The Georgenfelder Hochmoor is a raised bog in the German Ore Mountains of central Europe, not far from Zinnwald-Georgenfeld. It is part of a larger bog or moor complex, that lies to the south on the far side of the Germany's national border in the Czech Republic and which, since time immemorial, has been known as "The Lake"; the Georgenfelder Hochmoor is one of the oldest nature reserves in Saxony. Zinnwald-Georgenfeld, which lies right on the German-Czech border, is about 45 kilometres south of Dresden and four kilometres south of Altenberg; this dispersed settlement, on the plateau at the crest of the eastern Ore Mountains, lies at an elevation of 780 to 880 metres above sea level and is the highest village in the eastern Ore Mountains. The Georgenfelder Hochmoor is part of this municipality; the formation of the raised bog goes back to the Elster glaciation. The maximum extent of the inland ice mass at that time reached as far as the so-called flint line, which, in the district of Sächsische Schweiz-Osterzgebirge runs along the line Tharandt – Rabenau – Freital – Kreischa – Weesenstein – Cottaer Spitzberg.
The ridgeline in this area had a permanent cap of firn. When this firn cap melted, it formed small lakes in the hollows. In the warm period that followed the glacial period, vegetation grew on the shores of these waters. Reeds and horsetails initiated the formation of peat. Meanwhile, falling deciduous leaves and grass collected in the waters; the pollen trapped in the fen still enables today, after thousands of years, an accurate determination of the prevailing vegetation and the climate. The dry and warm climate period that followed allowed this reed bog to dry out. Individual trees birch, colonised these nutrient-rich areas. After this period followed a wet period with low levels of sunshine; the enormous rainfall raised water levels immensely, why peat moss species colonised quickly and, due to their rapid growth and entirely displaced the trees. Dead trees were covered in an airtight fashion by the moss; this layer is referred to today as old forest peat. The peat moss continued to grow upwards indefinitely.
This formed a thick layer of peat. The surface of this vegetation is curved towards the centre, why it is called a raised bog; the geographic elevation of the bog has thus nothing to do with the term "raised bog", because they occur in the lowlands. The subsequent moderately dry climatic period triggered off a new tree growth in the area and bog pines colonised the terrain; the peat mosses formed the older moss peat. Subsequently, the climate became cold and wet again, mosses threatened the woodland cover; these dead trees are now referred to as the younger layer of forest peat. In our current moderately dry climate, bog pine is taking hold again. On the bare plateaux of the Ore Mountain ridgeline several bogs have formed over the course of time; these are also watersheds. Another bog region in the immediate vicinity is the Fürstenau Heath Nature Reserve. Half mature moss peat forms a layer about 8 cm thick over 100 years. Mature moss peat forms a layer of 2 to 3 centimetres in the same time; the Georgenfelder Hochmoor is thus about 10,000 years old.
The nature reserve covers about 11 hectares and is located at an elevation of 875 metres above sea level. It is only the small western tip of an extensive region of bog between the mountains known as the German and Czech Lugsteins. On the initiative of the State Association for Saxon Conservation, the region was purchased in 1926 and declared a nature reserve. A school headmaster, was prominent in the purchase and the botanical research of the reserve; the Saxon botanist, Court Councillor A. Naumann, associate Professor of Botany at the Dresden Veterinary College undertook extensive research of the Georgenfelder Hochmoor; the bog was made accessible on foot by the construction of a board walk. Due to intensive peat cutting, the water balance of the area was disturbed, resulting in the death of some plant species. Today and bog bilberry from the North European tundra still colonise the bog; the predominant species, however, is bog pine, but some silver birch and spruce trees have established themselves.
The bog pine stems from the mountain pine of the high mountains. In the Georgenfelder Hochmoor it is found as a knee-high shrub, a mountain pine or a crooked pine; these forms of growth are adapted to the harsh climate of this mountain range. Blueberries and cranberries can be found on the dry terrain; the sheath cottongrass, by contrast, has colonized the wet spots. The following plants may be found in the reserve: sedges, peat moss, cottongrass and butterwort. Longleaf pine Downy birch Dwarf birch Peat moss Bilberry Wild rosemary Sheathed cottonsedge Common cottongrass Round-leaved sundew Moorland spotted orchid Cowberry Bog bilberry Cranberry Heather Marsh violet, Moor grass Arctic starflower Few-flowered sedge A. Naumann: Aus der Geschichte unserer Moore. In: Mitteilungen des Landesvereins Sächsischer Heimatschutz. Heft 1/2, 1927 Karl Tröger: Schutz unserem Georgenfelder Hochmoor. Kreiskommision Natur- und Heimatfreunde im Deutschen Kulturbund, Kreis Dippoldiswalde50
Saxon Switzerland is a hilly climbing area and national park around the Elbe valley south-east of Dresden in Saxony, Germany. Together with the Bohemian Switzerland in the Czech Republic it forms the Elbe Sandstone Mountains. Saxon Switzerland alone has some 1,000 climbing peaks, as well as several hollows; the area is popular with international climbers. The administrative district for the area is Sächsische Schweiz-Osterzgebirge; the fortress of Königstein is a well-known landmark. The German name for Saxon Switzerland, Sächsische Schweiz, appeared in the 18th century. Two Swiss artists, Adrian Zingg and Anton Graff, were appointed in 1766 to the Dresden Academy of Art. From their new, adopted home they look eastwards and saw, about a day's walk away, a hill range, it had a strange, flattish profile, without any actual summits They felt the landscape was reminiscent of their homeland, the Swiss Jura, reported in their exchange of letters on the difference between their homeland and "Saxon Switzerland".
The Saxon part of the Elbe Sandstone Mountains had been referred to as the Meissen Highlands, Meissen Oberland or Heath above Schandau. The description became popular through the publication of the name by Wilhelm Lebrecht Götzinger. In his books he made the term known to a wide audience. In English the usual translation is "Saxon Switzerland"; however other sources call it "Saxony Switzerland" or "Swiss Saxony". To the east, Saxon Switzerland transitions into the Lusatian Highlands and, to the west, into the Ore Mountains; the adjacent Czech part of the Elbe Sandstone Mountains is known as the Bohemian Switzerland. The highest elevation in Saxon Switzerland is the Großer Zschirnstein at 562 m above sea level. In the classification of natural regions by Emil Meynen, Saxon Switzerland was a major unit within the Saxon-Bohemian Chalk Sandstone Region, whose only other major unit on German soil was the Zittau Mountains; the boundary between the two mountain ranges, the Elbe Sandstone Mountains and the Lusatian Mountains, is located on Czech territory, why these natural regions are geographically separated from one another.
The Ecosystem and Regional Character working group of the Saxon Academy of Sciences in Leipzig has now, at the beginning of the 21st century, grouped all ranges in the Saxon-Bohemian border region into the super unit Saxon Highlands and Uplands. The Lusatian Mountains between Saxon Switzerland and the Zittau Mountains belong to it, whereas Meynen had grouped it with the loess hill country to the north and east into the major unit of Upper Lusatia. See Elbe Sandstone Mountains As a rule, two types of hill may be distinguished. Numerous rock formations in the Elbe Sandstone Mountains, in both Saxon Switzerland and Bohemian Switzerland, are known locally in this region as Steine. Prominent examples are the Lilienstein, the Gohrisch and the Papststein; this description does not, include the dome-shaped Kuppen such as the Waitzdorfer Höhe or the Großer Winterberg, whose bedrock is made of volcanic basalt or granitic material. The Cretaceous sandstone formations soar above the so-called "levels" of their surrounding area, the former level of the River Elbe, represent the remains of an old peneplain.
In the course of the Late Tertiary, uplifting of the Ore Mountains and sideways pressure from the Lusatian Highlands shattered the sandstone plate along lines that intersected like a grid and this, combined with the increasing stream velocity of the Elbe and regressive erosion in its side valleys, offered new lines of attack and new routes for the destructive power of water. The larger table hills, or those deeply fissured like Zirkelstein, Kaiserkrone or forested, but these too broke up as a result of erosive destruction into long ridges or into individual rock pinnacles. Morphologically harder sections of strata, that resisted karstification longer and more generally form the uppermost layers; the collapse of rock structures is therefore a result of erosion from below or from the flanks. During the Dark Ages, the region was settled by Slavs and was part of the Kingdom of Bohemia during the Middle Ages. About 1000 years ago Bohemian-Saxon Switzerland was the borderland of three Slavic tribes.
The Nisane tribe, the Milzane tribe and in the south the Dacine tribe shaped the political and economic landscape at that time. It was not until the 15th century that the area now called Saxon Switzerland came under Saxon hegemony when it became part of the Margraviate of Meissen with boundaries corresponding to those of today; the development of the area for tourism began in earnest in the 19th century. In connexion with that, one of the first trolleybus lines in the world was opened in Saxon Switzerland, the Biela Valley Trolleybus, in operation from 1901 to 1904 and worked out of Königstein. Romantic artists were inspired by the beauty of wilderness, like the painter Ludwig Richter or the composer Carl Maria von Weber, who set his famous opera Der Freischütz with its Wolfsschlucht scene set near the town of Rathen. In the Nazi era the description of German territories as Schweiz was banned. For that reason, with effect from 19 October 1938, the official term "Sächsische Schweiz" was re
Dippoldiswalde is a town in the Free State of Saxony, administrative center of the Sächsische Schweiz-Osterzgebirge district. It is situated 23 km east of Freiberg, 18 km south of Dresden; the town is situated on the Weisseritz railway, a narrow gauge railway powered by steam locomotives
The Müglitz is a river, about 49 km long, a left tributary of the Elbe in the German state of Saxony. It rises in the Eastern Ore Mountains on the border between the German state of Saxony and the Czech Republic near the demolished Bohemian village of Mohelnice from two headstreams: The White Müglitz rises near the border by the former village of Přední Cínovec and forms the border stream with Saxony; the Black Müglitz rises near the abandoned village of Ebersdorf and its middle reaches flow through the northern part of the Black Meadows. The name Sörnitz comes from Slavic zornice'mill stream'. During severe weather on 8 July 1927 the stream became a torrent that tore up the ground, changed its riverbed, flowed down the valley as a mud flow. From its source in the Haberfeld Forest, the stream forms the state border for about 2 km. From the German village of Müglitz, that lies only just below the confluence of the White and Black Müglitz, the Müglitz runs on Saxon territory, it flows by several villages including Lauenstein, Glashütte, Müglitztal, Dohna, before emptying into the Elbe at Heidenau.
List of rivers of Saxony Deutsche Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin: Um Altenberg, Geising und Lauenstein. Werte der deutschen Heimat, Band 7. Berlin 1964. Martin Ernst & Manfred Stephan: Rezente Hochflutsedimente der Müglitz südlich Dresden im Vergleich mit Sandsteinbänken der Erdgeschichte. Jahresberichte und Mitteilungen des Oberrheinischen Geologischen Vereins, Neue Folge, 89: 11–35, Stuttgart 2007. Jürgen Helfricht: Wahre Geschichten um Sachsens schönstes Tal. Tauchaer Verlag, Taucha 2000, ISBN 3-89772-022-1; the 2002 flood in the Müglitz valley
The Saidenbach Dam is a dam in the German state of Saxony. Its reservoir supplies drinking water to Chemnitz and, in conjunction with the Central Ore Mountain Dam System and its other dams - Neunzehnhain I und II and Einsiedel - contributes to the supply of the region covered by the South Saxony Long Distance Water Association. To a lesser extent the dam is used to generate electricity and for flood protection; the actual dam is a curved gravity dam based on the Intze Principle. The dam was built from 1929 to 1933 in the vicinity of Lengefeld in the Ore Mountains and was taken into service in 1933, it is a "large dam" according to ICOLD criteria. The streams impounded are the Haselbach, Lippersdorfer Bach and Hölzelbergbach. A public footpath runs along the dam crest. Bathing and leisure sports in the reservoir are not permitted, but the public may walk around the reservoir and it is available for fishing; the Saidenbach Dam has a pre-dam and ten upper basins, of which four are filled. List of reservoirs and dams in Germany Information on the dams of the Saxon State Dam Administration
Altenberg is a town in the Sächsische Schweiz-Osterzgebirge district, in the Free State of Saxony, Germany. The town is situated in the Ore Mountains, 32 km south of Dresden, 15 km northwest of Teplice, Czech Republic; the Great Pinge of Altenberg is a giant pinge or collapsed mineshaft above old mining excavations throughout the last centuries. Today this 12 ha area, bordering the town area, is considered to be one out of 77 of the most important geotopes in Germany. DKB-Eiskanal: The Altenberg bobsleigh and skeleton track venue; the basalt mountain Geisingberg with mountain hut and look-out. On the flanks of the hill, at the Geisingberg Meadows preserve area, there are important populations of globe-flowers and wild orchids, blooming in spring and early summer. Botanischer Garten Schellerhau, a botanical garden It is home of the Altenberg bobsleigh and skeleton track, in use since 1987; the FIBT World Championships 2008 ran February 11–24, 2008 in Altenberg, for the fifth time, having done so in 1991, 1994, 1999, 2000.
It was the first time Altenberg has hosted all of the events at one championship Friedrich Leibniz, philosopher, father of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Horst Koschka, biathlete Manfred Beer, biathlete Michael Rösch, Olympic champion with the biathlon men's relay at the 2006 Winter Olympics in Turin Altenberg
Elbe Sandstone Mountains
The Elbe Sandstone Mountains called the Elbe sandstone highlands is a mountain range straddling the border between the state of Saxony in southeastern Germany and the North Bohemian region of the Czech Republic, with about three-quarters of the area lying on the German side. The mountains are referred to as Saxon Switzerland and Bohemian Switzerland in both German and Czech or combined as Saxon-Bohemian Switzerland. In both countries, the mountain range has been declared a national park; the name derives from the sandstone, carved by erosion. The river Elbe breaks through the mountain range in a narrow valley; the Elbe Sandstone Mountains extend on both sides of the Elbe from the Saxon town of Pirna in the northwest toward Bohemian Děčín in the southeast. Their highest peak with 723 m is the Děčínský Sněžník in Bohemian Switzerland on the left bank of the river in Bohemian Switzerland north of Děčín; the mountain range links the Ore Mountains in the west with the Lusatian Highlands range of the Sudetes in the east.
Saxon Switzerland and the Zittau Mountains of the Lusatian Mountains form the Saxon-Bohemian Chalk Sandstone Region. The most striking characteristic of this dissected rocky mountain range is the extraordinary variety of terrain within the smallest area. Unique amongst the Central European Uplands are the constant changes between plains, table mountains and rocky regions with undeveloped areas of forest; this diversity is ecologically significant. The variety of different locations, each with its own conditions in terms of soil and microclimate, has produced an enormous richness of species; the numbers of ferns and mosses alone is unmatched by any other of the German central uplands. The occurrence of Elbe sandstones and hence the Elbe Sandstone Mountains themselves is related to widespread deposition by a former sea in the Upper Cretaceous epoch. On the Saxon side of the border the term "Elbe Valley Cretaceous" is used, referring to a region stretching from Meißen-Oberau in the northwest through Dresden and Pirna into Saxon Switzerland, and, formed by sandstones and other rocks as well as basal conglomerates of older origin.
Several erosion relics from Reinhardtsgrimma through Dippoldiswalde and the Tharandt Forest to Siebenlehn form isolated examples south of Dresden. They are characterised by sandstones. On the Bohemian side the sandstone beds form part of the North Bohemian Cretaceous; the chalk sediments of the Zittau Basin are counted as part of the latter due to their regional-geological relationships. The sedimentary sequences of the Cretaceous sea continue across a wide area of the Czech Republic to Moravia. Together these beds form the Saxon-Bohemian Cretaceous Zone. In Czech geological circles, the Elbe Valley Cretaceous is described as the foothills of the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin; the eroded sandstone landscape of this region was formed from depositions that accumulated on the bottom of the sea millions of years ago. Large rivers carried sand and other eroded debris into the Cretaceous sea. Rough quartz sand and fine marl sank and became lithified layer by layer. A compact sandstone sequence developed, about 20 x 30 kilometres wide and up to 600 metres thick dating to the lower Cenomanian to Santonian stages.
The tremendous variety of shapes in the sandstone landscape is a result of the subsequent chemical and physical erosion and biological processes acting on the rocks formed from those sands laid down during the Cretaceous Period. The inlets of a Cretaceous sea, together with marine currents, carried away sand over a long period of time into a shallow zone of the sea and the diagenetic processes at differing pressure regimes resulted in the formation of sandstone beds, its stratification is characterized by variations in the horizontal structure as well as a typical but small fossil presence and variably porous strata. After the Cretaceous sea had retreated, the surface of the land was shaped by weathering influences and watercourses, of which the Elbe made the deepest incision; the Lusatian granodiorite was uplifted over the 600 metre thick sandstone slab along the Lusatian Fault and pushed it downwards until it fractured. This northern boundary of the sandstone deposit lies along the line Pillnitz–Hohnstein–Hinterhermsdorf–Krásná Lípa.
In the Tertiary period, the adjacent region of the Central Bohemian Uplands and the Lusatian Mountains was shaped and affected by intense volcanism. The most striking evidence of this phase in the earth's history are the conical basaltic hills of Růžovský vrch, Cottaer Spitzberg and Raumberg, but Großer and Kleiner Winterberg. At its southwestern edge the sandstone plate was uplifted by over 200 metres at the Karsdorf Fault, whereby the slab was tilted more and increased the gradient of the Elbe River; the water masses cut valleys into the rock with their streambeds and contributed in places to the formation of the rock faces. Over time the gradients reduced, the streambed of the Elbe widened out and changed its course time and again as a result of the climatic influences of the ice ages; the mineral composition of the sandstone beds has a direct effect on the morphology of the terrain. The fine-grained form with clayey-silty cement between the quartz grains causes banks and slo