SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Eastern Christianity

Eastern Christianity comprises church families that developed - outside the Occident - from the original cradle of Christianity in Asia, with major bodies including the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox churches, the Eastern Catholic churches, Protestant Eastern Christian Churches who are Protestant in theology but Eastern Christian in cultural practice, the denominations descended from the Church of the East. Eastern Christianity includes Protestant Eastern churches such as the Malankara Marthoma Syrian Church and the Ukrainian Lutheran Church, as well as other Protestant denominations that retain cultural practices of Eastern Christianity; the Eastern Church contrasted with the Western Church. But since the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century, the term "Eastern Christianity" is used in contrast with "Western Christianity", comprising both the said Latin Church as well as Protestantism and Independent Catholicism. Eastern Christianity in the 21st century consists of the Christian traditions and churches that developed distinctively over several centuries in the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, the Malabar coast of South India, parts of the Far East.

The term does not describe religious denomination. Some Eastern churches have more in common and theologically with Western Christianity than with one another; the various Eastern churches do not refer to themselves as "Eastern", with the exception of the Assyrian Church of the East and the Ancient Church of the East. The terms "Eastern" and "Western" in this regard originated with geographical divisions in Christianity mirroring the cultural divide between the Hellenistic East and the Latin West, the political divide of 395 AD between the Western and Eastern Roman empires; because the largest church in the East is the body known as the Eastern Orthodox Church, the term "Orthodox" is used in a similar fashion to "Eastern", to refer to specific historical Christian communions. However speaking, most Christian denominations, whether Eastern or Western, regard themselves as "orthodox" as well as "catholic", as two of the Four Marks of the Church listed in the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed: "One, Holy and Apostolic".

Eastern churches utilise several liturgical rites: the Alexandrian Rite, the Armenian Rite, the Byzantine Rite, the East Syriac Rite, the West Syriac Rite. Eastern Christians do not share the same religious traditions, but do share many cultural traditions. Christianity divided itself in the East during its early centuries both within and outside of the Roman Empire in disputes about Christology and fundamental theology, as well as national divisions, it would be many centuries that Western Christianity split from these traditions as its own communion. Major branches or families of Eastern Christianity, each of which has a distinct theology and dogma, include the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox communion, the Eastern Catholic Churches and the Assyrian Church of the East. In many Eastern churches, some parish priests administer the sacrament of chrismation to infants after baptism, priests are allowed to marry before ordination. While all the Eastern Catholic Churches recognize the authority of the Pope of Rome, some of them who have been part of the Orthodox Church or Oriental Orthodox churches follow the traditions of Orthodoxy or Oriental Orthodoxy, including the tradition of allowing married men to become priests.

The Eastern churches' differences from Western Christianity have as much, if not more, to do with culture and politics, as theology. For the non-Catholic Eastern churches, a definitive date for the commencement of schism cannot be given; the Church of the East declared independence from the churches of the Roman Empire at its general council in 424, before the Council of Ephesus in 431, so had nothing to do with the theology declared at that council. Oriental Orthodoxy separated after the Council of Chalcedon in 451. Since the time of the historian Edward Gibbon, the split between the Church of Rome and the Orthodox Church has been conveniently dated to 1054, though the reality is more complex; this split is sometimes referred to as the Great Schism, but now more referred to as the East–West Schism. This final schism reflected a larger cultural and political division which had developed in Europe and Southwest Asia during the Middle Ages and coincided with Western Europe's re-emergence from the collapse of the Western Roman Empire.

The Ukrainian Lutheran Church developed within Galicia around 1926, with its rites being based on the Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom, rather than on the Western Formula Missae; the Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body whose adherents are based in the Middle East and Turkey, Eastern Europe and the Caucasus, with a growing presence in the western world. Eastern Orthodox Christians accept the decisions of the first seven ecumenical councils. Eastern Orthodox Christianity identifies itself as the original Christian church founded by Christ and the Apostles, traces its lineage back to the early Church through the

Bernice Lake

Dame Bernice Lake QC was an Anguillan-born jurist and legal scholar whose career spanned more than forty years. In 1985, she became the first woman from the Eastern Caribbean to be appointed Queen's Counsel. Lake was the first graduate of the University of the West Indies to receive the honor. Lake was born in Anguilla and attended school on St. Kitts, but resided in Antigua for most of her life, she obtained a degree in history and graduated with honors from the University College of the West Indies at Mona in Jamaica, which became the University of the West Indies. Lake worked as a diplomat for the short-lived West Indies Federation's foreign service until the federation collapsed in 1962. Lake soon launched a second career by entering law school at UCL Faculty of Laws at University College London, she campaigned against apartheid in other causes as a law student. Lake earned her Honours Degree in Law in 1967. Lake was admitted to the bar in St. Kitts in 1967 soon after obtaining her law degree.

Lake became a prominent jurist, specializing in constitutional law. Her chambers, Lake & Kentish, which she opened with attorney Joyce Kentish her niece and was joined by Kendreth Kentish and George Lake, were located on Antigua. Lake was the chief architect of the 1975 Constitution of Anguilla. In 1981, she served as a member of the committee charged with framing the Constitution of Antigua and Barbuda. Another member of the Antiguan constitutional committee, Sydney Christian QC, said of Lake's role in drafting the document, "She was much in the forefront of the fight for constitutional law and she was always aggressive in her defence of the Constitution here in Antigua."Lake was a supporter of the Caribbean Court of Justice, established in 2001. In 2004, the government of Antigua and Barbuda bestowed knighthood and the title Dame on Lake for her contributions to the Antiguan and the Caribbean legal systems, as well as her outlook on women's rights, political rights and civil rights; the University of the West Indies awarded Lake a Honorary Doctorate in Law at its Cave Hill campus graduation in Barbados in 2007.

In July 2011, the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court, Anguilla Bar Association, the other bar associations of the OECS honored her for her contributions at a joint event. Dame Bernice Lake died at Mount St John Medical Centre in Antigua September 10, 2011, at the age of 78 after a brief illness, her funeral was held at St Peters Parish Church in St. John's with burial in the churchyard. Dignitaries in attendance included Prime Minister of Antigua and Barbuda Baldwin Spencer, Governor-General of Antigua and Barbuda Dame Louise Lake-Tack, opposition leaders and members of the Caribbean legal community; the delegation from Anguilla included Minister of Home Affairs Walcott Richardson. First women lawyers around the world

Rebekka Bakken

Rebekka Bakken is a Norwegian jazz singer and music producer, associated with jazz music, although she herself refuses to characterise herself as a jazz musician. Her voice reaches over three octaves. Bakken began singing in various school bands, before beginning to sing with professional soul and rock bands in 1988, she is known for her expressive and varied voice, performing music, a combination of folk and pop. 2007: Recipient of the Amadeus Austrian Music Award in the category jazz/blues/folk for her album I Keep My Cool 2003: The Art of How to Fall 2005: Is That You? 2006: I Keep My Cool 2007: Building Visions 2009: Morning Hours 2011: September 2014: Little Drop of Poison 2016: Most Personal 2018: Things You Leave Behind with Wolfgang Muthspiel 2000: Daily Mirror 2001: Daily Mirror Reflected 2002: Beloved with Wolfgang Muthspiel 2003: Scattering Poems, with Julia Hülsmann Trio 2003: Heaven, with Christof Lauer & Norwegian Brass with Sondre Bratland, Geir Lysne Official website Site at Universal Rebekka Bakken - Same Kind HD at YouTube