click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Eastern Wu

Wu known as Dong Wu or Sun Wu, was one of the three major states that competed for supremacy over China in the Three Kingdoms period. It existed from 220–222 as a vassal kingdom nominally under Cao Wei, its rival state, but declared independence from Wei and became a sovereign state in 222, it became an empire in 229 after Sun Quan, declared himself emperor. Its name was derived from the place it was based in — the Jiangnan region, historically known as "Wu", it was referred to as "Dong Wu" or "Sun Wu" by historians to distinguish it from other Chinese historical states with similar names which were located in that region, such as the Wu state in the Spring and Autumn period and the Wuyue kingdom in the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. It was called "Eastern Wu" because it occupied most of eastern China in the Three Kingdoms period, "Sun Wu" because the family name of its rulers was "Sun". During its existence, Wu's capital was at Jianye, but at times it was at Wuchang. Towards the end of the Han dynasty, Sun Ce, the eldest son of the warlord Sun Jian, his followers borrowed troops from the warlord Yuan Shu and embarked on a series of military conquests in the Jiangdong and Wu regions between 194 and 199, seizing several territories occupied by warlords such as Liu Yao, Yan Baihu and Wang Lang.

Sun Ce broke off relations with Yuan Shu around 196-197 after the latter declared himself emperor — an act deemed as treason against Emperor Xian, the figurehead ruler of the Han dynasty. The warlord Cao Cao, the de facto head of government in the Han imperial court, asked Emperor Xian to grant Sun Ce the title of "Marquis of Wu". Sun Ce was succeeded by his younger brother, Sun Quan. Sun Quan, like his elder brother paid nominal allegiance to Emperor Xian while maintaining autonomous rule over the Wu territories. In 208, Sun Quan allied with the warlord Liu Bei and they combined forces to defeat Cao Cao at the Battle of Red Cliffs. Sun Quan and Liu Bei maintained their alliance against Cao Cao after the battle for the next ten years or so, despite having some territorial disputes over Jing Province. In 219, Sun Quan severed ties with Liu Bei when he sent his general Lü Meng to invade Liu's territories in Jing Province. Guan Yu, defending Liu Bei's assets in Jing Province, was captured and executed by Sun Quan's forces.

After that, the boundaries of Sun Quan's domain extended from beyond the Jiangdong region to include the southern part of Jing Province, which covered present-day Hunan and parts of Hubei. In 220, Cao Cao's son and successor, Cao Pi, ended the Han dynasty by forcing Emperor Xian to abdicate in his favour and established the state of Cao Wei. Sun Quan agreed to submit to Wei and was granted the title of a vassal king, "King of Wu", by Cao Pi. A year Liu Bei declared himself emperor and founded the state of Shu Han. In 222, Liu Bei launched a military campaign against Sun Quan to take back Jing Province and avenge Guan Yu, leading to the Battle of Xiaoting. However, Liu Bei suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of Sun Quan's general Lu Xun and was forced to retreat to Baidicheng, where he died a year later. Liu Bei's successor, Liu Shan, his regent, Zhuge Liang, made peace with Sun Quan and reaffirmed their previous alliance. Sun Quan declared independence from Wei in 222, but continued to rule as "King of Wu" until 229, when he declared himself "Emperor of Wu".

His legitimacy was recognised by Shu. Sun Quan ruled for over his long reign resulted in stability in southern China. During his reign, Wu engaged Wei in numerous wars, including the battles of Ruxu and Hefei. However, Wu never managed to gain any territory north of the Yangtze River while Wei never succeeded in conquering the lands south of the Yangtze. A succession struggle broke out between Sun Quan's sons in the part of his reign — Sun Quan instated Sun He as the crown prince in 242 after his former heir apparent, Sun Deng, died in 241, but Sun He soon became involved in a rivalry with his younger brother, Sun Ba; the conflict resulted in the emergence of two rivalling factions, each supporting either Sun He or Sun Ba, in Sun Quan's imperial court. Sun Quan deposed Sun He and forced Sun Ba to commit suicide, while Lu Xun and many other ministers who took either Sun He's or Sun Ba's side in the struggle met with unhappy ends. Sun Quan appointed Sun Liang, as the crown prince after the incident.

Sun Quan was succeeded by Sun Liang, with Zhuge Ke and Sun Jun serving as regents. In 253, Zhuge Ke was assassinated in a coup launched by Sun Jun, the state power of Wu fell into Sun Jun's hands and was passed on to his cousin, Sun Chen, after his death. During Sun Liang's reign, two rebellions broke out in the Wei garrison at Shouchun in 255 and 257–258. Sun Jun and Sun Chen led Wu forces to support the rebels in the first and second rebellions in the hope of making some territorial gains in Wei, but both revolts were suppressed and the Wu forces retreated after suffering many losses. Sun Liang was deposed in 258 by Sun Chen, who installed Sun Xiu, another son of Sun Quan, on the throne. Sun Xiu killed Sun Chen in a coup with the help of Zhang Bu and Ding Feng. Sun Xiu died of illness in 264, a year. At the time, Wu was experiencing internal turmoil because rebellions had broken out in Jiaozhi in the south; the ministers Puyang Xing, Wan Yu and Zhang Bu decided to install Sun He's son, Sun Hao, on the throne.

In the

Hepburn Act

The Hepburn Act is a 1906 United States federal law that gave the Interstate Commerce Commission the power to set maximum railroad rates and extended its jurisdiction. This led to the discontinuation of free passes to loyal shippers. In addition, the ICC could view the railroads' financial records, a task simplified by standardized bookkeeping systems. For any railroad that resisted, the ICC's conditions would remain in effect until the outcome of legislation said otherwise. By the Hepburn Act, the ICC's authority was extended to cover bridges, ferries, railroad sleeping cars, express companies and oil pipelines; the Hepburn Act was named for its sponsor, twelve-term Republican congressman William Peters Hepburn. The final version was close to what President Theodore Roosevelt had asked for, it passed Congress, with only three dissenting votes; the Act, along with the Elkins Act of 1903, was a component of one of Roosevelt's major policy goals: railroad regulation. The most important provision of the law gave the ICC the power to replace existing rates with "just-and-reasonable" maximum rates, authorized the Commission to define what was just and reasonable.

The Act made ICC orders binding. To speed the rate-setting process, the Act specified that appeals from rulings of the district courts would go directly to the U. S. Supreme Court. Anti-rebate provisions were toughened, free passes were outlawed, the penalties for violation were increased; the ICC staff grew from 104 in 1890 to 178 in 1905, 330 in 1907, 527 in 1909. The ICC gained the power to prescribe a uniform system of accounting, require standardized reports, inspect railroad accounts; the limitation on railroad rates depreciated the value of railroad securities, a factor in causing the Panic of 1907. Scholars consider the Hepburn Act the most important piece of legislation affecting railroads in the first half of the 20th century. Economists and historians debate whether it crippled the railroads, giving so much advantage to the shippers that a giant unregulated trucking industry—undreamed of in 1906—eventually took away their business. History of rail transport in the United States Interstate Commerce Act The Hepburn Committee

Focke-Wulf Fw 190 operational history

The Focke-Wulf Fw 190 Würger was used by the Luftwaffe during the Second World War in a variety of roles. Like the Messerschmitt Bf 109, the Fw 190 was employed as a "workhorse", proved suitable for a wide variety of roles, including air superiority fighter, strike fighter, ground-attack aircraft, escort fighter, operated with less success as a night fighter, it served on all the German fronts: Eastern Front, Western Front, North African Campaign and the Defence of the Reich. When it was first introduced in August 1941, it proved to be superior in all but turn radius to the Royal Air Force front-line fighter, the Spitfire Mk. V variant; the 190 wrested air superiority away from the RAF until the introduction of the vastly improved Spitfire Mk. IX in July 1942 restored qualitative parity; the Fw 190 made its air combat debut on the Eastern Front much in November/December 1942. The Fw 190 made a significant impact seeing service as a fighter-bomber; the fighter and its pilots proved just as capable as the Bf 109 in aerial combat, in the opinion of German pilots who had flown both fighters, the Fw 190 presented increased firepower and manoeuvrability at low to medium altitude.

The Fw 190 became the backbone of Jagdwaffe along with the Bf 109. On the Eastern Front, owing to its versatility, the Fw 190 was used in Schlachtgeschwader which were specialised ground attack units; the units achieved much success against Soviet ground forces. As an interceptor, the Fw 190 underwent improvements to make it effective at high altitude, allowing the 190 to maintain relative parity with its Allied counterparts; the Fw 190A series' performance decreased at high altitudes, which reduced its usefulness as a high-altitude fighter, but these complications were rectified in models, notably the Focke-Wulf Fw 190D variant, introduced in September 1944. In spite of its successes, it never replaced the Bf 109; the Fw 190 was well liked by its pilots. Some of the Luftwaffe's most successful fighter aces flew the Fw 190, including Otto Kittel with 267 victories, Walter Nowotny with 258, Erich Rudorffer with 222 claimed. A great many of their kills were claimed while flying the Fw 190; the Fw 190 was introduced on the Western Front in August 1941.

For the first few months of its combat career, the Allies unaware of the new fighter, attributed pilots' reports of a new "radial-engine fighter" to Curtiss P-36 Mohawks which the Germans had captured from the French. The new fighter outperformed the Spitfire Mk. V, the top-of-the-line RAF fighter, in all aspects except turning radius; the Fw 190 was better in firepower, rate of roll, straight-line speed at low altitude. As Allied fighter losses rose and local air superiority over the Channel front passed to the Luftwaffe, Allied plans were tentatively made to launch a commando raid on a Luftwaffe airfield to steal an Fw 190 for evaluation. However, the British acquired an intact Fw 190 A-3 in late June 1942, when a Jagdgeschwader 2 pilot, Oberleutnant Armin Faber, landed on a British airfield by mistake; as tests confirmed the performance characteristics, British rushed development of the Spitfire Mk. IX with the new two-stage supercharged Merlin 61 engine; the RAF was quick to study the aircraft for any novel design elements.

In particular, the cooling system and installation of Fw 190's radial engine was a direct influence on Hawker Siddeley's Tempest II. On the whole, Allied pilots who flew the Fw 190 found it pleasant to fly responsive, while the cockpit was small compared to most Allied fighters, it was well laid out. Most pilots found the Fw 190's Kommandogerät system to be more of a hindrance than a help. German pilots in some instances failed to pull up from a steep dive at low altitude, diving straight into the ground, it was thought that they had left the powerful, variable incidence tailplane trim mechanism in the "nose heavy" position, meaning that their aircraft could not recover from the dive in time. The first significant operation in which Fw 190s played an important role was Operation Cerberus, the "Channel dash" break-out through the English Channel and Dover Strait by the Kriegsmarine's small battleships Scharnhorst and Gneisenau and the heavy cruiser Prinz Eugen on 12 February 1942. Adolf Galland, the General der Jagdflieger, insisted that the operation take place during daylight hours and accepted responsibility for devising a plan to provide continuous daylight fighter cover against the heavy attacks expected by the RAF.

By the end of the day, JG 26 had been credited with seven aerial victories and six probables for the loss of four Fw 190s and their pilots. Adolf Galland was to call the success of this operation the "greatest hour" of his career; the Fw 190s first significant mass engagement took place on 19 August 1942, during Operation Jubilee, the Allied raid on Dieppe. Jagdgeschwaders JG 2 and JG 26 had converted from the Bf 109, fielding 115 fighter aircraft during the day's fighting, including a small number of high-altitude Bf 109G-1 models; the RAF committed over 300 fighter aircraft, consisting of Spitfire VB models, with just six squadrons of Spitfire Mk. IXBs, some of the new Hawker Typhoons. In addition, several squadrons of Hawker Hurricanes and RAF Allison-engined Mustangs performed fighter-bomber and reconnaissance duties. During the action, the two Jagdgeschwader lost 25 Fw 190s to all causes, including crashes, but, in return, they claimed 61 of the 106 Allied aircraft lost

King Kekaulike High School

King Kekaulike High School, home of the Na Ali'i, was established in 1995 and is located in Pukalani, Hawaii. It serves the communities of Haiku, Makawao and Pukalani. King Kekaulike High School opened in September 1995 with a freshmen class of 383 students, it added a grade level each year from 1995 to 1998 until the student body had grown to include grades 9-12. Enrollment in the 1998-1999 school year was 1,311 students. In 2013, King Kekaulike High School was named one of eleven "Best High Schools in Hawaii" by US News & World Report and one of ten Hawaii schools in The Washington Post's annual index of "America's Most Challenging High Schools." The Na Ali'i were the only Maui County school to receive such honors that year, though both King Kekaulike and Maui High School were recognized in the Post's 2012 index. Mark Elliott, Principal Vice Principal Alison Hess Vice Principal Ginifer Nania-Cole King Kekaulike High School is a member of the Maui Interscholastic League and Hawaii High School Athletic Association.

The school competes in fifteen varsity team sports for boys and sixteen for girls. The Athletic Director is PK Higa. Fall Sports Air Riflery Bowling Cross Country Football Girls volleyball CheerleadingWinter Sports Basketball Canoe Paddling Soccer Swimming WrestlingSpring Sports Baseball Golf Judo Tennis Track & Field Boys Volleyball Girls Water Polo Girls Softball King Kekaulike High School has captured two state championships for team sports: Canoe Paddling - Mixed Football - Division II King Kekaulike High School has captured many state championships for individual sports: Wrestling - Mike Wheeler 160 lbs. - Landon Kerbow 171 lbs. - Jonathan Pico 160 lbs. - Austin Bloch 140 lbs. Cross Country - Bailey Massenburg King Kekaulike High School has captured numerous MIL championships; the first girls MIL Championship was for volleyball in 1999. The first boys MIL Championship was for soccer in the 1999-2000 season, when the team went undefeated with a 12-0 record. Since the school has won numerous MIL titles in a variety of different sports.

King Kekaulike High School, Official Website. King Kekaulike High School PCNC, Parent Community Networking Center Website. State of Hawaii Department of Education, King Kekaulike High School Website

Russian Census (2002)

The Russian Census of 2002 was the first census of the Russian Federation since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, carried out on October 9 through October 16, 2002. It was carried out by the Russian Federal Service of State Statistics; the census data were collected as of midnight October 9, 2002. The census was intended to collect statistical information about the resident population of Russian Federation; the resident population included: Russian citizens living in Russia. All detailed census tables are for the resident population. All participants were asked question on their gender, birth date, marital status, household composition, citizenship, ethnic or tribal self-identification, education level, language competence, sources of income, employment status. A sample of the participants were asked more detailed questions about their economic and housing situation; the census counted two more groups of people: Russian citizens living abroad for more than one year in connection with the employment with the federal government.

Persons permanently residing abroad, but temporarily present in Russia. Foreign citizens present in Russia as employees of foreign diplomatic missions or international organizations, members of their household, were excluded from the census altogether; the Census recorded the resident population of 145,166,731 persons, including 67,605,133 men and 77,561,598 women. That included urban population of 106,429,000 and rural population of 38,738,000; the non-resident populations included: Russian citizens living abroad in connection with the federal government service: 107,288. Census participants were asked. 142,442,000 respondents reported being Russian citizens. Among Russia's resident population, 1,025,413 foreign citizens and 429,881 stateless persons were counted. 1,269,023 persons did not report their citizenship. Among the questions asked were "Are you competent in the Russian language?" and "What other languages are you competent in?". As the census manual explained, "competence" meant either the ability to speak and write a language, or only the ability to speak it.

The questions did not distinguish native and non-native speakers, nor did they try to measure the degree of language competence. For small children the recorded answer was based on the language spoken by the parents. 142.6 million of the responders claimed competence in Russian. Other reported languages are listed in the table below. 1.42 million responders did not provide language information. For a more detailed list, see List of languages of Russia. Demographics of Russia Russian Empire Census Soviet Census Official census home page Population of Chechnya: was the Census correct

Go Fer Yer Funk

Go Fer Yer Funk is the first installment of the George Clinton Family Series collection. The album was released in 1992 by P-Vine Records in Japan, was released the next year by AEM Records in the U. S. and Sequel Records in the U. K.. The Family Series were designed to present unreleased recordings done by various bands in the Parliament-Funkadelic musical stable; the first CD is notable in that it features the title cut "Go Fer Yer Funk" which featured a collaboration between P-Funk and Funk legend James Brown. The final track on all of the Family Series CDs features commentary from George Clinton on the background of each track. All of the Family Series CDs were available on limited edition vinyl. "Go Fer Yer Funk" - 9:52 "Funk It Up" - 8:46 "Funkin' For My Mama's Rent" - 5:58 "Send a Gram" - 5:32 "Who in the Funk Do You Think You Are?" - 1:33 "Better Days" - 4:10 "The Chong Show" - 4:10 "Michelle" - 12:24 "Sunshine of Your Love" - 5:33 "Papa George's Rap" - 12:14 Go Fer Yer Funk Artist: Parliament Producer: George Clinton Featuring: Funkadelic, Bootsy Collins, Horny Horns, James BrownFunk It Up Artist: Sterling Silver Starship Producer: George Clinton, Ron Dunbar Lead Vocals, Drums: Donny Sterling Keyboard: Jerome Rogers, Donny Sterling Guitar: Rodney Crutcher, Tony Thomas Background Vocals: Parlet, Mahlia Franklin, Ron DunbarFunkin' For My Mama's Rent Artist: Gary Fabulous and Black Slack Producer: George Clinton, Ron Dunbar Percussion/Drums: William Payne Bass: Lige Curry Guitar: Michael Hampton, Andre Foxxe Keyboard: David Spradley Lead Vocals: Gary Fabulous Background Vocals: Parliament, Sterling SilverSend A Gram Artist: Jessica Cleaves Producer: George Clinton Vocals: Jessica Cleaves Drums: Ty Lampkin Bass: Danan Potts Keyboard: David Spradley Guitar: Cordell Mosson, Ron Bremby Background Vocals: Andre Williams, Tracey Lewis, George Clinton, Sidney Barnes, Robert Johnson Horn & String Arrangements: Bernie WorrellWho in the Funk Do You Think You Are?

Artist: Sly Stone Piano, Guitar, Vocals: Sly Stone Guitar: Ron FordBetter Days Artist: Andre Foxxe Producer: George Clinton, Garry Shider Vocals: Andre Foxxe Guitar: Marvin Williams Keyboard: David Spradley Background Vocals: Marvin Williams, Garry ShiderThe Chong Show Artist: Bootsy Collins Producer: George Clinton, Bootsy Collins Keyboards, Guitar, Lead Vocals: Bootsy Collins Keyboards, Background Vocals: David Spradley Percussion: Carl "Butch" SmallMichelle Artist: Treylewd's Flastic Brain Flam Producer: George Clinton Guitar: Tracey Lewis, DeWayne McKnight, Garry Shider Drums: Dennis Chambers Bass: Jeff "Cherokee" Bunn Keyboard: Gary Hudgins Vocals: Tracey Lewis Background Vocals: Kevin Shider, Andre Foxxe, Tracey Lewis, Patricia Curry, Garry Shider, Linda Shider, Parlet, Ray Davis, Funkadelic, Bootsy's Rubber Band, Steve Pannel, Robert Johnson, Tony Lafoot, Jessica CleavesSunshine of Your Love Artist: Funkadelic Producer: George Clinton All instruments by: DeWayne "Blackbyrd" McKnight George Clinton and Family Pt. 1: Go Fer Yer Funk at Discogs