Mahārāja is a Sanskrit title for a "great ruler", "great king" or "high king". A few ruled mighty states informally called empires, including ruler Maharaja Ranjit Singh, founder of the Sikh Empire, Maharaja Sri Gupta, founder of the ancient Indian Gupta Empire, but'title inflation' soon led to most being rather mediocre or petty in real power, while compound titles were among the attempts to distinguish some among their ranks; the female equivalent, denotes either the wife of a Maharaja, in states where, customary, a woman ruling without a husband. The widow of a Maharaja is known as a Rajmata "queen mother". Maharaja Kumar denotes a son of a Maharaja, but more specific titulatures are used at each court, including Yuvaraja for the heir; the form Maharaj indicates a separation of noble and religious offices, although the fact that in Hindi the suffix -a is silent makes the two titles near homophones. The word Maharaja originates in Sanskrit and is a compound karmadhāraya term from mahānt- "great" and rājan "ruler, king").
It has the Latin cognates magnum "great" and rex "king". Due to Sanskrit's major influence on the vocabulary of most languages in Greater India and Southeast Asia, the term Maharaja is common to many modern languages of India and Southeast Asian languages such as Kannada, Hindi, Rajasthani, Telugu, Punjabi, Sylheti, Gujarati and Thai; the Sanskrit title Maharaja was used only for rulers who ruled a large region with minor tributary rulers under them. Since medieval times, the title was used by monarchs of lesser states claiming descent from ancient Maharajas. On the eve of independence in 1947, British India contained more than 600 princely states, each with its own native ruler styled Raja or Rana or Thakur or Nawab, with a host of less current titles as well; the British directly ruled two-thirds of the Indian subcontinent. The word Maharaja may be understood to mean "ruler" or "king", in spite of its literal translation as "great king"; this was because only a handful of the states were powerful and wealthy enough for their rulers to be considered'great' monarchs.
The word, can mean emperor in contemporary Indian usage. The title of Maharaja was not as common before the gradual British colonisation of India and after which many Rajas and otherwise styled Hindu rulers were elevated to Maharajas, regardless of the fact that scores of these new Maharajas ruled small states, sometimes for some reason unrelated to the eminence of the state, for example, support to the British in Afghanistan, World War I or World War II. Two Rajas who became Maharajas in the twentieth century were the Maharaja of Cochin and the legendary Maharaja Jagatjit Singh of Kapurthala. Variations of this title include the following, each combining Maha- "great" with an alternative form of Raja'king', so all meaning'Great King': Maharana, Maharawat and Maharaol. Maharajah has taken on new spellings due to migration, it has been shortened to Mahraj and Maraj but the most common is Maharajah and Maharaj. Despite its literal meaning, unlike many other titles meaning Great King, neither Maharaja nor Rajadhiraja, nor its equivalent amongst.
Maharaja,'Maharajadhiraja', never reached the standing required for imperial rank, as each was soon the object of title inflation. Instead, the Hindu title, rendered as Emperor is Samraat or Samraj, a personal distinction achieved by a few rulers of ancient dynasties such as the Mauryas and Guptas. Dharma-maharaja was the devout title of the rulers of the Ganga dynasty. In the Mughal Empire it was quite common to award to various princes a series of lofty titles as a matter of protocolary rank; the British would, as paramount power do the same. Many of these elaborate explicitly on the title Maharaja, in the following descending order: Maharajadhiraja Bahadur: Great Prince over Princes, a title of honour, one degree higher than Maharajadhiraja. Maharajadhiraja: Great Prince over Princes, a title of honour, one degree higher than Sawai Maharaja Bahadur. Sawai Maharaja Bahadur: a title of honour, one degree higher than Sawai Maharaja. Sawai Maharaja: a title of honour one degree higher than Maharaja Bahadur.
Maharaja Bahadur: a title of honour, one degree higher than Maharaja. Maharaja itself could be granted as a personal. H. the Maharaj Rana of Jhalawar Maharaja-i-Rajgan: great prince amongst princes Maharaja Sena Sahib Subah of Nagpur, another Mahratta s
The Ikshvaku dynasty ruled in the eastern Krishna River valley of India, from their capital at Vijayapuri during 3rd and 4th centuries CE. The Ikshvakus are known as the Andhra Ikshvakus or Ikshvakus of Vijayapuri to distinguish them from their legendary namesakes; the Ikshvaku kings were Shaivites and performed Vedic rites, but Buddhism flourished during their reign. Several Ikshvaku queens and princes contributed to the construction of the Buddhist monuments at present-day Nagarjunakonda. Ancient Sanskrit texts, such as Rigveda and Jaiminiya Upanishad Brahmana, mention a legendary king named Ikshvaku; the texts, such as the Ramayana and the Puranas, connect the dynasty of Ikshvaku's descendants to Ayodhya, the capital of the Kosala Kingdom in northern India. A record of the Vijayapuri king Ehuvala Chamtamula traces his ancestry to the legendary Ikshvakus; the Ikshvakus of Vijayapuri seem to be same as the "Shriparvatiya Andhras" mentioned in the Matsya Purana. The dynasty's founder Vasishthiputra Chamtamula rose to power after the decline of the Satavahana power.
He is attested by the Kesanapalli inscriptions. The Rentala inscription, dated to his 5th regnal year, calls him "Siri Cāṃtamūla"; the 4-line Kesanapalli inscription, dated to his 13th regnal year, inscribed on the pillar of a Buddhist stupa, names him as the founder of the Ikshvaku dynasty. No information is available about Chamtamula's parents, except that his father had multiple wives and daughters. Chamtamula had two uterine brothers, named Hammasri. Chamtasri, who married Mahatalavara Skandashri of Pukiya family, played an important role in the construction of a Buddhist mahachaitya; the records of the Ikshvaku kings describe Chamtamula as a great performer of the Vedic sacrifices such as Agnishtoma and Ashvamedha. These descriptions are corroborated by archaeological discoveries, including those of Chamtamula's Ashvamedha-type coins, a tank used for the Avabhritha ceremony, the kurma-chiti, the skeleton of a horse. An inscription of the Ikshvaku king Ehuvala Chamtamula states that Vasishthiputra Chamtamula won many battles with his valour.
Chamtamula had many wives. His daughter Advai Chamtisri married Mahasenapati Mahatalavara Dandanayaka Khamdavishakha of the Dhanaka family, he was succeeded by his son Virapurushadatta. An inscription dated to the 20th regnal year of Virapurushadatta mentions Chamtamula's death, which can be interpreted in various ways, it is possible. Mathari-putra Vira-purusha-datta ruled for at least 24 years, as he is attested by an inscription dated to his 24th regnal year, he had multiple wives, including Rudradhara-bhattarika, the daughter of the ruler of Ujjain the Indo-Scythian Western Kshatrapa king Rudrasena II. Scythian influence can be noticed in the Palace of Nagarjunakonda through the reliefs of Scythian soldiers wearing caps and coats. According to an inscription in Nagarjunakonda, a garrison of Scythians guards employed by the Ikshvaku kings may have been stationed there, his daughter Kodabalishri married the ruler of the Vanavasa country. He had Eli Ehavuladasa and Evuvala Chamtamula. Vasishthi-putra Ehuvala Chamtamula ruled for at least 24 years, is attested by inscriptions dated to the regnal years 2, 8, 9, 11, 13, 16 and 24.
The Ikshvaku kingdom reached its zenith during his reign. Several Hindu and Buddhist shrines were constructed during his reign, his Patagandigudem inscription is the oldest known copper-plate charter from the Indian subcontinent. The Ikshvaku kingdom seems to have suffered multiple foreign invasions during Ehuvala's reign; the Sarvadeva temple inscription credits his commander Anikke with victories on the battlefield. The memorial pillar of his general Mahasenapati Chamtapula, a Kulahaka chief alludes to battle victories. Hariti-putra Virapurushadatta, the son of Ehuvala and queen Kapanashri, bore the titles of an heir apparent: Maharaja Kumara and Mahasenapati. However, he did not ascend the throne because he died before his father. Ehuvala was succeeded by Rudrapurushadatta, his son from Vammabhatta, the daughter of a Mahakshatrapa; the Shakas appear to have influenced the Ikshvaku kingdom during Ehuvala's rule. Some of the inscriptions issued during this period use the Shaka title svamin for the king.
An inscription to commemorate Vammabhatta, issued during the 11th regnal year of his son Rudrapurushadatta uses this title svamin for all the preceding kings. Vasishthi-putra Rudra-purusha-datta is attested by two inscriptions; the Gurazala inscription, dated to his 4th regnal year, records a land grant to the deity Halampura-svamin by Nodu Keshri, for the increase of Keshri's life. The Nagarjunakonda inscription, dated to the 11th regnal year, records the erection of a pillar to commemorate the king's mother Vammabhatta. According to Salomon "a Nagarjunakonda memorial pillar inscription of the time of King Rudrapurusadatta attests to a marital alliance between the Western Ksatrapas and the Iksv
History of Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India whose recorded history begins in the Vedic period. It is mentioned in Sanskrit epics such as Aitareya Brahmana The Two Oldest Veda Manuscripts: Edition of Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā 1-20 from Nepal and Western Tibet In the sixth century BCE, Assaka was one of the sixteen mahajanapadas, it was succeeded by the Satavahana dynasty. The kingdom reached its zenith under Gautamiputra Satakarni. At the end of the period, the Telugu region was divided into fiefdoms ruled by lords. In the late second century CE, the Andhra Ikshvakus ruled the eastern region along the Krishna River. During the fourth century, the Pallava dynasty extended their rule from southern Andhra Pradesh to Tamilakam and established their capital at Kanchipuram, their power increased during the reigns of Mahendravarman I and Narasimhavarman I. The Pallavas dominated the southern Telugu-speaking region and northern Tamilakam until the end of the ninth century. Between 1163 and 1323 the Kakatiya dynasty emerged.
During this period, the Telugu language emerged as a literary medium with the writings of Tikkana. In 1323 the sultan of Delhi, Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq, sent a large army commanded by Ulugh Khan to conquer the Telugu region and lay siege to Warangal; the fall of the Kakatiya dynasty led to an era with competing influences from the Turkic kingdoms of Delhi, the Chalukya Chola dynasty in the south and the Persio-Tajik sultanate of central India. The struggle for Andhra ended with the victory of the Musunuri Nayaks over the Turkic Delhi Sultanate; the Telugu achieved independence under Krishnadevaraya of the Vijayanagara Empire. The Qutb Shahi dynasty of the Bahmani Sultanate succeeded that empire; the Qutub Shahis were tolerant of Telugu culture from the early 16th to the end of the 17th centuries. The arrival of Europeans altered polity of the region. In 1765, Clive and the chief and council at Visakhapatnam obtained the Northern Circars from Mughal emperor Shah Alam; the British achieved supremacy when they defeated Maharaja Vijaya Rama Gajapati Raju of Vizianagaram in 1792.
Andhra's modern foundation was laid in the struggle for Indian independence under Mohandas Gandhi. Potti Sriramulu's campaign for a state independent of the Madras Presidency and Tanguturi Prakasam Panthulu and Kandukuri Veeresalingam's social-reform movements led to the formation of Andhra State, with Kurnool its capital and freedom-fighter Pantullu its first chief minister. A democratic society, with two stable political parties and a modern economy, emerged under the Chief Ministership of N. T. Rama Rao. India became independent from the United Kingdom in 1947. Although the Muslim Nizam of Hyderabad wanted to retain independence from India, but was forced to cede his kingdom to the Dominion of India in 1948 to form Hyderabad State. Andhra, the first Indian state formed on a linguistic basis, was carved from the Madras Presidency in 1953. In 1956, Andhra State was merged with the Telugu-speaking portion of Hyderabad State to create the state of Andhra Pradesh; the Lok Sabha approved the formation of Telangana from ten districts of Andhra Pradesh on 18 February 2014.
The earliest reference to the term Andhra is the name of a tribe and this is made in the Aitareya Brahamana datable to 800 B. C. Andhras left the northern part of Indian subcontinent near Yamuna river, crossing the vindhyas and came to present day Andhra pradesh and Telangana, it mentions that the Andhras were parallel to other tribes like the Pundras, Sabarasand Pulindas. There are a people known as the Andhras in Indian epic poetry. In the Mahabharata Rukmi ruled the Vidarbha Kingdom, which included the Deccan Plateau, the foothills of the Vindhya Range, present-day Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka and a little-known archipelago in the Bay of Bengal. Rama is said to have lived in the forest around present-day Bhadrachalam during his exile. Although the ancient literature indicates a history dating to several centuries BCE, archaeological evidence exists only from the last two millennia; the fifth-century BCE Kingdom of Pratipalapura, identified with Bhattiprolu in the Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh, may be the earliest kingdom in South India and inscriptions suggest that King Kubera ruled Bhattiprolu around 230 BCE.
The script of the Bhattiprolu inscriptions was the progenitor of the Brahmi Lipi, which diversified into modern Telugu scripts. As part of the Mauryan Empire during the fourth century BCE, Andhra was a political state in the southeastern Deccan. According to Megasthenes, who visited the court of Chandragupta Maurya, the Andhras had 30 fortified towns along Godavari river and an army of 1,00,000 infantry, 2,000 cavalry and 1,000 elephants.. The military might of Andhras was second only to the Mauryas. Uninterrupted political and cultural accounts of Andhra Pradesh begin during the rise of the Satavahana dynasty. According to the Matsya Purana, the dynasty had 29 rulers in a 456-year period from the 2nd century BCE to the 2nd century CE. An inscription at Nasik, written at the time of Gautamiputra Satakarni, indicates that the kingdom included most of the southern peninsula and southern parts of Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh; the court language used by the Satavahanas was Prakrit, their kings observed the Vedic religion.
The fall of the Satavahana empire left Andhra in political chaos, local rulers carved out small
Western Chalukya Empire
The Western Chalukya Empire ruled most of the western Deccan, South India, between the 10th and 12th centuries. This Kannadiga dynasty is sometimes called the Kalyani Chalukya after its regal capital at Kalyani, today's Basavakalyan in the modern Bidar District of Karnataka state, alternatively the Later Chalukya from its theoretical relationship to the 6th-century Chalukya dynasty of Badami; the dynasty is called Western Chalukyas to differentiate from the contemporaneous Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi, a separate dynasty. Prior to the rise of these Chalukyas, the Rashtrakuta empire of Manyakheta controlled most of Deccan and Central India for over two centuries. In 973, seeing confusion in the Rashtrakuta empire after a successful invasion of their capital by the ruler of the Paramara dynasty of Malwa, Tailapa II, a feudatory of the Rashtrakuta Dynasty ruling from Bijapur region defeated his overlords and made Manyakheta his capital; the dynasty rose to power and grew into an empire under Someshvara I who moved the capital to Kalyani.
For over a century, the two empires of Southern India, the Western Chalukyas and the Chola dynasty of Tanjore fought many fierce wars to control the fertile region of Vengi. During these conflicts, the Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi, distant cousins of the Western Chalukyas but related to the Cholas by marriage took sides with the Cholas further complicating the situation. During the rule of Vikramaditya VI, in the late 11th and early 12th centuries, the Western Chalukyas convincingly contended with the Cholas and reached a peak ruling territories that spread over most of the Deccan, between the Narmada River in the north and Kaveri River in the south, his exploits were not limited to the south for as a prince, during the rule of Someshvara I, he had led successful military campaigns as far east as modern Bihar and Bengal. During this period the other major ruling families of the Deccan, the Hoysalas, the Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri, the Kakatiya dynasty and the Southern Kalachuris of Kalyani, were subordinates of the Western Chalukyas and gained their independence only when the power of the Chalukya waned during the half of the 12th century.
The Western Chalukyas developed an architectural style known today as a transitional style, an architectural link between the style of the early Chalukya dynasty and that of the Hoysala empire. Most of its monuments are in the districts bordering the Tungabhadra River in central Karnataka. Well known examples are the Kasivisvesvara Temple at Lakkundi, the Mallikarjuna Temple at Kuruvatti, the Kallesvara Temple at Bagali and the Mahadeva Temple at Itagi; this was an important period in the development of fine arts in Southern India in literature as the Western Chalukya kings encouraged writers in the native language Kannada, Sanskrit. Knowledge of Western Chalukya history has come through examination of the numerous Kannada language inscriptions left by the kings, from the study of important contemporary literary documents in Western Chalukya literature such as Gada Yuddha in Kannada by Ranna and Vikramankadeva Charitam in Sanskrit by Bilhana; the earliest record is dated 957, during the rule of Tailapa II when the Western Chalukyas were still a feudatory of the Rashtrakutas and Tailapa II governed from Tardavadi in present-day Bijapur district, Karnataka.
The genealogy of the kings of this empire is still debated. One theory, based on contemporary literary and inscriptional evidence plus the finding that the Western Chalukyas employed titles and names used by the early Chalukyas, suggests that the Western Chalukya kings belonged to the same family line as the illustrious Badami Chalukya dynasty of 6th-century, while other Western Chalukya inscriptional evidence indicates they were a distinct line unrelated to the early Chalukyas; the records suggests a possible rebellion by a local Chalukya King, Chattigadeva of Banavasi-12000 province, in alliance with local Kadamba chieftains. This rebellion however was unfruitful but paved the way for his successor Tailapa II. A few years Tailapa II re-established Chalukya rule and defeated the Rashtrakutas during the reign of Karka II by timing his rebellion to coincide with the confusion caused in the Rashtrakuta capital of Manyakheta by the invading Paramaras of Central India in 973. After overpowering the Rashtrakutas, Tailapa II moved his capital to Manyakheta and consolidated the Chalukya empire in the western Deccan by subjugating the Paramara and other aggressive rivals and extending his control over the land between the Narmada River and Tungabhadra River.
However, some inscriptions indicate that Balagamve in Mysore territory may have been a power centre up to the rule of Someshvara I in 1042. The intense competition between the kingdom of the western Deccan and those of the Tamil country came to the fore in the 11th century over the acutely contested fertile river valleys in the doab region of the Krishna and Godavari River called Vengi; the Western Chalukyas and the Chola Dynasty fought many bitter wars over control of this strategic resource. The imperial Cholas gained power during the time of the famous king Rajaraja Chola I and the crown prince Rajendra Chola I; the Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi were cousins of the Western Chalukyas but became influenced by the Cholas through their marital ties with the Tamil kingdom. As this was against the interests of the Western Chalukyas, they wasted no time in involving themselves politically and militarily in Vengi; when King Satyashraya succeeded Tailapa II to the throne, he was able to protect his kingdom from Chola aggression as well as his northern territories in Konkan and Gujarat although hi
The Chola dynasty was one of the longest-ruling dynasties in history. The earliest datable references to this Tamil dynasty are in inscriptions from the 3rd century BCE left by Ashoka, of the Maurya Empire; as one of the Three Crowned Kings of Tamilakam, the dynasty continued to govern over varying territory until the 13th century CE. The heartland of the Cholas was the fertile valley of the Kaveri River, but they ruled a larger area at the height of their power from the half of the 9th century till the beginning of the 13th century; the whole country south of the Tungabhadra was united and held as one state for a period of three centuries and more between 907-1215 AD. Under Rajaraja Chola I and his successors Rajendra Chola I, Rajadhiraja Chola, Virarajendra Chola and Kulothunga Chola I the dynasty became a military and cultural power in South Asia and South-East Asia; the power of the new empire was proclaimed to the eastern world by the expedition to the Ganges which Rajendra Chola I undertook and by the naval raids on cities of the maritime empire of Srivijaya, as well as by the repeated embassies to China.
The Chola fleet represented the zenith of ancient Indian sea power. During the period 1010–1153, the Chola territories stretched from the islands of the Maldives in the south to as far north as the banks of the Godavari River in Andhra Pradesh. Rajaraja Chola conquered peninsular South India, annexed parts of, now Sri Lanka and occupied the islands of the Maldives. Rajendra Chola sent a victorious expedition to North India that touched the river Ganges and defeated the Pala ruler of Pataliputra, Mahipala, he successfully invaded cities of Srivijaya of Malaysia and Indonesia. The Chola dynasty went into decline at the beginning of the 13th century with the rise of the Pandyan dynasty, which caused their downfall; the Cholas left a lasting legacy. Their patronage of Tamil literature and their zeal in the building of temples has resulted in some great works of Tamil literature and architecture; the Chola kings were avid builders and envisioned the temples in their kingdoms not only as places of worship but as centres of economic activity.
They established a disciplined bureaucracy. The Chola school of art spread to Southeast Asia and influenced the architecture and art of Southeast Asia; the Cholas are known as the Choda. There is little information available in regarding their origin, its antiquity is evident in inscriptions. Medieval Cholas claimed a long and ancient lineage. Mentions in the early Sangam literature indicate that the earliest kings of the dynasty antedated 100 CE. Cholas were mentioned in Ashokan Edicts of 3rd Century BCE as one of the neighboring countries existing in the South. A held view is that Chola is, like Chera and Pandya, the name of the ruling family or clan of immemorial antiquity; the annotator Parimelazhagar said: "The charity of people with ancient lineage are forever generous in spite of their reduced means". Other names in common use for the Cholas are Killi and Sembiyan. Killi comes from the Tamil kil meaning dig or cleave and conveys the idea of a digger or a worker of the land; this word forms an integral part of early Chola names like Nedunkilli, Nalankilli and so on, but drops out of use in times.
Valavan is most connected with "valam" – fertility and means owner or ruler of a fertile country. Sembiyan is taken to mean a descendant of Shibi – a legendary hero whose self-sacrifice in saving a dove from the pursuit of a falcon figures among the early Chola legends and forms the subject matter of the Sibi Jataka among the Jataka stories of Buddhism. In Tamil lexicon Chola means Soazhi or Saei denoting a newly formed kingdom, in the lines of Pandya or the old country. There is little written evidence available of the Cholas prior to the 7th century. Historic records exist thereafter, including inscriptions on temples. During the past 150 years, historians have gleaned significant knowledge on the subject from a variety of sources such as ancient Tamil Sangam literature, oral traditions, religious texts and copperplate inscriptions; the main source for the available information of the early Cholas is the early Tamil literature of the Sangam Period. There are brief notices on the Chola country and its towns and commerce furnished by the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, in the later work of the geographer Ptolemy.
Mahavamsa, a Buddhist text written down during the 5th century CE, recounts a number of conflicts between the inhabitants of Ceylon and Cholas in the 1st century BCE. Cholas are mentioned in the Pillars of Ashoka inscriptions, where they are mentioned among the kingdoms which, though not subject to Ashoka, were on friendly terms with him; the history of the Cholas falls into four periods: the Early Cholas of the Sangam literature, the interregnum between the fall of the Sangam Cholas and the rise of the Imperial medieval Cholas under Vijayalaya, the dynasty of Vijayalaya, the Later Chola dynasty of Kulothunga Chola I from the third quarter of the 11th century. The earliest Chola kings for whom there is tangible evidence are mentioned in the Sangam literature. Scholars agree that this literature belongs to the second or first few centuries of the common era; the internal chronology of this literature is still far from settled, at present a connected account of the history of the period cannot be derived.
It records the names of the kings and the princ
The Musunuri Nayakas were warrior kings of 14th-century South India who were significant in the region of Telangana. Little is known of the Musunuri family; the founding ruler of the family, Musunuri Prolaya Nayaka appears as a new ruler at Rekapalle, near Bhadrachalam, around 1330, claiming heritage from the Kakatiyas. After the fall of the Kakatiyas, their empire was annexed by the Delhi Sultanate and Warangal was renamed "Sultanpur". Ulugh Khan remained as the governor of the region for a short period, until he was recalled to Delhi to succeed Muhammad bin Tughluq in 1324. A former Kakatiya commander, Nagaya Ganna Vibhudu, now renamed Malik Maqbul, was appointed as the governor of the region. However, the Tughluq hold over the erstwhile Kakatiya kingdom was tenuous and a number of local chieftains seized effective power; as uncertain as Prolaya Nayaka's rise were the methods that enabled some limited amount of success for the venture, which saw the rebels defeating the Delhi Sultanate's armies in some battles and disrupting their cohesion in the region.
The nobles were able to assert control in the Godavari area, over which Prolaya Nayaka became the ruler by 1330 until his death in 1333. Scholar M. Rama Rao states that Prolaya Vema Reddy of the Panta Reddi clan, who seems to have established his own independent rule by 1325, must have taken control of the Krishna-Godavari region up to Rajahmundry, he and Musunuri Prolaya Nayaka must have collaborated to drive the Muslim rule out from the area. In 1330, Prolaya Nayaka published the Vilasa grant, a copper-plate grant near Pithapuram, in which he bemoaned the devastation of the Telugu country brought about by the Turks and attempted to legitimise himself as the rightful restorer of order. Prolaya Nayaka left no children and was succeeded by a cousin, Kapaya Nayaka, who governed until 1368 and attempted to further expand his rule. Musunuri Kapaya Nayaka, led a rebellion against the Tughluqs, driving them out of Warangal in 1336. According to the Kaluvacheru grant of a female member of the Panta Reddi clan in 1423, Kapaya Nayaka was assisted by 75 Nayakas, including Prolaya Vema Reddi, the founder of the Reddy dynasty.
Kapaya Nayaka ruled over Telangana until 1368. Upon his death, the allied Nayakas are said to have returned to their own towns. Despite his opposition to the Turks, Kapaya Nayaka continued using the Kush Mahal built by the Turks in Warangal and adopted the Persianised title "Sultan of the Andhra country". In 1361, he gifted to the Bahmani Sultan Mohammed Shah I the Turquoise Throne as part of a treaty agreement, he took control of Warangal from Malik Maqbul in 1336 and thus of a wider swathe of eastern Telangana, governed from there. He tried to support other rebels in the surrounding areas, although in the case of aid given to Alauddin Bahman Shah, the outcome was that his fellow rebel turned on him. Several military engagements with Bahaman Shah followed over a period of years, during which Kapaya Nayaka had to cede various forts and territories, his weakened position was exploited by the Reddis and the Recherla Nayaks, the latter of whom caused his death in battle at Bhimavaram and ended the period of the Musunuri family.
Notes Citations Bibliography Devi, V. Yashoda, After the Kākatīyas, Andhra Pradesh Sahitya Akademi A history of South India from prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar, K. A. Nilakanta Sastri, Oxford Univ. Press, 1955. Subrahmanyam, Sanjay. "Hearing Voices: Vignettes of Early Modernity in South Asia, 1400–1750". Daedalus. 127: 75–104. JSTOR 20027508
The Chalukya dynasty was a Classical Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries. During this period, they ruled as three individual dynasties; the earliest dynasty, known as the "Badami Chalukyas", ruled from Vatapi from the middle of the 6th century. The Badami Chalukyas began to assert their independence at the decline of the Kadamba kingdom of Banavasi and rose to prominence during the reign of Pulakeshin II. After the death of Pulakeshin II, the Eastern Chalukyas became an independent kingdom in the eastern Deccan, they ruled from Vengi until about the 11th century. In the western Deccan, the rise of the Rashtrakutas in the middle of the 8th century eclipsed the Chalukyas of Badami before being revived by their descendants, the Western Chalukyas, in the late 10th century; these Western Chalukyas ruled from Kalyani until the end of the 12th century. The rule of the Chalukyas marks an important milestone in the history of South India and a golden age in the history of Karnataka.
The political atmosphere in South India shifted from smaller kingdoms to large empires with the ascendancy of Badami Chalukyas. A Southern India-based kingdom took control and consolidated the entire region between the Kaveri and the Narmada rivers; the rise of this empire saw the birth of efficient administration, overseas trade and commerce and the development of new style of architecture called "Chalukyan architecture". Kannada literature, which had enjoyed royal support in the 9th century Rashtrakuta court found eager patronage from the Western Chalukyas in the Jain and Veerashaiva traditions; the 11th century saw the patronage of Telugu literature under the Eastern Chalukyas. While opinions vary regarding the early origins of the Chalukyas, the consensus among noted historians such as John Keay, D. C. Sircar, Hans Raj, S. Sen, Kamath, K. V. Ramesh and Karmarkar is that the founders of the empire at Badami were native to the modern Karnataka region. A theory that they were descendants of a 2nd-century chieftain called Kandachaliki Remmanaka, a feudatory of the Andhra Ikshvaku was put forward.
This according to Kamath has failed to explain the difference in lineage. The Kandachaliki feudatory call themselves Vashisthiputras of the Hiranyakagotra; the Chalukyas, address themselves as Harithiputras of Manavyasagotra in their inscriptions, the same lineage as their early overlords, the Kadambas of Banavasi. This makes them descendants of the Kadambas; the Chalukyas took control of the territory ruled by the Kadambas. A record of Eastern Chalukyas mentions the northern origin theory and claims one ruler of Ayodhya came south, defeated the Pallavas and married a Pallava princess, she had a child called Vijayaditya, claimed to be the Pulakeshin I's father. However, according to the historians K. V. Ramesh and Sastri, there are Badami Chalukya inscriptions that confirm Jayasimha was Pulakeshin I's grandfather and Ranaraga, his father. Kamath and Moraes claim it was a popular practice in the 11th century to link South Indian royal family lineage to a Northern kingdom; the Badami Chalukya records.
While the northern origin theory has been dismissed by many historians, the epigraphist K. V. Ramesh has suggested that an earlier southern migration is a distinct possibility which needs examination. According to him, the complete absence of any inscriptional reference of their family connections to Ayodhya, their subsequent Kannadiga identity may have been due to their earlier migration into present day Karnataka region where they achieved success as chieftains and kings. Hence, the place of origin of their ancestors may have been of no significance to the kings of the empire who may have considered themselves natives of the Kannada speaking region; the writing of 12th century Kashmiri poet Bilhana suggests the Chalukya family belonged to the Shudra caste while other sources claim they were Kshatriyas. The historians Jan Houben and Kamath, the epigraphist D. C. Sircar note the Badami Chalukya inscriptions are in Sanskrit. According to the historian N. L. Rao, their inscriptions call them Karnatas and their names use indigenous Kannada titles such as Priyagallam and Noduttagelvom.
The names of some Chalukya princes end with the pure Kannada term arasa. The Rashtrakuta inscriptions call the Chalukyas of Badami Karnatabala, it has been proposed by the historian S. C. Nandinath that the word "Chalukya" originated from Salki or Chalki, a Kannada word for an agricultural implement. Inscriptions in Sanskrit and Kannada are the main source of information about Badami Chalukya history. Among them, the Badami cave inscriptions of Mangalesha, Kappe Arabhatta record of c. 700, Peddavaduguru inscription of Pulakeshin II, the Kanchi Kailasanatha Temple inscription and Pattadakal Virupaksha Temple inscription of Vikramaditya II provide more evidence of the Chalukya language. The Badami cliff inscription of Pulakeshin I, the Mahakuta Pillar inscription of Mangalesha and the Aihole inscription of Pulakeshin II are examples of important Sanskrit inscriptions written in old Kannada script; the reign of the Chalukyas saw the arrival of Kannada as the predominant language of inscriptions along with Sanskrit, in areas of the Indian peninsula outside what is known as Tamilaham.
Several coins of the Badami Chalukyas with Kannada legends have been found. All this indicates. Travelogues of contemporary foreign travellers have provided useful information about the Chalukyan