Eastern Arabia

Eastern Arabia was known as Al-Bahrain until the 18th century. This region stretched from the south of Basra along the Persian Gulf coast and included the regions of Bahrain, Kuwait, Al-Hasa, United Arab Emirates, Southern Iraq, Northern Oman; the entire coastal strip of Eastern Arabia was known as "Bahrain" for ten centuries. Until recently, the whole of Eastern Arabia, from southern Iraq to the mountains of Oman, was a place where people moved around and married unconcerned by national borders; the people of Eastern Arabia shared a culture based on the sea. The Arab states of the Persian Gulf are Eastern Arabia, the borders of the Arabic-speaking Gulf do not extend beyond Eastern Arabia; the modern-day states of Bahrain, Oman, Qatar and UAE are the archetypal Gulf Arab states. Saudi Arabia is considered a Gulf Arab state although most Saudis do not live in Eastern Arabia. In Arabic, Baḥrayn is the dual form of baḥr, so al-Baḥrayn means "the Two Seas". However, which two seas were intended remains in dispute.

The term appears five times in the Qur'an, but does not refer to the modern island—originally known to the Arabs as “Awal”—but rather to the oases of al-Qatif and Hadjar. It is unclear when the term began to refer to the Awal islands, but it was after the 15th century. Today, Bahrain's "two seas" are instead taken to be the bay east and west of the coast, the seas north and south of the island, or the salt and fresh water present above and below the ground. In addition to wells, there are places in the sea north of Bahrain where fresh water bubbles up in the middle of the salt water, noted by visitors since antiquity. An alternate theory offered by Al-Hasa was that the two seas were the Great Green Ocean and a peaceful lake on the mainland; the term "Gulf Arab" refers, geographically, to inhabitants of eastern Arabia. The term "Khaleejis" is misused to identify all the inhabitants of the Arabian Peninsula; the inhabitants of Eastern Arabia's Gulf coast share similar cultures and music styles such as fijiri and liwa.

The most noticeable cultural trait of Eastern Arabia's Gulf Arabs is their orientation and focus towards the sea. Maritime-focused life in the small Gulf Arab states has resulted in a sea-oriented society where livelihoods have traditionally been earned in marine industries; the Arabs of Eastern Arabia speak a dialect known as Gulf Arabic. Most Saudis do not speak Gulf Arabic. There are 2 million Gulf Arabic speakers in Saudi Arabia in the coastal eastern region. Before the GCC was formed in 1981, the term "Khaleeji" was used to refer to the inhabitants of Eastern Arabia. Sunni Islam is dominant in Eastern Arabia of the Maliki school of jurisprudence, though Hanafi, Shafi'i and Hanbali schools have adherents in the region. Shia Islam has a strong presence in Eastern Arabia in Bahrain and Ahsa; the Ibadi sect is dominant in Oman, which has Sunni and Shia minorities. Before the 7th century CE, the population of Eastern Arabia consisted of Christianized Arabs, Arab Zoroastrians and Aramaic-speaking agriculturalists.

Some sedentary dialects of Eastern Arabia exhibit Akkadian and Syriac features. The sedentary people of ancient Bahrain were Aramaic speakers and to some degree Persian speakers, while Syriac functioned as a liturgical language. Dilmun appears first in Sumerian cuneiform clay tablets dated to the end of fourth millennium BC, found in the temple of goddess Inanna, in the city of Uruk; the adjective'Dilmun' is used to describe a type of one specific official. Dilmun was mentioned in two letters dated to the reign of Burna-Buriash II recovered from Nippur, during the Kassite dynasty of Babylon; these letters were from a provincial official, Ilī-ippašra, in Dilmun to his friend Enlil-kidinni in Mesopotamia. The names referred to are Akkadian; these letters and other documents, hint at an administrative relationship between Dilmun and Babylon at that time. Following the collapse of the Kassite dynasty, Mesopotamian documents make no mention of Dilmun with the exception of Assyrian inscriptions dated to 1250 BC which proclaimed the Assyrian king to be king of Dilmun and Meluhha.

Assyrian inscriptions recorded tribute from Dilmun. There are other Assyrian inscriptions during the first millennium BC indicating Assyrian sovereignty over Dilmun. Dilmun was later on controlled by the Kassite dynasty in Mesopotamia. One of the early sites discovered in Bahrain indicate that Sennacherib, king of Assyria, attacked northeast Persian Gulf and captured Bahrain; the most recent reference to Dilmun came during the Neo-Babylonian dynasty. Neo-Babylonian administrative records, dated 567 BC, stated that Dilmun was controlled by the king of Babylon; the name of Dilmun fell from use after the collapse of Neo-Babylon in 538 BC. There is both literary and archaeological evidence of extensive trade between Ancient Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley civilization. Impressions of clay seals from the Indus Valley city of Harappa were evidently used to seal bundles of merchandise, as clay seal impressions with cord or sack marks on the reverse side testify. A number of these Indus Valley seals have turned up at other Mesopotamian sites.

The “Persian Gulf” types of circular, stam


Jembaicumbene is a town in the Southern Tablelands of New South Wales, located 8 km out along the Braidwood–Majors Creek Road. Once a thriving goldfield, it is now a pretty valley on the way to Majors Creek. At the 2016 census, it had a population of 41. Stands of fine old trees mark former home sites and the upturned earth along the length of the Jembaicumbene Creek bears witness to the efforts of many hopeful miners, the activities of several dredge mining companies. Jemaicumbene was the birthplace of Archer, winner of the first two Melbourne Cups in 1861 and 1862. Foaled at the "Exeter Farm", it was his last home where he was retired to stud, where he is believed to be buried. Several other Melbourne Cup winners were bred in the district. Horse racing was the most important leisure activity for the miners in the old days, the social life for the settlers centred around the race meetings, held on courses which have now disappeared; the other interesting connection between Jembaicumbene and the horse Archer, is that Helen "Ellen" de Mestre, the aboriginal first child of Archer's trainer Etienne de Mestre was born in the area, some of his Aboriginal grandchildren and great-grandchildren were born there, with one of Etienne's great-grandchildren going on to become an important leader in the Aboriginal community in the South Coast area of New South Wales.

This notably is Guboo Ted Thomas, a spiritual leader, the last initiated tribal elder on the South Coast. Guboo was born under a gum tree at Jembaicumbene. Jembaicumbene had a public school from 1870 to 1934, but it was classified as a part time school from 1929 to 1931 and a provisional school from 1931 to 1934. Keith W. Paterson; the Masters Touch, Racing with Etienne de Mestre, Winner of 5 Melbourne Cups. ISBN 9780646500287

Bowness Photography Prize

The William and Winifred Bowness Photography Prize is an Australian prize for photography awarded by the Monash Gallery of Art. The prize first awarded in 2006; the prize money for the award in 2017 is A$30,000 Established in 2006 to promote excellence in photography, the annual William and Winifred Bowness Photography Prize is an initiative of the MGA Foundation. The Bowness Photography Prize has become Australia's most important photography prize, it is one of the country's most open prizes for photography. In the past, finalists have included established and emerging photographers and commercial photographers. All film-based and digital work from amateurs and professionals is accepted. There are no thematic restrictions. In its first year the winner was awarded $10,000; as the prize has grown in prominence the prize money has increased with the 2017 winner to be awarded with $30,000 and for the first time in the history of the prize, the winning work will be acquired for the Monash Gallery of Art, City of Monash Collection.

Each year three Honourable Mentions will be acknowledged along with a People’s Choice Award of $1,000, announced at the end of the exhibition. In 2017 the prize money awarded has been increased to $30,000 and for the first time, the winning work will be acquired for the Monash Gallery of Art, City of Monash Collection; the finalists for 2017 have been announced, the exhibition will include 59 works from 61 artists. Hoda Afshar, Tim Allen, Rushdi Anwar, Kris Arnold, Robert Ashton, Peter Barnes, Del Kathryn Barton, Colin Batrouney, Elaine Batton, Olga Bennett, Vanessa Bertagnole, Tom Blachford, Polly Borland, Peter Bratuskins, Eric Bridgeman, Jane Burton, Elaine Campaner, Stuart Chape, Danica Chappell, Peta Clancy, Emilio Cresciani, Gerwyn Davies, Lauren Dunn, Tanya Maria Dyhin, Amos Gebhardt, Silvi Glattauer, Robert Hague, Rhett Hammerton, Alana Holmberg, Eliza Hutchison, Leah King-Smith, Peter Lambropoulos, Helga Leunig nee' Salwerowicz, Jon Lewis, Janelle Low, Tayla Martin, Kent Morris, Nasim Nasr, Will Nolan, Jill Orr and Christina Simons, Polixeni Papapetrou, Izabela Pluta, Jenny Pollak, Clare Rae, Kate Robertson, David Rosetzky, Jo Scicluna, Damien Shen, Matthew Sleeth, David Stephenson and Martin Walch, Suellen Symons, Christian Thompson, Tobias Titz, James Tylor, Henri van Noordenburg, Justine Varga, Lisa Walker, Amanda Williams, Robin Williams Kathy MACKEY Ray COOK Nat THOMAS & Concertina INSERRA Paul KNIGHT Lee GRANT Jacky REDGATE Jesse MARLOW Pat BRASSINGTON Petrina Hicks Joseph McGlennon Valerie Sparks won the 2016 Bowness Photography Prize, taking home the $25,000 Prize with her work Prospero's Island.

The winner of the 2017 Bowness Photography prize was announced on 19 October 2017. Polixeni Papapetrou won with her work ‘Delphi’ from the series Eden. Three honorable mentions were awarded to Danica Chappell and Jenny Pollak; the winner of the 2018 Bowness Photography prize was announced on 11 October 2018. Melbourne-based, Iranian-born artist Hoda Afshar won for her photograph ‘Portrait of Behrouz Boochani, Manus Island’. Three honorable mentions were awarded to Shelley Horan, Darren Sylvester and Cyrus Tang