The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans, with an area of about 106,460,000 square kilometers. It covers 20 percent of the Earth's surface and about 29 percent of its water surface area, it separates the "Old World" from the "New World". The Atlantic Ocean occupies an elongated, S-shaped basin extending longitudinally between Europe and Africa to the east, the Americas to the west; as one component of the interconnected global ocean, it is connected in the north to the Arctic Ocean, to the Pacific Ocean in the southwest, the Indian Ocean in the southeast, the Southern Ocean in the south. The Equatorial Counter Current subdivides it into the North Atlantic Ocean and the South Atlantic Ocean at about 8°N. Scientific explorations of the Atlantic include the Challenger expedition, the German Meteor expedition, Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and the United States Navy Hydrographic Office; the oldest known mentions of an "Atlantic" sea come from Stesichorus around mid-sixth century BC: Atlantikoi pelágei and in The Histories of Herodotus around 450 BC: Atlantis thalassa where the name refers to "the sea beyond the pillars of Heracles", said to be part of the sea that surrounds all land.
Thus, on one hand, the name refers to Atlas, the Titan in Greek mythology, who supported the heavens and who appeared as a frontispiece in Medieval maps and lent his name to modern atlases. On the other hand, to early Greek sailors and in Ancient Greek mythological literature such as the Iliad and the Odyssey, this all-encompassing ocean was instead known as Oceanus, the gigantic river that encircled the world. In contrast, the term "Atlantic" referred to the Atlas Mountains in Morocco and the sea off the Strait of Gibraltar and the North African coast; the Greek word thalassa has been reused by scientists for the huge Panthalassa ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea hundreds of millions of years ago. The term "Aethiopian Ocean", derived from Ancient Ethiopia, was applied to the Southern Atlantic as late as the mid-19th century. During the Age of Discovery, the Atlantic was known to English cartographers as the Great Western Ocean; the term The Pond is used by British and American speakers in context to the Atlantic Ocean, as a form of meiosis, or sarcastic understatement.
The term dates to as early as 1640, first appearing in print in pamphlet released during the reign of Charles I, reproduced in 1869 in Nehemiah Wallington's Historical Notices of Events Occurring Chiefly in The Reign of Charles I, where "great Pond" is used in reference to the Atlantic Ocean by Francis Windebank, Charles I's Secretary of State. The International Hydrographic Organization defined the limits of the oceans and seas in 1953, but some of these definitions have been revised since and some are not used by various authorities and countries, see for example the CIA World Factbook. Correspondingly, the extent and number of oceans and seas varies; the Atlantic Ocean is bounded on the west by South America. It connects to the Arctic Ocean through the Denmark Strait, Greenland Sea, Norwegian Sea and Barents Sea. To the east, the boundaries of the ocean proper are Europe: the Strait of Africa. In the southeast, the Atlantic merges into the Indian Ocean; the 20° East meridian, running south from Cape Agulhas to Antarctica defines its border.
In the 1953 definition it extends south to Antarctica, while in maps it is bounded at the 60° parallel by the Southern Ocean. The Atlantic has irregular coasts indented by numerous bays and seas; these include the Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, part of the Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico, Labrador Sea, Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea all of the Scotia Sea, other tributary water bodies. Including these marginal seas the coast line of the Atlantic measures 111,866 km compared to 135,663 km for the Pacific. Including its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers an area of 106,460,000 km2 or 23.5% of the global ocean and has a volume of 310,410,900 km3 or 23.3% of the total volume of the earth's oceans. Excluding its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers 81,760,000 km2 and has a volume of 305,811,900 km3; the North Atlantic covers 41,490,000 km2 and the South Atlantic 40,270,000 km2. The average depth is 3,646 m and the maximum depth, the Milwaukee Deep in the Puerto Rico Trench, is 8,486 m.
The bathymetry of the Atlantic is dominated by a submarine mountain range called the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It runs from 87°N or 300 km south of the North Pole to the subantarctic Bouvet Island at 42°S; the MAR divides the Atlantic longitudinally into two halves, in each of which a series of basins are delimited by secondary, transverse ridges. The MAR reaches above 2,000 m along most of its length, but is interrupted by larger transform faults at two places: the Romanche Trench near the Equator and the Gibbs Fracture Zone at 53°N; the MAR is a barrier for bottom water, but at these two transform faults deep water currents can pass from one side to the othe
Chesapeake Bay Bridge–Tunnel
The Chesapeake Bay Bridge–Tunnel is a 23-mile bridge–tunnel crossing at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay, the Hampton Roads harbor, nearby mouths of the James and Elizabeth Rivers in the American state of Virginia. It connects Northampton County on the Delmarva Peninsula and Eastern Shore with Virginia Beach, Norfolk and Portsmouth on the Western Shore and South side / Tidewater which are part of the Hampton Roads metropolitan area of eight close cities around the harbor's shores and peninsula; the Bridge-Tunnel combined 12 miles of trestle, two 1-mile-long tunnels, four artificial islands, four high-level bridges 2 miles of causeway, 5.5 miles of northeast and southwest approach roads—crossing the Chesapeake Bay and preserving traffic on the Thimble Shoals and Chesapeake dredged shipping channels leading to the Atlantic. It replaced vehicle ferry services that operated from South Hampton Roads and from the Virginia Peninsula since the 1930s. Financed by toll revenue bonds, the Bridge–Tunnel was opened on April 15, 1964, remains one of only ten bridge–tunnel systems in the world, three of which are located in the water dominated Hampton Roads area of Tidewater Virginia.
As of May 2018 the Chesapeake Bay Bridge–Tunnel has been crossed by more than 130 million vehicles. The CBBT complex carries U. S. Route 13, the main north–south highway on Virginia's Eastern Shore on the Delmarva peninsula, and, as part of the East Coast's longstanding Ocean Highway, provides the only straight direct link along the East Coast and Atlantic Ocean, between the Eastern Shore and South Hampton Roads regions, as well as an alternate route to link the Northeast U. S. A. and points in between with Norfolk and further south to the Carolinas and Florida. The Bridge–Tunnel saves motorists 95 miles and 1 1⁄2 hours on a trip between Virginia Beach/Norfolk and points north and east of the Chesapeake and Delaware Valley and Bay without going through the traffic congestion in the Baltimore–Washington Metropolitan Area further west in Maryland and Northern Virginia; the $15 toll is offset by some savings of highway tolls in Maryland and Delaware and avoiding heavy traffic on north-south Interstate 95 built in the 1960s and completed in the late 1970s and parallel older United States Route 1 from the 1920s.
From 1995 to 1999, at an additional cost of $200 million, the capacity of the above-water portion of bridges on the facility was increased and widened to four lanes. An upgrade of the two-lane tunnels is underway; the crossing was named the Lucius J. Kellam Jr. Bridge–Tunnel in August 1987, 23 years after opening, honoring one of the civic leaders who had long worked for its development and operation; the complex was built by and is operated by the Chesapeake Bay Bridge and Tunnel District, a political subdivision of the Commonwealth of Virginia governed by the Chesapeake Bay Bridge and Tunnel Commission and in cooperation with the state Department of Transportation. Costs are recovered through toll collections. In 2002, a Joint Legislative Audit and Review Commission study commissioned by the Virginia General Assembly concluded that "given the inability of the state to fund future capital requirements of the CBBT, the District and Commission should be retained to operate and maintain the Bridge–Tunnel as a toll facility in perpetuity."
Because of similar names, the Bridge-Tunnel is confused with the Chesapeake Bay Bridge further north in Maryland crossing the middle portion of the Bay from Annapolis to Kent Island on the Maryland Eastern Shore of Delmarva. It was built with two lanes and a higher suspension segment in the middle from 1949 - 1952, with a second parallel wider span of three lanes in 1973, it is one of the highest bridges in the world. In December 1606, the Virginia Company of London sent an expedition to North America to establish a settlement in the Colony of Virginia. After sailing across the Atlantic Ocean from England, they reached the New World at the southern edge of the mouth of what is now known as the Chesapeake Bay, they named the two flanking Virginia points of land /capes like gateposts at the entrance to the long extensive estuary after the sons of their king, James I, the southern Cape Henry, for the eldest and presumed heir, Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, the northern Cape Charles, for his younger brother, Duke of York.
A few weeks they established their first permanent settlement on the southern, side of the Bay, several miles upstream along the newly named James River at Jamestown on the northern shore on a close-in island for protection, the first permanent settlement in English North America. Across the Bay, the area north of Cape Charles was located along what became known as the Delmarva Peninsula; as it bordered the Atlantic Ocean to its east, the region became known as Virginia and neighboring Maryland's Eastern Shore. As the entire colony grew, the Bay was a formidable transportation obstacle for exchanges with the Virginia mainland on the Western Shore. One of the eight original shires of Virginia, Accomac Shire was established there in 1634 becoming the two counties of modern times, Accomack County in the north and Northampton to the south. In comparison to mainland regions and growth was limited by the need to cross the Bay. Little industrial base grew there, with the oceanfront peninsula staying predominantly rural with small towns and villages oriented towards life on the waters, most residents made thei
Accomack County, Virginia
Accomack County is a United States county located in the eastern edge of the Commonwealth of Virginia. Together and Northampton counties make up the Eastern Shore of Virginia, which in turn is part of the Delmarva Peninsula, bordered by the Chesapeake Bay and the Atlantic Ocean; the Accomack county seat is the town of Accomac. The Eastern Shore of Virginia was known as "Accomac Shire," until it was renamed Northampton County in 1642; the present Accomack County was created from Northampton County in 1663. The county and the original shire were named for the Accawmack Indians, who resided in the area when the English first explored it in 1603; as of the 2010 census, the total population was 33,164 people. The population of Accomack has remained stable over the last century, though Accomack is one of the poorest parts of Virginia. Members of an English voyage of exploration landed in the area in 1603, four years before the founding of the Jamestown Colony. Captain John Smith visited the region in 1608.
The Accawmacke nation at the time numbered around 2000, were governed by Debedeavon, a paramount chief called by the English the "Laughing King". He became a staunch ally of the English newcomers, granting them several large areas for their own use. Accomac Shire was established in 1634 as one of the eight original shires of Virginia; the name comes from the native word Accawmack, which meant "on the other side". In 1642 the name was changed to Northampton, following a policy of eliminating "heathen names". Northampton was divided into two counties in 1663; the northern adopted the original name. In 1940, the General Assembly added a "k" to the end of the county's name to arrive at its current spelling; the name of "Accomack County" first appeared in the Decisions of the United States Board on Geographical Names in 1943. In 1670, the Virginia Colony's Royal Governor William Berkeley abolished Accomac County, but the Virginia General Assembly re-created it in 1671. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,310 square miles, of which 450 square miles is land and 861 square miles is water.
It is the largest county in Virginia by total area. The state of Delaware is 36 miles away from the Virginia and Maryland state-line in Greenbackville; as of the census of 2010, there were 33,164 people, 15,299 households, 10,388 families residing in the county. The population density was 84 people per square mile. There were 19,550 housing units at an average density of 43 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 65.3% White, 28.1% Black or African American, 0.4% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 3.9% from other races, 1.6% from two or more races. 8.6% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Black or African American, English American, German and Mexican. There were 15,299 households out of which 28.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.20% were married couples living together, 14.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.10% were non-families. 27.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 2.96. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.30% under the age of 18, 8.20% from 18 to 24, 26.20% from 25 to 44, 24.70% from 45 to 64, 16.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 94.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.00 males. Accomack and adjacent Northampton County are the two poorest counties in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Clerk of the Circuit Court: Samuel H. Cooper, Jr. Commissioner of the Revenue: Leslie Savage Commonwealth's Attorney: Junius S. Morgan Sheriff: Todd E. Godwin Treasurer: Dana T. Bundick Accomack County is represented by Democrat Lynwood W. Lewis, Jr. in the Virginia Senate, Republican Robert Bloxom in the Virginia House of Delegates, Democrat Elaine Luria in the U. S. House of Representatives. Somerset County, Maryland - northwest Worcester County, Maryland - northeast Northampton County, Virginia - south Middlesex County, Virginia - west Lancaster County, Virginia - west Northumberland County, Virginia - west Assateague Island National Seashore Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge Martin National Wildlife Refuge Wallops Island National Wildlife Refuge Accomack County Airport US 13 US 13 Bus.
SR 175 SR 176 SR 178 SR 179 SR 180 SR 182 SR 187 SR 316 The county is served by Accomack County Public Schools. High schools and K-12 schools in this district are: Arcadia High School Chincoteague High School Nandua High School Tangier Combined SchoolEastern Shore Community College is located in Melfa; the county maintains and is the licensee of six television translator stations on two towers, with four located on a tower off US 13 in unincorporated Mappsville licensed to Onancock, the other two licensed to unincorporated Craddockville on a tower near Route 178. Each translator tower has four signals to relay the signals of Hampton Roads's major network affiliates to the county, including WAVY, WHRO, WTKR, WVEC. Meanwhile, Fox programming via WVBT is provided by WPMC-CA from the Mappsville tower, a station owned by Media General, the parent company of WAVY/WVBT. Additionally, Maryland CBS / Fox affiliate WBOC-TV has long claimed Accomack County as part of its coverage area. William Anderson, born in Accomack County, United States Congressman from Pennsylvania Thomas Evans, born in Accomack County, United States Congressman from Virginia
Wallops Flight Facility
Wallops Flight Facility, located on the Eastern Shore of Virginia, United States 100 miles north-northeast of Norfolk, is operated by the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland as a rocket launch site to support science and exploration missions for NASA and other Federal agencies. WFF includes an extensively instrumented range to support launches of more than a dozen types of sounding rockets. There have been over 16,000 launches from the rocket testing range at Wallops since its founding in 1945 in the quest for information on the flight characteristics of airplanes, launch vehicles, spacecraft, to increase the knowledge of the Earth's upper atmosphere and the environment of outer space; the launch vehicles vary in size and power from the small Super Loki meteorological rockets to orbital-class vehicles. The Wallops Flight Facility supports science missions for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and for foreign governments and commercial organizations. Wallops supports development tests and exercises involving United States Navy aircraft and ship-based electronics and weapon systems in the Virginia Capes operating area, near the entrance to the Chesapeake Bay.
In addition to its fixed-location instrumentation assets, the WFF range includes mobile radar, telemetry receivers, command transmitters that can be transported by cargo planes to locations around the world, in order to establish a temporary range where no other instrumentation exists, to ensure safety, to collect data in order to enable and support suborbital rocket launches from remote sites. The WFF mobile range assets have been used to support rocket launches from locations in the Arctic and Antarctic regions, South America, Europe, at sea. Workers at Wallops include 1,000 full-time NASA civil service employees and the employees of contractors, about 30 U. S. Navy personnel, about 100 employees of NOAA. In 1945, NASA's predecessor agency, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, established a rocket launch site on Wallops Island under the direction of the Langley Research Center; this site was designated the Pilotless Aircraft Research Station and conducted high-speed aerodynamic research to supplement wind tunnel and laboratory investigations into the problems of flight.
In 1958, Congress established NASA, which absorbed Langley Research Center and other NACA field centers and research facilities. At that time, the Pilotless Aircraft Research Station became a separate facility, Wallops Station, operating directly under NASA Headquarters in Washington, D. C. In 1959, NASA acquired the former Naval Air Station Chincoteague, engineering and administrative activities were moved to this location. In 1974, the Wallops Station was named Wallops Flight Center; the name was changed to Wallops Flight Facility in 1981, when it became part of Goddard Space Flight Center. In the early years, research at Wallops concentrated on obtaining aerodynamic data at transonic and low supersonic speeds. Between 1959 and 1961, Project Mercury capsules were tested at Wallops in support of NASA's manned space flight program - the Mercury program - before astronauts were launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida; some of these tests using the Little Joe booster rocket were designed to flight-qualify components of the spacecraft, including the escape and recovery systems and some of the life support systems.
Two rhesus monkeys and Miss Sam, were sent aloft as pioneers for astronauts. The first payload launched into orbit from Wallops Island was Explorer IX, atop a Scout rocket, on February 15, 1961. On September 6, 2013, the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer was launched from Wallops, atop a Minotaur V rocket; this was the first time. Wallops Island is experiencing beach erosion of 10 to 22 feet a year, due in part to the current sea level rise. NASA has responded by continually fortifying the shoreline with sand. A permanent ground control station for NASA's RQ-4 Global Hawk drone is at Wallops Flight Facility; the WFF Main Base is located on the Eastern Shore of Virginia on the Delmarva Peninsula about 5 miles west of Chincoteague, Virginia. The WFF consists of three separate parcels of land totaling 6,200 acres: the Main Base, the Mainland, the Wallops Island Launch Site; the Mainland and the Wallops Island Launch Site are about 7 miles southeast of the Main Base. Wallops operates controlled airspace with Federal Aviation Administration qualified air traffic controllers including: The WFF Airport Control Zone to 2,500 feet within a 5-statute-mile radius of the airport Restricted Area R-6604 connecting WFF airspace and offshore warning areas.
Major Wallops facilities include FAA-certified runways. WFF has facilities for the receipt, assembly and storage of rocket motors and other hazardous pyrotechnic devices; the Wallops Island Launch Site includes six launch pads, three blockhouses for launch control, assembly buildings to support the preparation and launching of suborb
American Viticultural Area
An American Viticultural Area is a designated wine grape-growing region in the United States, providing an official appellation for the benefit of wineries. The boundaries of AVAs are defined by the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau of the United States Department of the Treasury; the TTB defines AVAs at the request of other petitioners. As of June 2018, there were 242 AVAs in the United States. Before the AVA system, wine appellations of origin in the United States were designated based on state or county boundaries. All of these appellations were grandfathered into federal law and may appear on wine labels as designated places of origin, but these appellations are distinct from AVAs. AVAs range in size from the Upper Mississippi River Valley AVA at 29,900 square miles across four states, to the Cole Ranch AVA in Mendocino County, California, at only 60 acres; the Augusta AVA surrounding the area around the town of Augusta, was the first recognized AVA, gaining the status on June 20, 1980.
In 2018, the second session of the 115th Congress recognized American Viticultural Areas’ contribution to the economy. The Blunt-Merkley Resolution passed unanimously, it noted that an AVA allows vintners to describe more the origin of their wine, while helping vintners to build and enhance the reputation and value of the wines produced. AVAs allow consumers to attribute a given quality, reputation, or other characteristic to a wine made from grapes grown in an AVA. AVAs help consumers identify what they purchase. Current regulations impose certain requirements on an AVA: Evidence that the name of the proposed new AVA is locally or nationally known as referring to the area. Petitioners are required to provide such information when applying for a new AVA, are required to use USGS maps to both describe and depict the boundaries. Once an AVA is established, at least 85% of the grapes used to make a wine must be grown in the specified area if an AVA is referenced on its label. State or county boundaries—such as used for Oregon wine or Sonoma County wine—are not defined as AVAs though they are used to identify the source of a wine.
AVAs are reserved for situations where a geographically defined area has been using the name and it has come to be identified with that area. A vineyard may be in more than one AVA. For example, the Santa Clara Valley AVA and Livermore Valley AVAs are located within the territory of the San Francisco Bay AVA, itself located within the Central Coast AVA. Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée Denominazione di origine controllata Denominación de origen Indicazione Geografica Tipica American wine Appellations of Origin from the TTB website AVAs with links to detailed descriptions, from the Code of Federal Regulations located at a Cornell website Interactive Google AVA map from American Winery Guide
Sand is a granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles. It is defined by size, being finer than coarser than silt. Sand can refer to a textural class of soil or soil type; the composition of sand varies, depending on the local rock sources and conditions, but the most common constituent of sand in inland continental settings and non-tropical coastal settings is silica in the form of quartz. The second most common type of sand is calcium carbonate, for example, created, over the past half billion years, by various forms of life, like coral and shellfish. For example, it is the primary form of sand apparent in areas where reefs have dominated the ecosystem for millions of years like the Caribbean. Sand is a non-renewable resource over human timescales, sand suitable for making concrete is in high demand. Desert sand, although plentiful, is not suitable for concrete, 50 billion tons of beach sand and fossil sand is needed each year for construction; the exact definition of sand varies.
The scientific Unified Soil Classification System used in engineering and geology corresponds to US Standard Sieves, defines sand as particles with a diameter of between 0.074 and 4.75 millimeters. By another definition, in terms of particle size as used by geologists, sand particles range in diameter from 0.0625 mm to 2 mm. An individual particle in this range size is termed a sand grain. Sand grains are between silt; the size specification between sand and gravel has remained constant for more than a century, but particle diameters as small as 0.02 mm were considered sand under the Albert Atterberg standard in use during the early 20th century. The grains of sand in Archimedes Sand Reckoner written around 240 BCE, were 0.02 mm in diameter. A 1953 engineering standard published by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials set the minimum sand size at 0.074 mm. A 1938 specification of the United States Department of Agriculture was 0.05 mm. Sand feels gritty when rubbed between the fingers.
Silt, by comparison, feels like flour). ISO 14688 grades sands as fine and coarse with ranges 0.063 mm to 0.2 mm to 0.63 mm to 2.0 mm. In the United States, sand is divided into five sub-categories based on size: fine sand, fine sand, medium sand, coarse sand, coarse sand; these sizes are based on the Krumbein phi scale, where size in Φ = -log2D. On this scale, for sand the value of Φ varies from −1 to +4, with the divisions between sub-categories at whole numbers; the most common constituent of sand, in inland continental settings and non-tropical coastal settings, is silica in the form of quartz, because of its chemical inertness and considerable hardness, is the most common mineral resistant to weathering. The composition of mineral sand is variable, depending on the local rock sources and conditions; the bright white sands found in tropical and subtropical coastal settings are eroded limestone and may contain coral and shell fragments in addition to other organic or organically derived fragmental material, suggesting sand formation depends on living organisms, too.
The gypsum sand dunes of the White Sands National Monument in New Mexico are famous for their bright, white color. Arkose is a sand or sandstone with considerable feldspar content, derived from weathering and erosion of a granitic rock outcrop; some sands contain magnetite, glauconite or gypsum. Sands rich in magnetite are dark to black in color, as are sands derived from volcanic basalts and obsidian. Chlorite-glauconite bearing sands are green in color, as are sands derived from basaltic lava with a high olivine content. Many sands those found extensively in Southern Europe, have iron impurities within the quartz crystals of the sand, giving a deep yellow color. Sand deposits in some areas contain garnets and other resistant minerals, including some small gemstones. Rocks erode/weather over a long period of time by water and wind, their sediments are transported downstream; these sediments continue to break apart into smaller pieces. The type of rock the sediment originated from and the intensity of the environment gives different compositions of sand.
The most common rock to form sand is Granite, where the Feldspar minerals dissolve faster than the Quartz, causing the rock to break apart into small pieces. In high energy environments rocks break apart much faster than in more calm settings. For example, Granite rocks this means more Feldspar minerals in the sand because it wouldn't have had time to dissolve; the term for sand formed by weathering is epiclastic. Sand from rivers are collected either from the river itself or its flood plain, accounts for the majority of the sand used in the construction industry; because if this, many small rivers have been depleted, causing environmental concern and economic losses to adjacent land. The rate of sand mining in such areas outweighs the rate the sand can replenish, making it a non-renewable resource. Sand dunes are a consequence of wind deposition; the Sahara Desert is dry because of its geographic location and is known for its vast sand dunes. They exist here because little vegetation is able to grow and there's not a lot of water.
Over time, wind blow