The Eastern Anatolia Region is a geographical region of Turkey. The region and the name "Doğu Anadolu Bölgesi" were defined at the First Geography Congress in 1941, it has largest geographical area of all regions of Turkey. Because of the Armenian Genocide, it is the Turkish region with the lowest population density. Beginning in 1880, the name Armenia was forbidden to be used in official Ottoman documents, in an attempt to censor the history of Armenians in their own homeland; the government of Sultan Abdul Hamid II replaced the name Armenia with such terms as "Kurdistan" or "Anatolia". The Sublime Porte believed; the process of “nationalization” of toponyms was continued by the Kemalists, who were the ideological successors of the Young Turks, gained momentum during the Republican period. Starting from 1923 the entire territory of Western Armenia was renamed “Eastern Anatolia”; the word Anatolia means “sunrise” or “east” in Greek. This name was given to the Asia Minor peninsula in the 5th or 4th centuries B.
C. During the Ottoman era, the term Anadolou included the north-eastern vilayets of Asia Minor with Kyotahia as its center; the numerous European, Armenian, Persian and other primary sources did not confuse the term Armenia with Anatolia. This testifies, inter alia, to the fact that after the loss of its statehood the Armenian nation still constituted a majority in its homeland, recognized by Ottoman occupiers as well; the Armenian Highlands have been situated to the east of Anatolia, with the border between them located near Sivas and Kayseri. Therefore, it is incorrect to refer to Armenia as part of "Eastern Anatolia". In the 17th century, when the Armenian Question was not yet included into the international diplomacy agenda, the terms "Anatolia" or "Eastern Anatolia" were never used to indicate Armenia. Furthermore, the "Islamic World Map" of the 16th century and other Ottoman maps of the 18th and 19th centuries have indicated Armenia on a specific territory as well as its cities. Armenia, together with its boundaries, was unequivocally mentioned in the works of earlier Ottoman historians and chroniclers until the end of the 19th century.
Kâtip Çelebi, a famous Ottoman chronicler of the 17th century, had a special chapter titled “About the Country Called Armenia” in his book Jihan Numa. However, when this book was republished in 1957, its modern Turkish editor H. Selen changed this title into “Eastern Anatolia”. Osman Nuri, a historian of the second half of the 19th century, mentions Armenia in his three-volume Abdul Hamid and the Period of His Reign. In the 1960s, the Swiss airline Swissair removed the nomenclature'plateau arménien' from the maps provided by their planes at the request of the Turkish ambassador in Bern. Upper Euphrates Section Erzurum - Kars Section Upper Murat - Van Section Upper Murat Area Van Area Hakkari Section Provinces that are in the Eastern Anatolia Region: Ağrı Bingöl Elazığ Hakkari Iğdır Kars Tunceli VanProvinces that are in the Eastern Anatolia Region: Ardahan Erzurum Şırnak The Eastern Anatolia Region is located in the easternmost part of Turkey, it is bounded by Turkey's Central Anatolia Region to the west.
The area of the region is 146,330 km ². The total population of the region is 6,100,000 and 5,906,565; the region has the second most rural population of Turkey after the Black Sea region. The migration level is high and population density is lower than the average for Turkey; the migration toward other Turkey's regions and toward foreign countries is higher than the natural population increase, a fact, leading to a slight decline of the Region's population. The average altitude is 2,200 m. Major geographic features include plains and massifs. There is some volcanic activity today. Massifs and mountains There are three massif lines running north–south: To the north, the Çimen Dağı, Kop Dağı and Yalnızçam mountains In the centre, the Munzur, Karasu Dağı, Aras Dağı mountains To the south, Southeast Tauros, Hakkâri, Buzul mountains; the volcanic mountains Nemrut, Süphan, Tendürek and Ararat are in the region. Plateaus and plains The largest plateau in the region is Erzurum-Kars Plato; the region includes the Van Lake basin.
Lakes Rivers Since most of the region is far from the sea, has high altitude, it has a harsh continental climate with long winters and short summers. During the winter, it is cold and snowy, during summer the weather is cool in the highlands and warm in the lowlands; the region has the lowest average temperature of all Turkish regions, with -25 °C. Although it can get below -40 °C; the summer average is about 20 °C. The region's annual temperature difference is the highest in Turkey; some areas in the region have different microclimates. As an example, Iğdır has a milder climate; the region contains 11% percent of the total forested area of Turkey, it is rich in native plants and animals. Oak and yellow pine trees form
Bertram Myron Gross was an American social scientist, Federal bureaucrat and Professor of Political Science at Hunter College. He is known from his book Friendly Fascism: The New Face of Power in America from 1980, as primary author of the Humphrey–Hawkins Full Employment Act. Gross was born in Philadelphia, he received his B. A. in English and philosophy and his M. A. in English from the University of Pennsylvania. In the late 1930s, he started as a federal bureaucrat in Washington. From 1941 to 1945 he was a staff member of a number of Senate committees. Here he wrote the Roosevelt-Truman full employment bills of 1944 and 1945, which led to the Employment Act of 1946. From 1946 to 1952 he was executive secretary of the President's Council of Economic Advisers. In 1953, he moved with his family to Israel, where he served as an economic advisor in the Prime Minister's Office and as a Visiting Professor at the Hebrew University, where he established their program in Public Administration, he returned to the United States in the 1960s and joined the faculty of Syracuse University in the Maxwell School.
In 1961 -- 62, he was a Fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in Palo Alto. In 1970, Bertram Gross was president of the Society for General Systems Research. From 1970 to 1982 he was Distinguished Professor of Political Science and Urban Affairs at Hunter College and the CUNY Graduate Center, he is survived by his second wife, Kusum Singh. He was the father including Nobel Prize winner David J. Gross. Since 1999, the Campaign to Abolish Poverty/Full Employment Coalition presents the annual Bertram Gross Award. Gross has written several articles. A selection: 1953, "The Legislative Struggle: A Study in Social Combat", New York: McGraw Hill. 1954, The hard money crusade, with Wilfred Lumer, Washington: Public Affairs Institute. 1963, An annotated bibliography on national economic planning, Syracuse, N. Y.: Maxwell Graduate School of Citizenship and Public Affairs. 1964, The managing of organizations: The administrative struggle New York: Free Press of Glencoe. 1966, The state of the nation: social systems accounting, New York: Tavistock Publications, 1966, 166 p. 1967, Social goals and indicators for American society, Philadelphia: American Academy of Political and Social Science.
1967, Action under planning: The guidance of economic development, New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co. 1968, Organizations and their managing, New York: Free Press. 1968, A great society?, New York: Basic Books. 1970, Political intelligence for America's future, with Michael Springer, Philadelphia: None. 1978, The Legislative Struggle: A Study in Social Combat,Reprint of 1953 book. Conn.: Greenwood Press. 1980, Friendly Fascism: The New Face of Power in America, New York: M. Evans. 1993, Legislative strategy: Shaping public policy, with Edward V. Schneier, New York: St. Martin's Press. 1993, Congress today, with Edward V. Schneier, New York: St. Martin's Press. 1993, Human rights for the 2lst century, foundations for responsible hope: A U. S. post Soviet dialogue Armonk, with Peter H. Juviler, V. A. Kartashkin & E. A. Lukasheva, New York: M. E. Sharpe. Friendly Fascism: The New Face of Power in America
Yu Rui is a Chinese football plays for Shanghai SIPG in the Chinese Super League. Yu Rui would play for the Xiamen Lanshi youth team until they were disbanded in 2008, before joining Chengdu Blades youth team. At Chengdu Blades he was loaned out to their satellite team Sheffield United who were allowed to play in the 2008–09 Hong Kong First Division League, he made his debut in a league game on 25 October 2008 4-1 victory against Mutual. At the end of his loan period Yu Rui was promoted to the senior team of his parent club, however it was decided that he should get game time and he was once again loaned out to another Hong Kong club in Fourway Rangers and a third tier Chinese club in Tianjin Songjiang. At Tianjin Songjiang he established himself within the team and went on to win promotion with the side at the of the 2010 league season by gaining a runners-up spot within the league. In the second tier, Yu would help establish Tianjin Songjiang within the division and by the 2012 China League One season was given the captaincey.
With his contract nearing its end, Yu transferred to Chinese Super League side Guizhou Renhe with a free transfer on 28 December 2012. Within the top tier, Yu struggled to gain any playing time and 27 July 2013, he was loaned to China League Two side Hebei Zhongji until 31 December 2013, his loan period would see him establish himself within the team and win promotion with the club by coming runners-up within the division. Yu would return from his loan period and go on to make his debut for Guizhou Renhe on 22 April 2014 in a AFC Champions League group stage game against Western Sydney Wanderers FC that ended in a 5-0 defeat. On 16 December 2016, Yu moved to Super League side Changchun Yatai, he would make his debut for the club on 2 April 2017 in a league game against Shandong Luneng Taishan F. C. in a 2-0 defeat. After the game he would start to establish himself within the team and go on to score his first goal for the club on 15 September 2017 in a league game against Tianjin TEDA F. C. that ended in 5-1 victory.
The following season would see Yu established as a regular within the team, however despite this he was part of the squad, relegated at the end of the 2018 Chinese Super League season. While he remained with the club for another season on 23 January 2020, Yu transferred to Super League side Shanghai SIPG for 20 million Yuan. Statistics accurate as of match played 31 December 2019. Yu Rui at Soccerway