the Eastbourne Redoubt, built as a barracks and storage depot, armed with 10
Billie Jean King
Billie Jean King is an American former World No. 1 professional tennis player. King won 39 Grand Slam titles: 12 in singles, 16 in women's doubles, 11 in mixed doubles, she won the singles title at the inaugural WTA Tour Championships. She represented the United States in the Federation Cup and the Wightman Cup, she was a member of the victorious United States team in seven Federation Cups and nine Wightman Cups. For three years, she was the United States' captain in the Federation Cup. King has long been a pioneer for equality and social justice. In 1973, at age 29, she won the "Battle of the Sexes" tennis match against the 55-year-old Bobby Riggs, she was the founder of the Women's Tennis Association and the Women's Sports Foundation. She was instrumental in persuading cigarette brand Virginia Slims to sponsor women's tennis in the 1970s and went on to serve on the board of their parent company Philip Morris in the 2000s. Regarded by many in the sport as one of the greatest tennis players of all time, King was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame in 1987.
The Fed Cup Award of Excellence was bestowed on her in 2010. In 1972, she was the joint winner, with John Wooden, of the Sports Illustrated Sportsman of the Year award and was one of the Time Persons of the Year in 1975, she has received the Presidential Medal of Freedom and the Sunday Times Sportswoman of the Year lifetime achievement award. She was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame in 1990, in 2006, the USTA National Tennis Center in New York City was renamed the USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center. In 2018, she won the BBC Sports Personality of the Year Lifetime Achievement Award. Billie Jean Moffitt was born in Long Beach, into a conservative Methodist family, the daughter of Betty, a housewife, Bill Moffitt, a firefighter, her family was athletic. Her younger brother, Randy Moffitt, became a Major League Baseball pitcher, pitching for 12 years in the major leagues for the San Francisco Giants, Houston Astros, Toronto Blue Jays, she excelled at baseball and softball as a child, playing shortstop at 10 years old on a team with girls 4–5 years older than her.
The team went on to win the Long Beach softball championship. She switched from softball to tennis at age 11, because her parents suggested she should find a more ladylike sport, she saved her own money – $8 – to buy her first racket. She learned tennis on the many free public courts in Long Beach, taking advantage of the free lessons tennis professional Clyde Walker offered at those courts. One of the city's tennis facilities has subsequently been named the Billie Jean Moffitt King Tennis Center; as a kid playing in her first tennis tournaments, she was hindered by her aggressive playing style. Bob Martin, sportswriter for the Long Beach, Press-Telegram wrote about her success in a weekly tennis column, she attended Long Beach Polytechnic High School. After graduating, she attended Los Angeles, she did not graduate. While attending Cal State, she met Larry King in a library; the pair became engaged while still in school when Billie Jean was 20 and Larry 19 years old and married on September 17, 1965 in Long Beach.
King's triumph at the French Open in 1972 made her only the fifth woman in tennis history to win the singles titles at all four Grand Slam events, a "career Grand Slam." She won a career Grand Slam in mixed doubles. In women's doubles, only the Australian Open eluded her. King won a record 20 career titles at Wimbledon – six in singles, 10 in women's doubles, four in mixed doubles. King played 51 Grand Slam singles events from 1959 through 1983, reaching at least the semifinals in 27 and at least the quarterfinals in 40 of her attempts. King was the runner-up in six Grand Slam singles events. An indicator of her mental toughness in Grand Slam singles tournaments was her 11–2 career record in deuce third sets, i.e. third sets that were tied 5–5 before being resolved. King won 129 singles titles, 78 of which were WTA titles, her career prize money totaled US$1,966,487. In Federation Cup finals, she was on the winning United States team seven times, in 1963, 1966, 1967, 1976 through 1979, her career win–loss record was 52–4.
She doubles. In Wightman Cup competition, her career win -- loss record was 22 -- 4; the United States won the cup ten of the 11 years. In singles, King was 6–1 against Ann Haydon-Jones, 4–0 against Virginia Wade, 1–1 against Christine Truman Janes; as King began competing in 1959, she began working with new coaches including Frank Brennan and Alice Marble, who had won 18 Grand Slam titles as a player herself. She made her Grand Slam debut at the 1959 U. S. Championships at age 15, she lost in the first round. She began playing at local and international tennis championships. Sports Illustrated claimed her as "one of the most promising youngsters on the West Coast." She won her first tournament the next year in Philadelphia at the 1960 Philadelphia and District Grass Court Championships. At her second attempt at the U. S. Championships, King made it to the third round. In 1960, she reached the final of the National Girl's 18 and Under Championships, losing to Karen Hantze Susmen, her national tennis ranking improved from number 19 in 1959 to number 4 1960.
Despite the success, Marble terminated her professional relationship with King because for reasons stemming from King's ambi
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Caroline Wozniacki is a Danish professional tennis player. She is a former world No. 1 in singles, the 20th in the Open Era, the first woman from a Scandinavian country to hold the top ranking position. She finished on top of the rankings in both 2010 and 2011, she has won 30 WTA singles titles, including six in 2010 and 2011, the most in a year by a WTA player from 2008–2011. She was runner-up at the 2009 US Open and the 2010 WTA Tour Championships to Kim Clijsters, at the 2014 US Open to Serena Williams, she won the 2006 Wimbledon girls' singles title and holds two WTA titles in doubles. In 2008, Wozniacki won the title of WTA Newcomer of the Year. In 2017, she won the season-ending WTA Finals in Singapore for the first time in her career. Wozniacki won her maiden Grand Slam title at the 2018 Australian Open and returned to the No. 1 ranking on 29 January 2018. Wozniacki was born in Odense, the daughter of Polish immigrants, Piotr Woźniacki and Anna. Anna played on the Polish women's national volleyball team, Piotr played professional football.
The couple moved to Denmark when Piotr signed for the Danish football club Boldklubben 1909. Her older brother, Patrik Wozniacki, is a former professional footballer in Denmark. Wozniacki's playing style centres on "the defensive aspects of tennis with her anticipation, agility and speed all first-rate and key parts of her game." She anticipates serves with aggressive footwork. Her two-handed backhand is one of her best weapons as she is capable of turning defence into offence, most notably the backhand down-the-line, her defensive playing style has her contemporaries label her a counter-puncher. Wozniacki's father, has been her primary coach since she was 14. Throughout the years, she was coached by Sven Groeneveld through the Adidas Player Development Program, she was coached by Ricardo Sanchez and Thomas Johansson. In October 2013, she hired Thomas Högstedt, but parted ways in January 2014. In the same month, she hired Michael Mortensen, but cut ties with him in March 2014. Since Wozniacki has decided to be coached again by her father Piotr for the rest of her career.
In 2009, Wozniacki signed on to become an endorser for the line of tennis apparel designed by Stella McCartney for Adidas. She wore her first'Adidas by Stella McCartney' tennis dress at the 2009 US Open, she has partnership agreements with Babolat, Adidas, USANA, The Players' Tribune and Mundipharma. On 20 December 2010, she signed a three-year deal to endorse Turkish Airlines' business class service. In 2012, Wozniacki became an endorser of Compeed BlisterPatch. At the end of 2013 she switched her racquet sponsorship from Yonex back to her long-time partner Babolat. In 2015, Wozniacki became an endorser of Godiva Chocolatier. In 2018 she entered into a partnership with a healthy lifestyle motivation app. According to the June 2011 edition of SportsPro, Wozniacki is the world's ninth-most marketable athlete. According to Forbes in 2011, Wozniacki was the second-highest-earning female athlete in the world. Wozniacki won several junior tournaments including the Orange Bowl tennis championship, she made her debut on the WTA Tour at Cincinnati's Western & Southern Financial Group Women's Open on 19 July 2005, losing to the top-seeded and eventual champion Patty Schnyder in the first round.
In the Nordea Nordic Light Open, her other WTA tournament of the year, she lost to Martina Suchá in the first round. In 2006 she was the top seed at the Australian Open, but lost the final to eighth-seeded Anastasia Pavlyuchenkova, she was seeded second with partner Anna Tatishvili in the doubles tournament, but the pair was knocked out in the semifinals by the French-Italian pair of Alizé Cornet and Corinna Dentoni, who were seeded 8th. In February at the Memphis, she reached her first WTA Tour quarterfinal, beating Kristina Brandi and Ashley Harkleroad before losing to third-seeded Sofia Arvidsson of Sweden. Before Wimbledon Wozniacki won the Liverpool International Tennis Tournament, an exhibition tournament, beating Ashley Harkleroad in the final; that year she was given a wildcard to the qualifying draw at Wimbledon, where she was beaten in the first round by Miho Saeki. However, Wozniacki went on to win the Wimbledon girls' singles tournament, beating Slovak Magdaléna Rybáriková in the finals.
In August, she reached another WTA Tour quarterfinal, this time at the Nordea Nordic Light Open in Stockholm. She defeated top-100 players Iveta Benešová and Eleni Daniilidou lost to eventual champion and third-seeded Zheng Jie. Wozniacki was seeded second in the US Open girls' singles. In the first round, she won the first set against Russian Alexandra Panova, but was disqualified in the second set for verbally abusing an umpire. Wozniacki was said to have used an expletive in referring to a linesman. However, on her blog, she claimed to have said "take your sunglasses of " and was mistaken for talking to the linesman, when she in fact was criticizing herself after the next point. In her last junior tournament, the Osaka Mayor's Cup, she doubles, her first title on the senior tour came in October when she won the $25,000 tournament in Istanbul by beating Tatjana Malek in the final. Wozniacki was set to face Venus Williams on 27 November in an exhibition match in Copenhagen, but five days before the event, Williams canceled because of an injury.
The two did, face each other in the Memphis WTA Tier III event on 20 February. Williams beat Wozniacki. On 29 November Wozniacki was named ambassador for Danish Junior Tennis by the Culture Minister of Denmark at the time, Brian M
Luke Bambridge is a British tennis player. He is a doubles specialist who reached a career-high Association of Tennis Professionals world No. 44 doubles ranking on 4 March 2019. His career highlights include winning two ATP Tour titles, 7 ATP Challenger Tour titles, 20 ITF doubles titles and 1 ITF singles title. Great Britain won the 2011 Junior Davis Cup tournament for the first time after beating Italy in the final in San Luis Potosí, Mexico. Coached by Greg Rusedski, the team of Bambridge, Kyle Edmund, Evan Hoyt justified their top seeding in the event. Bambridge won four ITF doubles tournaments with different partners in Great Britain and Greece. Seven more ITF doubles tournament wins by Bambridge in 2014, five with Liam Broady as his partner. Bambridge received a wildcard into the 2015 Wimbledon Championships men's doubles event, partnering Liam Broady where he made his grand slam debut. 2015 was the year in which Bambridge won his first singles ITF tournament at the Qatar F4 Futures. Current through the 2019 U.
S. Men's Clay Court Championships. Luke Bambridge at the Association of Tennis Professionals Luke Bambridge at the International Tennis Federation
Devonshire Park Lawn Tennis Club
The Devonshire Park Lawn Tennis Club is a tennis complex in Eastbourne, United Kingdom. The complex is the host of the annual ATP and WTA Tour tournament called the Nature Valley International; the stadium court has a capacity of 8,000 people. The Devonshire Park intended as a cricket ground, opened its gates to the public on 1 July 1874 and in 1879, the first tennis courts was marked out on its prestigious lawns. In 1877 the All England Croquet and Lawn Tennis Club set about regularising the laws of lawn tennis and produced its first tournament at Wimbledon running from July 9–16 of that year. In 1881 the club staged the inaugural South of England Championships, the event was played annually for 136 years until 1972. In June 2016 the Lawn Tennis Association and the Eastbourne council announced a £44m project to upgrade the park including a show court and new practice courts. List of tennis stadiums by capacity Official site Roller Skates and Rackets: EBC 1999