Pi Lambda Phi
Pi Lambda Phi known as PiLam, is a social fraternity with 148 chapters and 15 colonies in the United States and Canada. The fraternity was founded in 1895 at Yale University in Connecticut. Little is known about the early foundings of the fraternity. After groups of men were denied admission to other fraternities at Yale University because of their religious and racial backgrounds in 1895, Frederick Manfred Werner, Louis Samter Levy, Henry Mark Fisher were determined to start something new, they decided to start the first fraternity, "a fraternity in which all men were brothers, no matter what their religion. Chapters at other universities started soon after. While non-sectarian, it was predominantly Jewish until the end of World War II. During its history, three national fraternities merged with Pi Lambda Phi: Phi Beta Delta, Beta Sigma Tau and Beta Sigma Rho. Phi Beta Delta was founded at Columbia University, April 4, 1912; the Founders stated, "Its purpose is to inculcate among its membership a fine spirit of loyalty and scholarship toward their Alma Mater, to develop the highest ideals of conduct and to promote a close fraternal bond through means of selected associates."
Phi Beta Delta merged into Pi Lambda Phi on February 1, 1941. At the time, Pi Lambda Phi had 20 active chapters and Phi Beta Delta had 16, considering duplications, the combined Pi Lambda Phi fraternity was a net of 33 chapters, it was at this time that Pi Lambda Phi chapters were prefixed by a state designation to distinguish duplicate Greek letter names. All members and alumni of Phi Beta Delta were admitted into Pi Lambda Phi; the founders of Phi Beta Delta were David H. Cohen, Henry C. Fenton, William Haas, Darcy M. Heinemann, Joseph Michtom, Samuel Null, Julius Rudd, Bernard Shapiro. All of them were students at Columbia University. Beta Sigma Tau was founded in 1948 at Baldwin–Wallace College; the Founders stated that the purpose of the fraternity was "to end barriers among people and to have a foundation based upon a brotherhood and democracy which transcends racial and religious differences." Beta Sigma Tau was merged into Pi Lambda Phi November 1, 1960. At the time of the merger there were 8 active chapters of Beta Sigma Tau.
The Baldwin–Wallace College chapter is the sole surviving chapter of Beta Sigma Tau. The founder of Beta Sigma Tau was Stanley Tolliver of Baldwin–Wallace College. For the updated history of the Baltimore chapter of Beta Sigma Tau fraternity go to https://sites.google.com/view/betasigmataufraternity/home The University of Toledo recognized a local chapter of Beta Sigma Tau from 1996-2005, continuing the ideal of transcending racial and religious differences. Beta Sigma Rho was founded at Cornell University on October 12, 1910. Beta Sigma Rho was organized under the name Beta Samach, the Greek letter Beta and the Hebrew letter Samach suggesting the application of the Greek society idea to the social and cultural life of the Jewish undergraduate student. Beta Sigma Rho merged into Pi Lambda Phi on December 12, 1972 adding 5 active chapters, merging 2 chapters; the two chapters at the Pennsylvania State University would not merge, the Beta Sigma Rho, Beta chapter became Beta Sigma Beta. In 1950 the Beta Sigma Rho ritual was changed to reflect a non-sectarian viewpoint.
According to the merger "Each Honorary Fellow, Associate Fellow and Alumni Fellow of Beta Sigma Rho will become an accredited member of Pi Lambda Phi." The Elimination of Prejudice is the fraternity's official philanthropy. The non-profit organization was founded in 1996, is headquartered in Berea, Ohio; the Elimination of Prejudice works to set the conditions for sensitive societal conversations to take place, promotes the principles of equality and inclusiveness to the widest possible audience. It holds video and essay contests, runs youth-based educational programs and retreats; the Elimination of Prejudice raises money to fund the aforementioned others. Presently, the Elimination of Prejudice is active on 31 college campuses and universities, works with nearly 1,000 students in the U. S. and Canada. In 1938, The Pi Lambda Phi Fraternity Foundation was founded to provide educational scholarships for the brothers of the fraternity and it was reestablished again in 1991 as the Pi Lambda Phi Educational Foundation, Inc."
The foundation is the fraternity's charitable arm. In addition to providing scholarship and educational programs, the foundation provides recognition of humanitarian work for individuals outside of the fraternity through its sponsorship of the Pi Lambda Phi Humanitarian Award. Pi Lambda Phi University is an online fraternity educational program hosted by the International Headquarters Staff. List of social fraternities and sororities Official homepage
Kappa Sigma known as Kappa Sig, is an American collegiate social fraternity founded at the University of Virginia in 1869. Kappa Sigma is one of the five largest international fraternities with 318 active chapters and colonies in North America, its endowment fund, founded in 1919, has donated more than $5 million to undergrads since 1948. In 2012 alone, the Fraternity's endowment fund raised over $1 million in donations. According to the traditions of the fraternity, Kappa Sigma evolved from an ancient order, known in some accounts as "Kirjath Sepher", said to have been founded between 1395 and 1400 at the University of Bologna; the story says that the corrupt governor of the city, one-time pirate and papal usurper Baldassare Cossa, took advantage of the students at Bologna, one of Europe's preeminent universities which attracted students from all over the continent, by sending his men to assault and rob them. On December 10, 1869, five students at the University of Virginia met in 46 East Lawn and founded the Kappa Sigma Fraternity in America.
William Grigsby McCormick, George Miles Arnold, John Covert Boyd, Edmund Law Rogers, Jr. and Frank Courtney Nicodemus established the fraternity based on the traditions and of the ancient order in Bologna. These five founders became collectively known as the "Five Friends and Brothers". In 1872, Kappa Sigma initiated Stephen Alonzo Jackson, who would go on to transform a struggling local fraternity into a strong international Brotherhood; the organization attributes much of its success to Jackson noting that, "Since his death in 1892, the success of the Order is the direct result of Jackson's devotion'to make Kappa Sigma the leading college fraternity of the world.'"In 1873, Kappa Sigma expanded to Trinity College, the University of Maryland, Washington and Lee University. The fraternity attributes this growth to the initiation of Stephen Alonzo Jackson in 1872. During his membership, Jackson revised the ritual of Kappa Sigma, he created the Supreme Executive Committee, which now serves as the governing body of the Kappa Sigma Fraternity on an international level.
Jackson introduced the idea of a frequent, national convention of all Kappa Sigmas, a practice now continued by the biennial Grand Conclave, characterized the event as "the finest hour" of Kappa Sigma. In 1885, the publication of Kappa Sigma's quarterly magazine was commissioned under the name The Quarterly This publication ran for 5 years until it was reorganized to run bi-monthly and renamed The Caduceus, the name it holds to this day. In 1912, Wilbur F. Denious struck upon the idea to establish a charitable endowment for Kappa Sigma; as a result of the hard work of him and many others, the Kappa Sigma Endowment Fund was established in 1919 "to support the charitable and beneficent purposes of the Kappa Sigma Fraternity." In 2002, along with Phi Delta Theta, Kappa Sigma ended its involvement in the North-American Interfraternity Conference at the national level due to disenchantment with the strategic direction of the organization. However, many individual chapters remain members of their host university's Interfraternity Conference, but no chapter is required to recognize or be involved with their university's IFC if they should choose not to.
In 2003, the Kappa Sigma Fraternity ushered in an unprecedented era of growth for the fraternity. In the Spring of 2005, Kappa Sigma Fraternity began fundraising for and construction of a new headquarters; this $6 million project had its grand opening on June 2, 2007. At the 66th Conclave, the Kappa Sigma Endowment Fund was declared to be the only official educational foundation of the fraternity and is housed at the new headquarters. Kappa Sigmas are taught to live their lives by the Star and Crescent, which are the symbols of the Fraternity that make up the official badge: They follow the four pillars of the Fraternity: Fellowship, Leadership and Service; the Star and Crescent is used as part of the guidelines behind Kappa Sigma's strict no-tolerance anti-hazing policy. The Fraternity takes all allegations of hazing seriously and revokes charters from guilty chapters which can be as old as 130 years. To be eligible for membership a prospective member must profess a belief in God, though adherence to a specific religion is not required.
In at least one situation, Kappa Sigma has revoked a chapter's charter for omitting the fraternity's religious requirements from its initiation. The Kappa Sigma Fraternity consists of over colonies; each chapter is led by a five-member Executive Committee, each referred to as an officer. These officers consist of the Grand Master, Grand Procurator, Grand Master of Ceremonies, Grand Scribe, Grand Treasurer; each chapter and colony has a number of committee chairs that are assigned to specific areas. Over 1,500 alumni volunteer as advisors for Kappa Sigma. At the international level, the Supreme Executive Council sets policy for the fraternity, disciplines chapters, approves the formation of colonies and chapter; the offices of the SEC mirror the office of the undergraduate EC and consist of the Worthy Grand Master, the Worthy Grand Procurator, the Worthy Grand Master of Ceremonies, the Worthy Grand Scribe, the Worthy Grand Treasurer. The WGM, WGP, the WGMC each serve a two-year term, while the WGS and WGT each
Phi Delta Theta
Phi Delta Theta known as Phi Delt, is an international social fraternity founded at Miami University in 1848 and headquartered in Oxford, Ohio. Phi Delta Theta, along with Beta Theta Pi and Sigma Chi form the Miami Triad; the fraternity has about 185 active chapters and colonies in over 43 U. S. states and five Canadian provinces and has initiated more than 251,000 men between 1848 and 2014. There are over 160,000 living alumni. Phi Delta Theta chartered house corporations own more than 135 houses valued at over $141 million as of summer 2015. There are nearly 100 recognized alumni clubs across the U. S. and Canada. The fraternity was founded by six undergraduate students: Robert Morrison, John McMillan Wilson, Robert Thompson Drake, John Wolfe Lindley, Ardivan Walker Rodgers, Andrew Watts Rogers, who are collectively known as The Immortal Six. Phi Delta Theta was created under three principal objectives: "the cultivation of friendship among its members, the acquirement individually of a high degree of mental culture, the attainment of a high standard of morality".
These cardinal principles are contained in The Bond of Phi Delta Theta, the document to which each member pledges on his initiation into the fraternity. Among the best-known members of the fraternity are Benjamin Harrison, the 23rd President of the United States, Adlai Stevenson I, the 23rd Vice President of the United States, Baseball Hall of Fame member Lou Gehrig, actor Burt Reynolds, architect Frank Lloyd Wright, Neil Armstrong the first man to walk on the moon, John S. McCain Sr. U. S. Navy Admiral and grandfather of John McCain. In 1839, Beta Theta Pi was founded at Miami University in Ohio. In protest against the president of the university, members of Beta Theta Pi and another fraternity, Alpha Delta Phi, blocked the entrances of the main educational and administrative building in what became known as the Great Snowball Rebellion of 1848. After the president expelled most of the students involved in the uprising, Phi Delta Theta was formed by six men staying in a dormitory the day after Christmas.
Robert Morrison, a senior, proposed to classmate John McMillan Wilson that they form a secret society together. These men are known today as "The Immortal Six." The first meeting was held in Wilson's room at Old North Hall, now called Elliott Hall. During the early meetings, the Founders wrote The Bond of Phi Delta Theta, the fundamental law of the fraternity, it has remained unchanged since, it is believed to be the only document of any fraternity of such a nature. Morrison designed the shield form of the badge, with the eye as an emblem, while Wilson suggested the scroll with the Greek letters on it; the first branch of Phi Delta Theta was founded at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio in 1848. Fearing punishment from the university, the activities of the fraternity were sub rosa for its first three years of existence. Phi Delta Theta took an unusual step, unique among all fraternities, of splitting into two chapters at both Miami and Centre College, so their meetings would be smaller and attract less attention.
As the organization attracted new individuals into their membership including prominent university officials, members began to wear their badges indicating their affiliation. Phi Delta Theta held its first convention in 1851 in Cincinnati, Ohio when the organization had only four chapters; the event was attended by seven members. Despite the limited number, positive steps were taken for the establishment of new chapters by forming an expansion committee, it was during the first convention where the chapter at Miami University was designated as the Grand Chapter whose duties were to oversee the overall fraternity operations. Subsequent conventions were held again in Cincinnati five years later. Another convention was held in 1864 in Bloomington during the American Civil War; the Civil War was difficult for all fraternities. Battles put fraternity brother against fraternity brother. Fifty Phis fought on the side of the Confederacy, it was not until the 1868 Indianapolis convention that the first steps in the creation of an overall administration took place.
The convention was regarded as the first "National Convention" as permanent convention rules were adopted during this time. Twelve years the most important of all Phi Delta Theta conventions took place; the Indianapolis Convention of 1880 established new ritual and customs that are still used today. Moreover, the convention saw the creation of the General Council, the governing body of the fraternity, with Walter B. Palmer, Emory-Vanderbilt 1877, George Banta, Franklin-Indiana 1876, becoming the president and historian, respectively; the convention called for the organization of groups of chapters into provinces, which were to be headed by province presidents. A housing movement began to form during this time; the movement arose out of necessity because it was pointed out that chapter meetings were being conducted in rented halls. Though the housing movement had been gaining momentum, it was not until the 1892 convention that a resolution was passed that advocated that all chapters rent or own at least one house.
In the last two decades of the 19th century, over 50 chapter houses were acquired. For a brief period a resolution was set forth to allow chapters to initiate women. First proposed in 1869, this was considered a radical idea both from a fraternal standpoint and social one as well since women were not allowed to vote until 1920. Although it was met with strong opposition, the issue would not b
Spokane is a city in Spokane County in the state of Washington in the northwestern United States. It is located on the Spokane River west of the Rocky Mountain foothills in eastern Washington, 92 miles south of the Canada–US border, 18 miles from the Washington–Idaho border, 228 miles east of Seattle along Interstate 90. Known as the birthplace of Father's Day, Spokane's official nickname is the "Lilac City". A pink, double flower lilac variety known as'Syringa Spokane' is named for the city, it is the seat of Spokane County and the economic and cultural center of the Spokane Metropolitan Area, the Spokane–Coeur d'Alene combined statistical area, the Inland Northwest. The city, along with the whole Inland Northwest, is served by Spokane International Airport, 5 miles west of downtown Spokane. According to the 2010 Census, Spokane had a population of 208,916, making it the second-largest city in Washington, the 101st-largest city in the United States; the first people to live in the area, the Spokane tribe, lived off plentiful game.
David Thompson explored the area with the westward expansion and establishment of the North West Company's Spokane House in 1810. This trading post was the first long-term European settlement in Washington. Completion of the Northern Pacific Railway in 1881 brought settlers to the Spokane area; the same year it was incorporated as a city with the name of Spokane Falls. In the late 19th century and silver were discovered in the Inland Northwest; the local economy depended on mining and agriculture until the 1980s. Spokane hosted the first environmentally themed World's Fair at Expo'74. Many of the downtown area's older Romanesque Revival-style buildings were designed by architect Kirtland Kelsey Cutter after the Great Fire of 1889; the city features Riverfront and Manito parks, the Smithsonian-affiliated Northwest Museum of Arts and Culture, the Davenport Hotel, the Fox and Bing Crosby theaters. The Cathedral of Our Lady of Lourdes is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Spokane, the city is the center of the Mormon Spokane Washington Temple District.
The Cathedral of St. John the Evangelist represents the Anglican community. Gonzaga University was established in 1887 by the Jesuits, the private Presbyterian Whitworth University was founded three years and moved to north Spokane in 1914 In sports, the Gonzaga Bulldogs collegiate basketball team competes at the Division I level. Professional and semi-professional sports teams include the Spokane Chiefs in junior ice hockey, the Spokane Indians Minor League Baseball team located in nearby Spokane Valley; as of 2010, Spokane's only major daily newspaper, The Spokesman-Review, had a daily circulation of over 76,000. The first humans to live in the Spokane area were hunter-gatherer societies that lived off plentiful fish and game; the Spokane tribe, after which the city is named, are believed to be either their direct descendants, or descendants of people from the Great Plains. When asked by early white explorers, the Spokanes said their ancestors came from "up North." Early in the 19th century, the Northwest Fur Company sent two white fur trappers west of the Rocky Mountains to search for fur.
These were the first white men met by the Spokanes, who believed they were sacred, set the trappers up in the Colville River valley for the winter. The explorer-geographer David Thompson, working as head of the North West Company's Columbia Department, became the first European to explore the Inland Empire. Crossing what is now the Canada–US border from British Columbia, Thompson wanted to expand the North West Company further south in search of furs. After establishing the Kullyspell House and Saleesh House trading posts in what are now Idaho and Montana, Thompson attempted to expand further west, he sent out two trappers, Jacques Raphael Finlay and Finan McDonald, to construct a fur trading post on the Spokane River, which flows west from Lake Coeur d'Alene to the Columbia River, trade with the local Indians. This post was established in 1810, at the confluence of the Little Spokane and Spokane rivers, becoming the first enduring European settlement of significance in what became Washington state.
Known as the Spokane House, or "Spokane", it was in operation from 1810 to 1826. Operations were run by the British North West Company and the Hudson's Bay Company, the post was the headquarters of the fur trade between the Rocky and Cascade mountains for 16 years. After the latter business absorbed the North West Company in 1821, the major operations at the Spokane House were shifted north to Fort Colville, reducing the post's significance. In 1836, Reverend Samuel Parker visited the area and reported that around 800 Native Americans were living in Spokane Falls. A medical mission was established by Marcus and Narcissa Whitman to cater for Cayuse Indians and hikers of the Oregon Trail at Walla Walla in the south. After the Whitmans were killed by Indians in 1847, Reverend Cushing Eells established Whitman College in their memory setting up the first church in Spokane. In 1853, two years after the establishment of the Washington Territory, the first governor, Isaac Stevens, made an initial effort to make a treaty with Chief Garry and the Spokanes at Antoine Plantes' Ferry, not far from Millwood.
After the last campaign of the Yakima Indian War, the Coeur d'Alene War of 1858 was brought to a close by the actions of Col. George Wright, who won decisive victories agai
Washington State Legislature
The Washington State Legislature is the state legislature of the U. S. state of Washington. It is a bipartisan, bicameral body, composed of the lower Washington House of Representatives, composed of 98 Representatives, the upper Washington State Senate, with 49 Senators plus the Lieutenant Governor acting as President; the state is divided into 49 legislative districts, each of which elect one senator and two representatives. The State Legislature meets in the Legislative Building at the Washington State Capitol in Olympia; as of January 2019, Democrats control both houses of the Washington State Legislature. Democrats hold a 57-41 majority in the House of Representatives and a 28-21 majority in the Senate, with one "Independent Democrat" senator caucusing with the Republicans; the Washington State Legislature traces its ancestry to the creation of the Washington Territory in 1853, following successful arguments from settlers north of the Columbia River to the U. S. federal government to separate from the Oregon Territory.
The Washington Territorial Assembly, as the newly created area's bicameral legislature, convened the following year. The legislature represented settlers from the Strait of Juan de Fuca to modern Montana. From nearly the start of the territory, arguments over giving women the right to vote dogged legislative proceedings. While some legislators carried genuine concerns over women deserving the right to vote, most legislators pragmatically believed that giving women suffrage would entice more Eastern women to immigrate to the remote and sparsely populated territory. In 1854, only six years after the Seneca Falls Convention, the issue was brought to a vote by the legislature. Women's suffrage was defeated by a single vote. A decade the Wyoming Legislature would become the first body in the United States to grant women's suffrage in 1869; the issue over female suffrage did not diminish. In 1871 Susan B. Anthony and Thurston County Representative Daniel Bigelow addressed the legislature on the issue.
In 1883, the issue returned to the floor, this time with the Territorial Assembly passing universal suffrage for women. It became one of the most liberal voting laws in the nation, giving female African-American voters the voting franchise for the first time in the United States. However, in 1887, the territorial Washington Supreme Court ruled the 1883 universal suffrage act as unconstitutional in Harland v. Washington. Another attempt by the legislature to regrant universal female suffrage was again overturned in 1888. After two failed voter referendums in 1889 and 1898, the now-Washington State Legislature approved full female voting rights in 1910. With more than two decades of pressure on federal authorities to authorize statehood, on February 22, 1889, the U. S. Congress passed the Enabling Act, signed into law by outgoing President Grover Cleveland, authorizing the territories of Washington, North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana to form state governments; the Territorial Assembly set out to convene a constitutional convention to write a state constitution.
Following its successful passage by the legislature, Washington voters approved the new document on October 1. On November 11, 1889, President Benjamin Harrison authorized Washington to become the 42nd state of United States, it was the last West Coast state of the Continental U. S. to achieve statehood. The modern Washington State Legislature was created; the bicameral body is composed of legislators, beginning the legislative session annually on the second Monday in January. In odd-numbered years, when the state budget is debated upon, the State Legislature meets for 105 days, in even-numbered years for 60 days; the Governor of Washington, if necessary, can call legislators in for a special session for a 30-day period at any time in the year. Legislators can call themselves into special session by a two-thirds vote by both the House of Representatives and the State Senate. Debates within both the House and Senate, as well as committee meetings and other special events within or relating to the legislature are broadcast throughout Washington on TVW, the state public affairs network.
Debates can be found on the web at TVW.org. Unlike some state legislatures, the Washington State Legislature does not hold special elections midyear if a seat becomes vacant between regular elections. Instead, the board of county commissioners for the county or counties where the vacant district is located are given the responsibility of choosing the successor; the state central committee of the political party that last held the seat must submit a list of up to three candidates to the board, who must make the final selection within 60 days of the vacancy. Special elections are held alongside November general elections. Washington State Capitol Washington House of Representatives Washington State Senate List of Washington state legislatures Don Brazier, History of the Washington Legislature, 1854-1963. Olympia, WA: Washington State Senate, 2000. Washington State Legislature
Sigma Phi Epsilon
Sigma Phi Epsilon known as SigEp, is a social college fraternity for male college students in the United States. It was founded on November 1, 1901, at Richmond College, its national headquarters remains in Richmond, Virginia, it was founded on three principles: Virtue and Brotherly Love. Sigma Phi Epsilon is one of the largest social fraternities in the United States in terms of current undergraduate membership. In the fall of 1900 18-year-old divinity student Carter Ashton Jenkens, the son of a Baptist minister, transferred from Rutgers College of New Jersey to Richmond College, a Baptist institution in the Virginia capital. At Rutgers Jenkens had been initiated into the Chi Phi Fraternity. At Richmond, which did not have a chapter of Chi Phi, Jenkens was part of group of friends who were meeting under the unofficial name the "Saturday Night Club". By early October, 1901, Jenkens had persuaded the group, which had grown to twelve men, to try and establish a chapter of Chi Phi at Richmond; these men were spurned by the existing fraternities on campus for their sense of morality and for their rural, middle-class backgrounds.
Jenkens had convinced the others that their chapter could be different from the other fraternities on campus and assured them that Chi Phi's principles were in line with their own. The group's request for a charter, was met with refusal as the national fraternity felt that Richmond College was too small to host a Chi Phi chapter. Jenkens and his friends therefore founded their own fraternity. After several secret meetings throughout October 1901, the new fraternity took shape and on November 1, 1901, the fraternity's first membership roster was publicly posted at the school, it listed the twelve founding members in this order: Carter Ashton Jenkens, Benjamin Donald Gaw, William Hugh Carter, William Andrew Wallace, Thomas Temple Wright, William Lazelle Phillips, Lucian Baum Cox, Richard Spurgeon Owens, Edgar Lee Allen, Robert Alfred McFarland, Franklin Webb Kerfoot and Thomas Vaden McCaul. After much discussion, the group called their fraternity Sigma Phi. Jenkens and Phillips met with a faculty committee to seek official recognition for their new fraternity.
The faculty members were reluctant to recognize a sixth fraternity in a school with only 300 students as more than half the members would be soon-to graduate seniors. Additionally, another national fraternity existed using the name Sigma Phi; the founders responded that their new fraternity would be different from the others at Richmond, as was being founded upon biblical, egalitarian principles, new members would be taken in from the undergraduate classes to increase the new fraternity's size, the fraternity's name was still open to debate. With these assurances from the founders, the faculty committee approved the new fraternity's request for official recognition. Shortly afterwards, the founders decided to rename the fraternity Sigma Phi Epsilon; the colors dark red and royal purple were chosen to represent fraternity, while the golden heart was chosen as the fraternity's symbol. The principles of Virtue and Brotherly Love, were chosen as "The Three Cardinal Principles". Jenkens designed the fraternity's badge as a golden heart surmounted by a black enameled heart-shaped shield.
Upon the shield are inscribed, in gold, the Greek-letters of the fraternity, ΣΦΕ, below these letters, a skull and crossbones. The meaning of these symbols is known to members only; the founders' badges were designed and ordered before the addition of "Epsilon" to the fraternity's name. Thus they had only a "Sigma" and a "Phi" inscribed on the lobes of the heart, with the skull and crossbones below. A last-minute telegraph sent to the jeweler requested that an "Epsilon" be added "somewhere" on the already-complete badges, so the jeweler replaced the bottom-most gemstones with a black enameled "Epsilon." The badges of founders Carter and McCaul are on display at the Sigma Phi Epsilon headquarters at the fraternity's headquarters. Chapter house doors are traditionally painted red; the tradition of the red door on Sigma Phi Epsilon Chapter houses began at Syracuse University in the 1920s. Brothers there painted the front door of their house red as a token of fraternalism, because it is a fraternity color.
Today, all 260 SigEp chapters have red doors. In December 2014, Sigma Phi Epsilon became the first fraternity in the North-American Interfraternity Conference to accept transgender men as members; the National Board of Directors passed the policy by an 8-0 majority vote with three abstentions. In 2017, the chapter at Auburn University was shut down after several serious allegations were made public about the behaviors of the chapter; as a result, the national office initiated a thorough investigation into the chapter which determined it was guilty of hazing, illicit drug use, alcohol violations. In October 2016, the chapter at the University of Wisconsin–Madison was shut down after repeated alcohol and safety violations; the fraternity was cited for providing alcohol to underage students when hosting parties at their fraternity house. In August 2016, member Dan Drill was sentenced to 74 months in prison after pleading guilty to two counts of rape. In March 2016, the chapter at Purdue University was placed on suspension until 2020 for brutal hazing, alcohol violations, non-compliance with university rules.
In September 2015, a Sigma Phi Epsilon member at the West Virginia University was arrested for raping a WVU female student at the fraternity's chapterhouse. He f
A freshman, first year, or frosh, is a person in the first year at an educational institution a secondary or post-secondary school. In much of the Arab world, a first-year is called a "Mubtadi", Arabic for "begin". In Brazil, students that pass the vestibulares and begin studying in a college or university are called "calouros" or more informally "bixos", an alternate spelling of "bicho", which means "animal". Calouros are subject to hazing, known as "trote" there; the first known hazing episode in Brazil happened 1831 at the Law School of Olinda and resulted in the death of a student. In 1999, a Chinese Brazilian calouro of the University of São Paulo Medicine School named Edison Tsung Chi Hsueh was found dead at the institution's swimming pool. In Scotland, the first year of compulsory education is Primary 1; the first year of secondary school is known as S1 but one can use first year. At the four ancient Scottish universities the traditional names for the four years at university are Bejan, Semi and Magistrand, though all Scottish universities will have a "freshers' week" and the term is as used with more traditional terms.
Freshman is in use as a US English idiomatic term to describe a beginner or novice, someone, naive, a first effort, instance, or a student in the first year of study. New members of Congress in their first term are referred to as freshmen senators or freshmen congressmen or congresswomen, no matter how experienced they were in previous government positions. High school first year students are exclusively referred to as freshmen, or in some cases by their grade year, 9th graders. Second year students are sophomores, or 10th graders juniors or 11th graders, seniors or 12th graders. At college or university, freshman denotes students in their first year of study; the grade designations of high school are not used, but the terms sophomore and senior are kept at most schools. Some colleges, including women's colleges, do not use the term freshman but use first year, instead. Beyond the fourth year, students are classified as fifth year, sixth year, etc; some institutions use the term freshman for specific reporting purposes.
Freshman fifteen Sophomore Junior Senior