Sydney central business district
The Sydney central business district is the main commercial centre of Sydney, the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia. It extends southwards for about 3 km from Sydney Cove, the point of first European settlement in which the Sydney region was established. Due to its pivotal role in Australia's early history, it is one of the oldest established areas in the country. Geographically, its north–south axis runs from Circular Quay in the north to Central railway station in the south, its east–west axis runs from a chain of parkland that includes Hyde Park, The Domain, Royal Botanic Gardens and Farm Cove on Sydney Harbour in the east. At the 2016 Australian Census, the CBD recorded a population of 17,252. "Sydney CBD" is occasionally used to refer not only to the CBD proper, but its nearby inner suburbs such as Pyrmont, Haymarket and Woolloomooloo. The Sydney CBD is Australia's main financial and economic centre, as well as a leading hub of economic activity for the Asia-Pacific region.
The city centre employs 13% of the Sydney region's workforce. Based on industry mix and relative occupational wage levels it is estimated that economic activity generated in the city in 2015/16 was $118 billion. Culturally, the city centre is Sydney's focal point for entertainment, it is home to some of the city's most significant buildings and structures. The Sydney CBD is an area of densely concentrated skyscrapers and other buildings, interspersed by several parks such as Hyde Park, The Domain, Royal Botanic Gardens and Wynyard Park. George Street is the Sydney CBD's main north–south thoroughfare; the streets run on a warped grid pattern in the southern CBD, but in the older northern CBD the streets form several intersecting grids, reflecting their placement in relation to the prevailing breeze and orientation to Circular Quay in early settlement. The CBD runs along two ridge lines below Macquarie York Streets. Between these ridges is Pitt Street, running close to the course of the original Tank Stream.
Bridge Street, took its name from the bridge running east -- west. Pitt Street is the retail heart of the city which includes the Pitt Street Mall and the Sydney Tower. Macquarie Street is a historic precinct that houses such buildings as the State Parliament House and the Supreme Court of New South Wales. Prior to European settlement in New South Wales, the area around Sydney was home to the Gadigal tribes of Indigenous Australians; the colony of New South Wales founded Sydney at the Rocks in 1788 and established a city in 1842. In the midst of World War 1, on Valentine's day, riots racked the CBD, in what has come to be known as the Central Station Riots of 1916. A substantial segment of the violence was concentrated in the Central area; these riots involved five thousand military recruits who refused to comply with extraneous parade orders. During the riots they caused significant damage to buildings. People with "foreign" names were targeted; the recruits clashed with soldiers. A number of eight people sustained injuries.
Because this incident occurred in the middle of the Great War the state discouraged media coverage. Only a fifth of the rioters were court-marshalled; these riots spurred the introduction of lockout laws for pubs after 6pm. This law was only lifted in 1955; the Sydney central business district has many heritage-listed buildings including: Administratively, the Sydney CBD falls under the authority of the local government area of the City of Sydney. The New South Wales state government has authority over some aspects of the CBD, in particular through the Sydney Harbour Foreshore Authority. Independent Alex Greenwich has represented the Sydney seat since the 2012 by-election, triggered by the resignation of previous independent Clover Moore, the Lord Mayor of Sydney, due to introduced state laws preventing dual membership of state parliament and local council; the Sydney CBD is home to some of the largest Australian companies, as well as serving as an Asia-Pacific headquarters for many large international companies.
The financial services industry in particular occupies much of the available office space, with companies such as the Westpac, Commonwealth Bank of Australia, Deutsche Bank, Macquarie Bank, AMP Limited, Insurance Australia Group, AON, Allianz, HSBC, AXA, ABN Amro, RBC and Bloomsbury Publishing all having offices. Church Hill is a northerly district in the Central Business district of Australia, it is so named because the earliest churches in Australia were formed on this site, including St Patrick's, St Philip's and Scots Church The significance of Church Hill dates back to the time of Governor Arthur Phillip, who mandated compulsory Sunday church attendance for all convicts, until they rebelled and burned down the area’s first church in 1798. The area gained greater prominence as Church Hill on Wednesday 1 October 1800, when incoming Governor Philip Gidley King had the foundation stone laid for St Philip’s Church, which subsequently he proclaimed one of Australia’s first two parishes in 1802.
The site where St Patrick’s Church stands is where the Roman Catholic Eucharist was first preserved in Australia, in May 1818. Celebrations for the bicentenary of this occasion were held in St Patrick’s Church on Sunday 6 May 2018. A proposed stop on the tram network under construction on George Street may be named Church Hill. Sydney's CBD is serviced by commuter rail, light
Highway 1 (New South Wales)
In New South Wales, Highway 1 is a 1,351-kilometre long route that crosses the state, from the Queensland/New South Wales border near Tweed Heads to the Victorian border near Timbillica. It provides the main coastal route between Melbourne via Sydney. Highway 1 continues around the rest of Australia, joining all mainland state capitals, connecting major centres in Tasmania. With the entire route passing close to the coast, for many New South Wales residents Highway 1 is synonymous with summer holiday road trips. Parts of the route are busy intercity or commuter routes. While the route is defined by its designation of "1", with today's alphanumeric route numbering system the route consists of eight sections, alternating between the M1 designation and the A1 designation. Highway 1 was created as part of the National Route Numbering system, adopted in 1955; the route tracks. When Highway 1 was declared in 1955, the entire route carried the National Route 1 shield. In 1974, the Sydney-Newcastle Freeway section was declared part of the National Highway, the route marker was subsequently updated to National Highway 1 for this section In 1993, the route numbering was further complicated with the introduction of the Metroad numbering system within the Sydney metro area.
The section of highway 1 between Wahroonga and Waterfall was proclaimed Metroad 1. In 2013, alphanumeric route numbering was introduced to New South Wales, all sections of Highway 1 were changed to carry either the M1 or A1 designation, depending on the grade of the road; as of 2013, large sections of the Pacific Highway are of motorway standard, despite still carrying the A1 designation. The government has explained this is to avoid frequent changes in route designation, with plans to update the designation to M1 over time as large sections of road are brought to motorway standard. Highway 1 travels multiple named roads on its journey from the Queensland to the Victorian border: Pacific Motorway / Pacific Highway New England Highway John Renshaw Drive Pacific Motorway Pacific Highway Gore Hill Freeway Warringah Freeway Sydney Harbour Tunnel Cahill Expressway Eastern Distributor Southern Cross Drive General Holmes Drive General Holmes Drive The Grand Parade President Avenue Princes Highway Acacia Road Princes Highway Princes Motorway Princes Highway Highway 1 intersects the following major roads in New South Wales: Bruxner Highway Gwydir Highway Oxley Highway New England Highway Hunter Expressway Newcastle Link Road Central Coast Highway Mona Vale Road/Ryde Road Military Road Bradfield Highway M5 East Freeway King Georges Road Heathcote Road Illawarra Highway Kings Highway Snowy Mountains Highway Highway 1 Highway 1 Highway 1 Highway 1 Highway 1 Highway 1
Paddington, New South Wales
Paddington is an inner-city eastern suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Located 3 kilometres east of the Sydney central business district, Paddington lies across two local government areas; the portion south of Oxford Street lies within the City of Sydney, while the portion north of Oxford Street lies within the Municipality of Woollahra. It is colloquially referred to as "Paddo". Paddington is bordered to the west by Darlinghurst, to the east by Centennial Park and Woollahra, to the north by Edgecliff and Rushcutters Bay and to the south by Moore Park; the suburb of Paddington is considered to be part of the region associated with the stories of the Cadigal people. These people belonged to the Dharug language group, which includes what is now known as the Sydney central business district, it is known that the ridge, being the most efficient route, on which Oxford Street was built was a walking track used by Aboriginal people. Much of the Aboriginal population of Sydney died due to the smallpox outbreak of 1789, one year after the First Fleet arrived in Sydney.
Some Anthropologists maintain. At the time when Robert Cooper began to build his first house in Paddington 200 Koori people were living in Woolloomooloo in housing which Governor Macquarie had built for them. Paddington has never been a suburb with a dense indigenous population. In the 1930s, when parts of Sydney such as Redfern and Glebe became hubs for Aborigines entering the labour force, Paddington continued to be a European working-class suburb. 1788-1800In 1788 the First Fleet arrived in Sydney Harbour and established a settlement in Sydney Cove. Three kilometres to the east lay the land. With a high sandstone ridge, eroded by streams leading to a marshy rush-filled cove too shallow for ships, the area was ignored by the newcomers, except for collecting rushes for thatch. 1801-1840On a path used by local Aboriginal people, a road of some form was built by Governor Hunter to South Head as early as 1803. Governor Macquarie upgraded the road in 1811 for strategic purposes to accommodate wheeled vehicles.
The road was improved by Major Druitt in 1820 to give faster access to the signal station at South Head. It was to give access to the salubrious villas built by the colony's emerging plutocracy; the road was renamed the Old South Head Road after construction of New South Head Road along the Harbour foreshore was begun in 1831. The first land grant in the Paddington area, of 100 acres, was made to Robert Cooper, James Underwood, Francis Ewen Forbes by Governor Brisbane in 1823, allowing them to commence work on the Sydney distillery at the eastern end of Glenmore Road. A mill was located at the end of Gordon Street and run by the Gordon family grinding wheat from the early 1830s, it remained a prominent feature of the local landscape as houses were built, as wind power was replaced by steam. Cooper built his mansion, Juniper Hall, on the South Head Road ridge while Underwood built his house on Glenmore Road, between today's Soudan Lane and the former distillery; the suburb's name came about. He called his subdivision the Paddington Estate after the London Borough of that name.
It extended from Oxford Street down to present day Paddington Street.1841-1900 After the commencement in 1841 of Victoria Barracks the village of Paddington soon emerged, much of it around the cottages of the many artisans –stonemasons, quarrymen and labourers – who were working on the construction of the Barracks. What emerged was a clear class distinction. Rapid growth followed, with large estates being subdivided for speculative terrace style housing. In 1862 there were 535 houses with 2,800 residents. By 1883 the number of houses increased to 2,347. In 1871 Paddington's population density was 10.2 people per acre. By 1891 it had jumped 44.1. 1901-2000 In the first decade of the twentieth century Paddington was in its prime, with the population reaching 26,000 living in 4,800 houses. General health improved with the area being sewered; the World War I left a legacy of social problems and alcohol abuse. Paddington suffered death rates of 5 per 1000 residents in the influenza epidemic of 1919. Developers were disparaging about densely populated areas like Paddington, describing them as unhealthy, promoting sanitised garden suburbs such as Haberfield.
In Paddington the unskilled, those with a trade and those renting were hit hard during the Depression, with 30% unemployment. The post-war County of Cumberland planning scheme for metropolitan Sydney slated Paddington as a slum ripe for total redevelopment. A 1947 map titled'Paddington Replanning' proposed demolition of all existing housing to be replaced by blocks of flats. However, with the newly arrived migrants from Europe finding Paddington affordable and a convenient place to live, slum clearance faded from the political agenda. In the 1960s, a middle class'Bohemian' invasion began and Paddington became very'multi-cultural'. From 1960 many professional people, many who may have returned from living abroad, recognised Paddington's potential the suburb's close proximity to the CBD. With the restoration of derelict houses there developed a new awareness and interest in the historical and aesthetic qualities of the area. In 1968 in a complete reversal of planning and housing orthodoxy at the time, four hundred acres of terrace housing was rezoned as the first conservation area in Australia.
Sydney sandstone is the common name for Sydney Basin Hawkesbury Sandstone, one variety of, known as Yellowblock, as "yellow gold" a sedimentary rock named after the Hawkesbury River north of Sydney, where this sandstone is common. It forms the bedrock for much of the region of Australia. Well known for its durable quality, it is the reason many Aboriginal rock carvings and drawings in the area still exist; as a favoured building material preferred during the city's early years—from the late 1790s to the 1890s—its use in public buildings, gives the city its distinctive appearance. The stone is notable for its geological characteristics; this bedrock gives the city some of its "personality" by dint of its meteorological, horticultural and historical impact. One author describes Sydney's sandstone as "a kind of base note, an ever-present reminder of its Georgian beginnings and more ancient past."Sydney sandstone was deposited in the Triassic Period in a freshwater delta and is the caprock which controls the erosion and scarp retreat of the Illawarra escarpment.
Six kilometres of sandstone and shale lie under Sydney. In Sydney sandstone, the ripple marks from the ancient river that brought the grains of sand are distinctive and seen, telling geologists that the sand comes from rocks formed between 500 and 700 million years ago far to the south; this means that the highest part of the visible lines always faces south. It is a porous stone and acts as a giant filter, it is composed of pure silica grains and a small amount of the iron mineral siderite in varying proportions, bound with a clay matrix. It oxidises to the warm yellow-brown colour, notable in the buildings which are constructed of it; the sand was washed from Broken Hill, laid down in a bed, about 200 metres thick. Currents washed through it, leaching out most of the minerals and leaving a poor rock that made an insipid soil, they washed out channels in some places, while in others, the currents formed sand banks that show a characteristic current bedding or cross-bedding that can be seen in cuttings.
At a time in the past, monocline formed to the west of Sydney. The monocline is a sloping bend that raises the sandstone well above where it is expected to be seen, this is why the whole of the visible top of the Blue Mountains is made of sandstone. From the beginnings of the colony in 1788, settlers and convicts had to work with the stone, using it for building and trying to grow crops on the soil over it; the sandstone had a negative effect on farming because it underlay most of the available flat land at a shallow depth. In the late 19th century, it was thought; some efforts were made at the University to test this idea. Reporting on them in 1892, Professor Liversidge said "The Hawkesbury sandstone and Waianamatta shale was, of course, derived from older and gold-bearing rocks hence it was not unreasonable to expect to find gold in them."The sandstone is the basis of the nutrient-poor soils found in Sydney that developed over millennia and'came to nurture a brilliant and immensely diverse array of plants'.
It is, for example, the "heartland of those most characteristic of Australian trees, the eucalypts". As plants cannot afford to lose leaves to herbivores when nutrients are scarce so they defend their foliage with toxins. In eucalypts, these toxins give the bush its distinctive smell. Sandstone escarpments box in the Sydney area on three sides: to the west the Blue Mountains, to the north and south, the Hornsby and Woronora plateaux'; these escarpments, avoided by the early settlers, kept Sydney in its bounds and some people still regard the spatial boundaries of the city in these terms. Other rock types found in Sydney include Narrabeen shale and the younger Wianamatta shale and Mittagong formation. Other less common types of sandstone may be found in Sydney; such as Newport Formation Sandstone, Bulgo Sandstone, Minchinbury Sandstone, sandstones which occur within other layers of sedimentary rocks. Bald Hill Claystone is considered by geologists to be a variety of sandstone. Iron and aluminium oxides are found within laterite, formed by the weathering of Hawkesbury sandstone.
The quality of the sandstone known to Sydneysiders as Yellow block became well known early. Called on by the Colonial Architect, for example, to be used in the main buildings of the University of Sydney, the stone was supplied from the Pyrmont quarries where there were at least 22 quarrymen working by 1858. Among them was Charles Saunders, licensee of the hotel'The Quarryman's Arms' who became Pyrmont's biggest quarrymaster. Pyrmont yellowblock not only had good hardness and colour, it was suitable for carving and so it could be incorporated into buildings in the form of sculptures and finely carved details; the sculptor, William Priestly MacIntosh, for example, carved ten of the explorers' statues for the niches in the Lands Department building in "Pyrmont Freestone". Saunders' quarries, known locally as Paradise, Purgatory. and Hellhole, were so named by the Scottish quarrymen who worked there in the 1850s. The names related to the degree of difficulty in working its quality; the best stone was'Paradise', a soft rock, easy to carve and weathers to a warm, golden straw colour.
The Paradise quarry was near present-day Quarry Master and Saunders Streets, Purgatory quarry was near present-day Pyrmont Bridge Road
Moore Park, New South Wales
Moore Park is a small suburb located 3 kilometres southeast of the Sydney central business district, in the south-eastern suburbs of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. It is part of local government area of the City of Sydney. Moore Park is a large area of parkland, part of Centennial Parklands, a collective of three parks being Moore Park, Centennial Park and Queen's Park. Centennial Parklands is administered by the Centennial Park & Moore Park Trust, a NSW government agency; the only exception is the land on which the Sydney Cricket Ground and Sydney Football Stadium are sited. Moore Park has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Driver Avenue: Sydney Cricket Ground Members' Stand and Lady Members' Stand Moore Park is the former location of the Royal Agricultural Society's Sydney Showground, which hosted the annual Sydney Royal Easter Show until 1998, it moved to Homebush Bay. The old showgrounds have since been redeveloped as Fox Studios, a commercial venture designed at supporting Australia's film industry.
The Entertainment Quarter is a retail and entertainment precinct beside the studios. It contains cinemas, live venues, cafes and retailers of fashion and homewares; the Farmer's Market operates every Saturday in the old showground showing. The south-western corner of the suburb boasts a large shopping centre called the'Moore Park Supa Centre', on South Dowling Street, it specialises in showrooms for home furnishings and home renovations. This was the site of the former Dowling Street depot for trams; the Eastern Distributor and Anzac Parade are major arterial roads on the western border of the suburb. State Transit operate frequent services to Moore Park from the Sydney CBD and special services for sporting events run from Central railway station. On 13 December 2012, the NSW Government announced a commitment to build a $1.6 billion light rail from Circular Quay down George Street to Central station across to Moore Park and down Anzac Parade. South of Moore Park the line will spit into two branches - one continuing down Anzac Parade to the nine ways at Kensington, the second heading to Randwick via Alison Road.
Construction commenced in 2015. Moore Park is the location of two of Sydney's largest sporting venues, the Sydney Cricket Ground and Sydney Football Stadium; the Sydney Roosters Rugby league team in the National Rugby League, The Sydney Swans in the Australian Football League, Sydney FC A-League football team, NSW Waratahs rugby union team have their administration offices at Moore Park and Sydney Football Stadium is their home ground. The Moore Park Magpies are a local junior rugby league team; the Hordern Pavilion is a multipurpose entertainment venue, while next door the Royal Hall of Industries hosts a range of exhibitions and commercial events and shows. Moore Park houses Kippax Lake, the ES Marks Athletics Field, the Moore Park Golf, the Parklands Sports Centre and a number of sports fields. Moore Park, served by the Department of Education, is the location of Sydney Boys High School, Sydney Girls High School
Kensington, New South Wales
Kensington is a suburb in south-eastern Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. It is located 6 kilometres south-east of the Sydney central business district, in the local government area of the City of Randwick, in the Eastern Suburbs region. Colloquially, Kensington is referred to as "Kenso". Kensington lies to west of Randwick Racecourse; the principal landmarks of the suburb are the main campus of the University of New South Wales, National Institute of Dramatic Art, the exclusive Australian Golf Club. Kensington is a residential suburb close to the Sydney CBD. Prior to European settlement, the area was inhabited by the Cadigal people, one of the salt-water clans of the Darug language group; the Cadigal people were known for their fishing skills and travelled in canoes. The 1828 census showed some 50–60 clans of Cadigal people living by the Lachlan swamps of Kensington and surrounding areas. Swamps provided fruit, nectar and tubers. Few Aboriginals live in Kensington today; the suburb now known as Kensington was once called the "Lachlan Mills Estate", "Stannumville" and "Epsom".
It became Kensington in the late 1880s. Samuel Terry, the convict who became Australia's first millionaire, received a land grant in 1819. Daniel Cooper an ex-convict acquired land here in 1825 with his partner Solomon Levey, whom he bought out. Cooper's nephew Daniel planned to subdivide but in 1865 all developments was forbidden. Residential land was issued in the late 1880s and Kensington was to be the equivalent of London's distinguished suburb, Kensington. Kensington Racecourse opened in 1893 on the site of the current University of New South Wales, it did not compete with nearby Randwick Racecourse because it held midweek meetings, pony racing and related sports like polo. The course was used to house troops and horses during the Boer War, World War I and World War II, as well as a migrant hostel during the late 1940s; the land was resumed in 1950 to construct Sydney's second university. The W. D. & H. O. Wills tobacco factory opened in Todman Avenue in 1902; the factory site featured the Raleigh Park Social Club, an extensive sporting complex named after Sir Walter Raleigh who first introduced tobacco from North America to Europe.
The factory closed in 1989 and was converted into a high density residential neighbourhood by the Mirvac Group and Westfield in a joint venture known as Raleigh Park. The building used by the company is a two-storey brick building in the Georgian Revival style, it was designed by Joseland and Gilling and built c.1930. It was used by the Menzies Group of Companies as of 2013, it is heritage-listed. The hill that dominates West Kensington is occupied by the Sacred Heart Monastery, the Australian headquarters of the Catholic Missionaries of the Sacred Heart; the monastery was designed by Hennessy and Sheerin and built in 1895. It is a large stone building in the Gothic style and features an attic storey and a prominent central tower, it includes a brick chapel in a Romanesque-Byzantine style, designed by Mullane and built in 1939, and, joined to the monastery by a matching brick cloister. The monastery is a prominent landmark which can be seen from various parts of Kensington and is now listed on the Register of the National Estate.
The monastery publishes the long-running magazine Annals Australasia. Adjacent to the monastery is the Our Lady of the Sacred Heart Convent, a brick building in Federation Gothic style, built in 1897, it was the original site for primary and secondary colleges that were established soon after the construction of the convent, but these soon outgrew the premises. It is now the base for OLSH Provincial House and St Joseph's Aged Care Facility, while Our Lady of the Sacred Heart College is situated next door. Across the road is Our Lady of the Rosary Church, Jubilee Hall and the Our Lady of the Rosary Primary School, which complete a large religious complex; the convent and church are heritage-listed. In the mid-twentieth century, the monastery was the home of the anti-Communist organiser Dr P. J. Ryan and the popular Catholic controversialist Dr Leslie Rumble. Kensington's streets are named after places in London and local flora; some examples are: Balfour Lane – Arthur James Balfour, the first earl of Balfour, a British statesman and Prime Minister Doncaster Avenue – Named after the racecourse in England Boronia Street – A flowering shrub grown extensively in the area.
The line from Surry Hills to West Kensington commenced as a steam powered system in 1881. At this point the line travelled along Crown Street as far as Cleveland Street; the line was extended to Phillip Street in 1909, Todman Avenue in 1912, to its final terminus down Todman Avenue, West Kensington in 1937. The line commencing from the city branched off from the tramlines in Oxford Street and ran down Crown Street to Cleveland Street in Surry Hills south along Baptist Street to Phillip Street, where it swung left into Crescent Street before running south along Dowling Street, tuning left into Todman Avenue where it terminated. Services operated full-time from Circular Quay, to Railway in peak hours; the line down Crown Street closed in 1957, the remainder stayed open until 1961 to allow access to Dowling St Depot. As well as servicing West Kensington, tram services operated on Anzac Parade, servicing the Maroubra and La Perouse line. Tay Park is the site of the old Toll Bar where local maintenance revenue was collected from 1854 to 1894.
The toll was 1 shilling for a four-wheeled wago
Cross City Tunnel
The Cross City Tunnel is a 2.1 km-long twin-tunnel tollway located in Sydney, New South Wales, operated by Transurban. It links Darling Harbour on the Western fringe of the central business district to Rushcutters Bay in the Eastern Suburbs; the tunnel is two distinct tunnels and they follow a route underneath William Street and Park or Bathurst Streets, depending on whether it is eastbound or westbound. In early 2002, a year before construction began, transport planner Michelle Zeibots was quoted in local newspapers saying the tunnel would not reach its traffic targets. In December 2006 the tollway became insolvent due to low traffic volumes, accumulating debts of over A$500 million. On 20 June 2007, Leighton Contractors and investment bank ABN AMRO were chosen as preferred purchasers of the Cross City Tunnel Group for $700 million. In June 2014 the tunnel was sold again, this time to Transurban, after the new owners since 2007 went into voluntary administration, it is owned and operated, but will revert to public ownership in 2035.
The tunnel in fact comprises two road tunnels — one eastbound and one westbound — each with two traffic lanes, in addition to a third small ventilation tunnel. The Cross City Tunnel links with the Eastern Distributor, enabling vehicles travelling from the West to travel to the Airport and Southern Suburbs. From the Eastern Distributor Northbound, motorists have the ability to connect to the Cross City Tunnel Westbound, avoiding the CBD once again; the tunnel was Sydney's first electronic tollway requiring the driver to have an electronic tolling tag installed in their car or register for an electronic pass. Sydney's Cross City Tunnel was predicted to fail before construction began. In February 2002, a year before tunnelling commenced and four years before it fell into receivership due to low traffic volumes, Sydney traffic planner Michelle Zeibots told local media that the tunnel was incapable of carrying the volume of cars that the Transport Minister, Carl Scully had predicted, she said. While the NRMA was enthusiastic about building the new motorway, Dr Zeibots was scathing.
"It's not a serious transport project," she said at the time. "The inputs and outputs just don't add up."Despite the warnings of a traffic shortfall, in 2002, the government of Bob Carr awarded Cross City Motorways the contract to build and operate an east-west tunnel underneath the Sydney CBD. Construction work for the Cross City Tunnel commenced in January 2003, the tunnel was scheduled to open in October 2005. In April 2005 the NSW government announced that the tunnel would open four months early, on Sunday 12 June; the opening day was subsequently postponed due to detailed commissioning works, with the official opening going ahead on Sunday 28 August 2005. The tunnel was opened by the Premier of New South Wales, Morris Iemma, using the same pair of scissors used to open the Sydney Harbour Bridge in 1932, the Sydney Harbour Tunnel in 1992 and the Anzac Bridge in 1995. Prior to the vehicular opening there was a charity walk-through, as is customary for new roadways in Sydney, which attracted a large number of public visitors.
The first traffic passed through the tunnel late on 28 August. A three-week toll-free period was announced by the operators. At the same time, the operators announced a freeze on toll increases for twelve months and the fee for casual users was waived. In February 2006, media speculation of a "buy-out" by the New South Wales government began; the rumoured price would exceed A$1 billion. The government stated no discussions had taken place, the Cross City Tunnel Consortium stated that they were not considering selling the tunnel and were "in for the long haul". At the time the average trips per day was 30,000; this was shortly followed by a report from the NSW Upper House committee headed by MP Fred Nile recommending that the toll be reduced, surface road closures reversed. While the recommendations could not be enforced, the Cross City Tunnel Consortium did consult with the government before announcing a discount to the toll, as well as other changes on 3 March 2006; the Consortium announced that the toll would be halved to $1.78 for three months, that some planned road closures would not be pursued, that some existing road closures would be reversed.
Two days prior to the end of the half-price toll period, the Premier of NSW, Morris Iemma, ended negotiations with the Cross City Tunnel Consortium without an agreement, announcing the immediate reversal of some road closures, contrary to the contract. In November 2006, it was reported that the motorway was in financial difficulties, that additional equity would be required from the tunnel's investors in order to avoid placing the tunnel in administration. At the same time, it was suggested that traffic volumes of between 60,000 and 90,000 per day were needed in order for the consortium to meet the tunnel interest payments; the NSW government responded to the reports by indicating that it would not buy out the tunnel, nor assist in its financing. On 27 December 2006, a syndicate of 16 Australian and International banks appointed the insolvency firm KordaMentha as receivers and managers for Cross City Motorway Limited after the project accrued debts exceeding A$560 million; the tunnel was sold.
On 13 September 2013 the new owner of the tunnel placed itself in voluntary administration, saying that it was unable to refinance its debt due to action by the New South Wales government to claim $64 million in stamp duty on the original sale. Transurban purchased the tunne